Kintsay is an erect herb, seldom growing over 30 centimeters in height. The Chinese variety has short stems. Leaves are pinnate, with large, deeply-lobed segments, on long petioles. Peduncles are short, less than 1 centimeter in length, and borne opposite the leaves. Flowers are borne in umbels, very small, and greenish white. Fruit is very small, with narrow ridges.
- A biennial of Europe and northern Asia which has been cultivated from fairly remote times.
- Introduced in the Philippines.
- Two forms are cultivated in the Philippines: (1) In the lowlands, the small Chinese form, known as "kinchai," raised extensively by the Chinese and common in the Manila markets. (2) Baguio kind has a thicker and larger leaf stalk and is blanched, much smaller than the high-grade celery cultivated in temperate zones.
- Considered anti-inflammatory, deobstruent,
diuretic, resolvent, pectoral, tonic, carminative, emmenagogue, diuretic, adjunct
to purgatives, lithotriptic, stimulant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac.
- Possible antioxidant.
- In Unani system of medicine, considered stimulant, cardiac tonic, carminative,diuretic and antiseptic.
- The plant yields a glucoside, apiin; a volatile oil, mannite and inosite.
- Phytoconstituent studies have yielded glycosides, steroids, and various types of phenolics including furanocoumarins, flavones and trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, and iron). Roots yield falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxidol, and polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalcarindiol. Stem yielded pectic polysaccharides (apiuman) containing d-galacturonic acid, 1-rhamnose, 1-arabinose, and d-galactose. (53)
- GC-MS study of leaf volatile oil yielded 2 compounds. Main compounds were 1.dodecanol, 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester, and tetradecence-1-ol-acetate.
- Studies on seed have reported caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, apiin, apigenin, rutaretin, ocimene, bergapten, and isopimpinellin.
Seed oil is composed of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid petroselinic acid, d-limonene, selinene, terpineol, and santolol. (53)
- Bulb yields a volatile oil, 0.009%; glutamine; asparagine; tyrosine; mannitol.
- Fruit contains a volatile oil, 2.5-3%; apigenin; protein, 1.3%; choline, linase.
- Volatile oil: d-limonene; a-pinene; cineole; cymene; a-terpineol.
- Seeds are a rich source of phenolic constituents such as flavonoids, anthrons, xanthons and tannins.
- Study yielded two phthalide compounds, 3-n- butylphthalide and sedanenolide. (17)
- The major components of volatile oil were β-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, α-thuyene, α-pinene, β-phellendrene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene.
- Study isolated two phthalide compounds, 3-n-butylphthalide and sedaneolide. (34)
- Nutrient analysis of 1 cup diced and raw celery
(101.00 grams) yield 16 calories, vitamin K 33%DV, molybdenum 11%, folate 9%, potassium 8%, fiber 6%, manganese 5%, vitamin B2 5%, pantothenic acid 5%, copper 4%, calcium 4%, vitamin C 4%, vitamin B6 4%, magnesium 3%, vitamin A 3%. (37)
- Proximate analysis yielded 50% moisture in aerial parts and seeds of the plant. Leaves yielded vitamin C 60.35 mg/100gm; seeds, 1.34 mg/100gm. Elemental analysis of roots yielded K 5100 µg/g, P 4099 µg/g, Ca 674 µg/g, Ni 4.41 µg/g, Cd 1.94 µg/g, Se 0.41µg/g. Maximum K was found in the roots, followed by stems. Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded steroids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. (38)
- Preliminary TLC study
for furanocoumarins in blade and petiole of two cultivars of ribbed celery showed the presence of psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, and simple coumarin, umbelliferone. Additionally, isopimpinelline was detected by HPLC. (63)
- Seed essential oil yielded the presence of flavonoids, lactones, and terpenoids as major constituents. (see study below) (64)
Entire plant, roots, leaves, seeds.
Culinary / Nutritional
- Petioles and leaves are used for seasoning local dishes, especially pansit, chop suey, bachoi, etc.
- Excellent source of calcium and iron; contains vitamins A, B, and C.
- Seeds are rich in iron and vitamins, including A, B and C.
- Celery juice before meals as appetite suppressant; after meals as a
- In the Philippines, plant decoction is used as a diuretic and emmenagogue.
- Poultice of plant with barley meal used as deobstruent and resolvent.
- Used as a tonic and carminative adjunct to purgatives.
- Used as diuretic, lithontriptic and alexipharmic.
- Root used as alterative and diuretic, given in anasarca and colic.
- Antiasthmatic (bronchodilation): Pound seeds, wrap in thin cloth and
- Used for hypertension, flatulence, indigestion.
- Decoction of seeds for bronchitis and asthma; also for liver and spleen diseases.
- Seeds used as stimulant and cordial.
- Arthritic and rheumatic disorders.
- Seed infusions used for rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
- Celery roots used as aphrodisiac.
- In Unani medicine, considered diuretic and lithotriptic.
- In Mexico, decoction of root used to diminish milk.
- In Arab medicine, leaves used to help cool the stomach and liver, act as diuretic, help menstrual problems and kidney stones. Also, believed to stimulate semen production and relieve bad breath. (53)
- Perfumery: The volatile oil is of value in perfumery, where it is used in combination with various perfumes, both as fixative and/or as additional scents.
• Hepatoprotective: Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens
and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication
in rats: Study showed both extract of seeds to possess
significant hepatoprotective activity. (1)
• Antioxidant / Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress / Roots: Effect of celery (Apium
graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress
in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride: Study of both extracts
of roots and leaves are showed antioxidant activity probably involving
flavonoids and other antioxidant compounds. (2)
• Anti-Toxicity / Apigenin: Pretreatment with Ag extract effectively alleviated most of the VPA-induced effects suggesting a protective role against experimental VPA toxicity. Apigenin was a major factor of the Ag extract. (3)
• Nematicidal / Antifungal / Mosquitocidal: Study of AG seeds isolated and characterized compounds sedanolide, senkyunolida-N
and senkyunolide-J which showed nematicidal, antifungal, and mosquitocidal
• Mosquito Repellent / G10: (1) A comparative evaluation of G10, a celery-based topical mosquito repellent product, with Insect Block 28 and standard 25% DEET showed G10 and IB28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with 100% protection, DEET was effective with 99.68% protection. (2) Study showed AG offers a potential against Ae. aegypti, particularly in its markedly repellent effect.
• Antipyretic / Leaves: Antipyretic effect of celery (Apium graveolens)
extracts in mice: Study showed extracts of celery leaf decreased
the pyrogenic effect of 12% yeast suspension. (5) Study of A. graveolens leaves crude extract showed antipyretic effects in male rabbit model. (67)
• Essential Oil / Cercaricidal: Essential oil of the fresh aerial parts of Ag at its flowering stage yielded: a- and B-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cis-B-ocimene, g-terpinene, cis-allo-ocimene, trans-farnesene, humulene, apiol, B-selinene, senkyunolide and neocnidilide. Study showed a cercaricidal and chemotactic effect. (6)
• Hypolipidemic: Study of the ethanol extract of A. graveolens in adult male albino rats showed significant decrease of total cholesterol, trigylcerides and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol. (7)
• Hypolipidemic / No Hypoglycemic Effect: Study on the intraperitoneal effects of AG on serum glucose and lipid levels of diabetic rats showed no significant hypoglycemic effect but could possibly lead to appropriate changes in blood lipid profiles. (8)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous and hexane extracts of AG showed both fractions exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory effect supporting is traditional use in diseases associated with inflammation. (10)
• Hepatoprotective / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanolic extract of A. graveolens seeds tested against Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed hepatoprotective activity with a significant recovery of biochemical parameters. (12)
• Learning / Memory Benefits in Diabetic Rats: Study showed chronic oral administration of AG could enhance consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals. (13)
• Anti-Mosquito Potential / Aedes aegypti: A crude seed extract of Apium graveolens was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Results showed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae, slight adulticidal activity and repellency. (15)
• Anticancer / Apoptosis Induction / Cytotoxic Activities: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds for antiproliferative effect in vitro on two human cell lines (DLA, Dalton's lymphoma ascites; L929, Mouse lung fibroblast). The methanolic extract of seed showed cytotoxicity and provoked DNA fragmentation, a sign of induced apoptosis. Results suggest a potential candidate for an anticancer drug. (18)
• Vasorelaxant / Antihypertensive Effect: Study investigated the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens. All the extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings, attributed to secondary metabolites and probably mediated by calcium antagonism. Results suggest an ideal source for lead compounds to design potential vasorelaxants and antihypertensive agents. (19)
• Adaptogenic Activity: Study investigated the adaptogenic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens in experimentally induced stress models in mice and rats. The extracts showed increased increase in anoxia stress tolerance time and swimming endurance time. Results showed the ethanolic extract with greater adaptogenic property than the aqueous extract. (20)
• Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antixoxidant Activity: Study of a methanolic seed extract of Apium graveolens showed significant in vitro ACE inhibitory potency and strong antioxidant activity. (21)
• Carbon Tetrachloride induced Hematotoxicity: Study investigated the role of aqueous extract of A. graveolens seeds against hematotoxicity induced by CCl4 in female rats. Results showed two-week consumption to be safe at tested doses, and caused improvement in hematological parameters and protection of hematopoietic cells from the damaging effects of CCl4. (22)
• Bioinsecticide Potential / Seed: A crude ethanol extract of seed yielded phototoxic compounds which offer potentials activity against Aedes aegypti, particularly through toxic and growth disruptions activities. Results suggest a promising candidate for commercial bioinsecticide development.
• Nephrocalcinosis / Increase Urinary Ca++ Excretion: Study evaluated the effect of A. graveolens in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in rabbit models with induced nephrocalcinosis by a large dose of oxalic acid. Results showed significant reduction in calcium deposition in the renal parenchyma, a significant diuretic effect that accentuates urinary calcium excretion. (24)
• Effect on Protease Inhibitor (Ritonavir) Induced Dyslipidemia: Study investigated the protective effect of an ethanolic extract of A. graveolens (celery seeds) on protease inhibitor induced dyslipidemia in mice. Results suggest the ethanolic extract showed potential for improving the lipid profile ad liver lipids deranged by ritonavir, with a efficacy approaching fenofibrate. (25)
• Antiulcerogenic / Antibacterial: Study investigated the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts of aerial parts. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions, similar to omeprazole. The essential oil was strongly inhibitory against E. coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (26)
• Effect on Reproductive Hormones: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves on the pituitary-gonad axis in young male mice of Balb/C. Results showed a dose-dependent negative effect of celery extracts in the pituitary-gonad axis in male mice, with significant decrease in FSH and decrease in LH and testosterone concentrations. (27)
• Insecticidal: Musca domestica, the housefly, breeding in human and animal excreta and a wide variety of domestic rubbish, can act as a vector for many diseases .Study showed an Apium graveolens extract to have insecticidal activity against Musca domestica. A. graveolens contains flavonoid and saponin believed to have potential as insecticide. (28)
• Hypotensive / Cardioinhibitory: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery for effects on mean blood pressure of anesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated rat atria. Results showed hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could be partially mediated through stimulation of muscarinic receptors. The ethanol extract exhibited greater inhibitory effect than the aqueous extract. (30)
• Antibacterial / Cardioinhibitory / Leaves: Study of water and alcoholic extracts of leaves in vitro showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Findings showed significant antibacterial, diuretic and attenuating effect in correcting the urinary system affection and damage resulting from intraperitoneally induced Staphylococcus aureus infection. (31)
• Antiulcer / Antisecretory / Cytoprotective: Study evaluated an ethanol extract for antigastric ulcer activity using various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Pretreatment with celery extract produced dose dependent reduction in all experimentally induced gastric lesions, with ability to replenish depleted levels of gastric wall mucus and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl, with increase in gastric mucosal malondialdehyde. Results suggest AG extract significantly protects gastric mucosa and suppresses basal gastric secretion, possibly through its antioxidant potential. (32)
• Protection Against DOX-Induced Toxicities / Leaves and Stalks: Study showed potential protective effect of A. graveolens against cumulative DOX-induced cardiac, hepatic, and hematologic toxicity in male rabbits probably through a mechanism related to direct and indirect antioxidant effects. (33)
• Increased Spermatogenesis / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract on histological properties of testis and number of sexual cells in male rats. Results showed increased spermatogenesis in male rats, with no destructive effects on testicular tissue. (35)
• Increased Spermatogenesis / Leaves: Study showed a hydroalcoholic extract of celery improved the destructive effects of propylene glycol on the testes and sexual cells. Celery is a strong antioxidant due to its flavonoids, and antioxidants can directly or indirectly impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis to increase sperm count and fertility. Findings suggest celery can be considered a medicinal herb for infertility. (36) Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of leaves on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Results showed a remarkable increase in seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume, and number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Results indicate celery leaf extract may improve the spermatogenesis process and sperm fertility parameters. (40)
• Protective Against Doxorubicin-Induced Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the potential protective effect of A. graveolens against cumulative DOX-induced toxic effects to the heart, liver, and blood components in male rabbits. The cardiotoxic, hepatotoxic, and hematotoxic effects of DOX may be attributed to the combination of free radical oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Results showed a protective effect through a direct and indirect antioxidant property, and suggests a supportive care agent during anticancer treatment. (41)
• Mosquito Repellent Activity: Study evaluated the mosquito repellency of ethanolic preparation of hexane-extracted A. graveolens and compared with 15 commercial mosquito repellents including the widely used DEET. Commercial repellents, except DEET formulations, showed lower repellency than that of A. graveolens extract. Applied on human skin under field conditions, the extract plus 5% vanillin showed strong repellent action against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera. Apium graveolens is a potential candidate for development of a commercial repellent that may be an alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals, especially in community vector control applications. (42)
• Effect on Delivery Rate, Weight and Gender Ratio / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of celery leaf on delivery rate in female rats, weight, and gender ration of infants. Results showed no significant difference in delivery rate (p>0.05). Consumption of celery leaf can increase the number of infants, and is associated with weight loss. Changes could be associated with compounds such as phytosterols and flavonoids (ß-cystosterol and quercetin). (43)
• No Considerable Effect on Male Hormones / Leaves: Phytoestrogenic compounds may affect the pituitary-gonadal axis. This study evaluated the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum testosterone, LH, and FSH in male rats. Oral administration of the celery leaf extract at dose of 200 mg/kbw for 20 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease of LH (p<0.05). Levels of FSH and testosterone did not show a significant decrease. Results showed that in the administered dose, the celery extract does not have any considerable effect on secretion of hormones in male rats. (44)
• Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic / Amelioration of
Stress Related Diabetic Complications / Seeds: Study investigated an n-butanol extract of celery for antioxidant activity in its ability to ameliorate lipid peroxidation in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results moderation of blood glucose within normal range, enhanced body weight gain, and normalization of activities of all antioxidant systems. Results suggests the n-butanol seed extract may have a potent role in ameliorating stressful complications in diabetes mellitus. (45)
• Antispasmodic /
Seeds: Study of a petroleum ether extract of seeds showed antispasmodic activity against acetylcholine induced contraction in guinea pig ileum. (46)
• Toxicological Study / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: An alcoholic extract of seed underwent toxicological evaluation in a male and female model of rats in doses of 0, 150, or 5,000 mg/kg per day. All animals survived treatment with no visible or behavioral signs of toxicity. There were toxicologically significant sub-chronic effects of oral A-CSE in rats. In a model of chronic pain and inflammation in rats, 1500 mg/kg per day was shown to be as effective as either naproxen (30 mg/kg) or ibuprofen (100 mg/kg) (47)
• Caution / Interaction of Celery Tablets with Thyroxine: There are anecdotal reports on the potential interaction between thyroxine and celery seed tablets—cases where the use of celery seed tablets on patients maintained on thyroid medications caused a decrease in thyroid functions. Physicians and pharmacists should communicate this potential interaction to patients. (49)
• Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis / Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated the anti-cancer effect of an ethanolic extract A. graveolens on human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap. Results showed an antiproliferative effect exerted by A. graveolens extract triggered by induction of apoptosis. The expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) was down-regulated by treatment of A. graveolens extract. (50)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated essential oils extracted from the seeds of five plants (Apium graveolens, Crimminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Ferula copoda, and Trachyspermum amni) for antimicrobial activity against pathogens isolated from ENT and urinary tract infections. All the oils showed considerable antimicrobial effect. The oil of Apium graveolens showed more activity against Strept. pyogenes, followed by E. coli and Staph. aureus. (51)
• Anticonvulsant / Effect on Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage in PTZ-Induced Seizures: Study evaluated the antioxidant and CNS depressant effects of an aqueous extract of A. graveolens on brain tissue oxidative dame in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in rats. Results showed the aqueous extract of aerial parts possess anticonvulsant activity accompanied by an antioxidant effect on the brain. (52)
• Antidepressant / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the chemical composition of essential oil and its antidepressant effect in mice and its effect on motor balance, serum and brain antioxidant capacity. Assessment of depression was done with forced swimming and open field tests and motor balance with Rotarod, along with measurements of serum and brain antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde levels. Results showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemical neurotransmitter-regulating properties. (54)
• Antioxidant / Review: Study is a systematic review of the antioxidant activity of celery. It reports on the properties of celery leaves and seeds. Celery yields compounds such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, luteolin, tannin, saponin, and kaempferol, with powerful antioxidant characteristics to remove free radicals. (55)
• Effect on Delivery Rate, Weight and Gender Ration / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of celery leaf on delivery rate in female rats, weight, and gender ration of infants. Results showed delivery rate in experimental groups was not significant (p>0.05). Consumption of leaf can increase the number of infants, and was associated with weight loss. Difference in gender ration was not statistically significant. Changes may be associated with compounds such as phytosterols and flavonoids. (56)
• Effect on Metabolic Syndrome / Review: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of multiple conditions viz. hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and hyperglycemia, associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This review summarized the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of celery components on insulin action, glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. (57)
• Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Kinetic / Anti-Gouton Metabolic Syndrome / Review: Study has suggest celery has potential anti-gout effect. A flavonoid was shown to inhibit activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme up to 85.44%. This study investigated the type of inhibition kinetics of an ethanol crude extract and fraction. Results showed competitive inhibition. Fraction 6 showed highest activity (85.08%). The active compounds were identified as 5,77-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one and 2,3-dihydro-6-hydroxy-5-benzofuran carbooxylic acid. (58)
• Antioxidant / Neuroprotective / Ameliorative Effect on Parkinson-like Symptoms: Study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of A. graveolens extract against a Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced by MPTP in C57BL/6 mice. Behavioral testing included a rotarod apparatus, a narrow beam test, a drag test, grid walk test, a swimming test, and resting tremor evaluation. Monoamine oxidase A and B activity, lipid peroxidation activity, and superoxida anion levels were measured. A. graveolens at dose of 375 mg/kg demonstrated the highest effect and led to significant improvements in behavioral performance, oxidative stress parameters, and monoamine oxidase A and B. The extract also increased the number of neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase expression. (59)
• Effect on Thyroid Function: Study showed celery can induce hyperthyroidsim after oral celery extract consumption for weight loss. A 36-year old female patient on a dietary intake of 6 g/day of celery in powder form for weight reduction showed a weight loss of 26 kg during 78 days of celery extract consumption. Patient presented with blurred vision, palpitation, and nausea. TSH was 0.001 mIU/l with a T4 of 23 ng/dl. Study concludes hyperthyroidism may be induced by celery extract consumption and may be a side-effect of frequent celery extract consumption. (60)
• Antihypertensive Effect / Seed: Study investigated the effects of various seed extracts on blood pressure in normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats. Spironolactone was used as diuretic and positive control. NBP (n-butylphthalide), an antihypertensive constituent, was highest in the hexanic extract, 3.7 and 4 times higher than the methanolic and aqueous ethanolic extracts. Results concluded celery seed extracts have antihypertensive properties, attributable to NBP, with potential in treatment of chronic elevated BP. (61)
• Fertility and Ovarian Effects / Seed: Study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of seeds on fertility of adult female rats through its effect on diameter of both ovary and uterus and number of ovarian follicles. Results showed increase in ovarian and uterine weights. Microscopically, there was noticeable increase in thickness of ovary and uterus muscle layer, increase in numbers of primary and secondary Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. (62)
• Larvicidal / Repellent / Irritant Potential against Dengue Vecotr / Ae. aegypti / Seed Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficacy of eco-friendly and biodegradable seed essential oil for efficacy against dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Results suggest celery seed essential oil can be used as an efficient larvicide and repellent against Ae. aegypti. (64)
• Effect of A. graveolens and Cinnamon zeylanicum on Metabolic and Ovarian Oxidative Injury in Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study compared the role of hydroalcoholic extract of Apium graveolens and C. zeylanicum on metabolic changes and ovarian oxidative injury in a rat model of PCOS. Results showed extracts of both AG and CZ exhibited useful impacts in the regulation of FBS, insulin, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers in the palliation of PCOS complications. (65)
• Effect on Creatinine and Urea Level / Ethylene Glycol Induced Rats: Study showed an ethyl acetate fraction of celery herb had a effective activity at dose of 150 mg/kbw, as evidenced by a reduction in urea and creatinine level on male wistar rats induced by ethylene glycol. (66)
• Antihyperlipidemic Effect / Seeds: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Apium gravelens and chloroform and aqueous fractions in olive oil-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Atorvastatin was standard drug. Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoid, tannin, alkaloid, glycoside, flavanoid, and sterols. Results showed acute treatment caused stimulatory effect on HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by olive oil. (68)
• Antihyperuricemia / Anti-Gout / Clinical Trial: A single, blind, randomized standard control study evaluated the efficacy of A. graveolens in lowering serum uric acid level in the blood or 40 patients with hyperuricemia. At the end of the study, there was significant reductions in joint pain and serum uric acid levels. There was a statistically significant difference between test and control groups. Results were encouraging for the treatment of hyperuricemia.
• Formula Jamu Antihipertensi (FJA) / Captopril: A jamu formulation containing six plant extracts: three blood pressure reducing components i.e. leaves of Apium graveolens, Orthosiphon aristatus, and Centella asiatica, and three components for improving physical fitness i.e., leaves of P. niruri, rhizomes of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica. Synergism has been demonstrated with A. graveolens, O. aristatus, and C. asiatica. A. graveolens has been shown to have hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects through stimulation of muscarinic receptors. The apigenin of A. graveolens has vasodilator and diuretic effects through effects on reduction of sodium stores, blood volume and cardiac output. Study showed FJA for 4 weeks is equally as effective as captopril in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. (70)
• Effect on Isoprenaline Induced Myocardian Infarction: Study evaluated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens on isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. Results showed reduction in cholesterol, along with decrease in cardiac marker enzymes LDH, CPK and SGOT. The level of lipidperoxide in the liver and heart tissue was also reduced compared to control. (71)
- Small scale commercial production.
- Celery seed tablets in the cybermarket.