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Family Rosaceae
Prunus grisea (Blume ex Müll.Berol.) Kalkman

Scientific names Common names
Prunus grisea (Blume ex Müll.Berol) Kalkman Amatogan (Phil.)
Prunus griseum Blume ex Müll.Berol Amongyang (Phil.)
Accepted infraspecifics Lago (Tag.)
Prunus grisea var. grisea Tanga-tanga (Tag.)
Prunus grisea var. microphylla Kalkman  
Prunus grisea var. tomentosa (Koord. & Valeton) Kalkman  
Prunus grisea (Blume ex Müll.Berol) Kalkman is accepted. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Taxonomy: Other dedicated Plant Sites provide different and more extensive list of synonyms: ICRF, WFO, Plant List.

Other vernacular names
THAILAND: Nut ton.

Gen info
- Prunus grisea is a species of plant in the family Rosaceae.
- It was published and described in 1965 by Cornelis Kalkman in "Blumea" Vol 13.

Prunus grisea is a tree or shrub. Twigs pubescent to puberulous, rapidly glabrescent. Leaves usually elliptic to oblong, sometimes ovate to lanceolate, 2-20 by 1-9 cm, index 1 1/2-3 1/2, base rounded or acute, apex usually acuminate, sometimes (in var. microphylla and in New Guinea specimens of far. grisea) obtuse, sparsely pubescent to glabrous on both sides; nerves (4-) 5-9 (-11) pairs, flat to impressed above, prominent to prominulous beneath, venation inconspicuous to invisible; basal glands 2 (0-4), flat, additional glands usually present; petiole 1/4-1 1/2 (-2) cm, pubescent to puberulous, more or less glabrescent. Stipules 1 1/2-8 by 1/4-1 3/4 mm, index 2-8 (-12), pubescent to glabrous outside, usually glabrous inside, margin usually glandular (in Philippine specimens of var. grisea sometimes distinctly glandular-serrate). Racemes solitary, in axils of extant or fallen leaves, 1/2-6 1/2 cm; peduncle 0-1 cm; rachis (sparsely) pubescent. Bracts up to 2 1/2 mm, usually caducous, the basal ones often with tridentate apex, in Philippine specimens of var. grisea the bracts sometimes large, up to 9 mm long. Pedicels 0-7 mm, (sparsely) pubescent. Hypanthium 1 12-4 mm high, pubescent outside, sometimes only sparsely so, entirely glabrous inside or with hairs on bottom. Perianth segments 6-13, subequal, or more or less distinctly differentiated as sepals and petals, 1/2-2 mm long. Stamens 15-50; filaments up to 6 mm, glabrous; anthers 1/4-3/4 mm long, in var. microphylla rarely longer. Ovary usually glabrous, but sometimes with some hairs, rarely (Java specimens of var. grisea especially) distinctly hairy; style up to 7 mm. Fruits globular to transversely ellipsoid, 6-13 by 7-16 mm, sometimes distinctly or indistinctly pointed (var. tomentosa), glabrous or almost so; endocarp glabrous or sparsely hairy; seedcoat glabrous.  (Kalkman, 1965; pp. 56-57). (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Found in Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, Sibuyan.
- Also native to Borneo, Cambodia, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.
- Found in primary and secondary lowland to montane forests, up to 3,700 m altitude.
- IUCN listed as 'Vulnerable'.

Studies have suggest antioxidant and
cytotoxic properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.


- Bark used for skin irritation.
- Leaves used for rheumatism.
- Wood: Used for indoor construction, furniture, plywood, packing cases.

Antioxidant / Toxicity Study / Leaves:
Study evaluated leaf decoction and various extracts of P. grisea for antioxidant properties using DPPH and toxicity using brine shrimp lethality assay. The chloroform extract showed highest toxicity to the brine shrimp Artemia salina with LC50 of <10 ppm. Decoction of leaves showed most potent antioxidant properties, with percent antiradical activity of 92.85% at 500 ppm, total antioxidant capacity of 110.42 Ascorbic Acid Equivalents (AAE) and 147.14 Butylated Hydroxytolene Equivalents (BHTE) and total phenolics content of 319.00 Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE). (3)
Bioactivity against Brine Shrimp Artemia Salina / Air-Dried Leaves: Study focused on a bioassay-guided partial isolation of bioactive fractions from the hexane extract of air-dried leaves of Prunus grisea. Gravity column chromatography isolated 14 fractions PCH1-PGH14. PGH13 exhibited the highest bioactivity against brine ship Artemia salina with mortality of 56.67%. (4)


November 2022

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Rosaceae: Prunus grisea / Infructescence / click on image to go to source page / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona  (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz)) [ref. DOL112844] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Rosaceae: Prunus grisea / Fruiting twig / click on image to go to source page / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona  (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz)) [ref. DOL114792] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Rosaceae: Prunus grisea / Leaf / click on image to go to source page / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona  (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz)) [ref. DOL114805] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Prunus grisea / Plants of the World Online
Prunus grisea / PIER: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk
Toxicity and antioxidant properties of the extracts of Prunus grisea (C.Muell.) Kalkm leaves / Mylene M Uy, Princess T Pundogar / Asian Journal of Biologivcal and Life Sciences, 2015; 4(2): pp 81-86
Bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic profiling of the hexane extract from the leaves of "tanga-tanga", Prunus grisea / Charmaine G Torres, Mylene M Uy / Asian Pacific Journal of Science, Mathematics and Engineering, 2014; 2(1): pp 17-20

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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