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Family Rhizophoraceae
Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Griff.

Scientific names Common names
Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Griff. Bakau (Trade name)
Bruguiera ritchiei Merr. Langarai (Tag.)
Kanilia parviflora Blume Black mangrove (New Guinea)
Rhizophora parviflora Roxb. Small flower bruguiera (Engl.)
Rhizophora pauciflora Griff.  
Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Griff. is an accepted name: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
MALAYSIA: Berus lenggadai.
MYANMAR: Byu-kyettet
THAILAND: Lang-kra-dai, Rang ka thae, Thua dam.
VIETNAM: Vet tach, Vejt tasch.
OTHERS: Lenggadai, Lenggadis, Mengkadai.

Gen info
- Bruguiera is a plant genus in the family Rhizophoraceae--a small genus comprising five mangrove species and three hybrids.
- Bruguiera parviflora is a tree in the family Rhizophoraceae.

- Genus name honors J.G. Bruguieres (1750-1799)m French explorer. The specific epithet "parviflora" derives from Latin meaning "small flowers".   (5)

Bruguiera parviflora is a slender tree, reaching a height of 10-15 m. Bark fissured, grey, slightly flanged base. Lateral roots grow just below the surface, part of it sticking out of the mud in a "bent knee" potion. Knee roots a high as 30 cm tall. Leaves pointed, 5.5 - 1`3 by 2 - 4/5 cm, elliptic, black dotted beneath and turning yellowish-green with age. Flowers in clusters of 3 - 7, sometimes a 10-flowered group. Calyx tubes ridged, 7-9 mm long, 8-lobed calyx lobes straight and not curved. Fruit narrow, spirally rolled, about 2 cm long. Hypocotyl is cylindrical, smooth, and curved, about 9-14 cm long. (5)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Malaya, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam.
- Found downstream to intermediate estuarine zones in the mid-intertidal region. Can occur along tidal waterways and coastal fish ponds. (5)

- Study of fruits isolated a new lupane caffeoyl ester (1), 3-(Z)-caffeoyllupeol, together with five known triterpenoids, lupeol caffeate (2), 3-(Z)-coumaroyllupeol (3), dioslupecin A (4), lupeol (5), and lupenone (6). (see study below) (3)

- Studies have suggest antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, α-glucosidase inhibitory properties.

Parts used
Fruits, bark, leaves.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Traditionally, fruits are used to treat eye diseases and herpes. Bark used as astringent treatment of diarrhea and malaria. (4)
- Fuel: Wood used as charcoal or firewood.

Antimalarial / Triterpenoid Ester / Fruits:
Study of fruits isolated a new lupane caffeoyl ester (1), 3-(Z)-caffeoyllupeol, together with five known triterpenoids (2-6). Compound 1 exhibited antimalarial activity with EC50 value of 8.6 µg/ml. (see constituents above) (3)
Anti-Inflammatory / α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: A crude extract of B. parviflora leaves and its fraction significantly increased the percentage inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreased NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective fraction was BP5, which was further chromatographed and purified, and 8 compounds were isolated, five flavonoids (1-6) and 3 triterpenoids (6-8). The flavonoids were taxifolin (1), quercetin (2), myricetin (3), rutin (4) and kaempferol (5). Compound 2 showed most potent inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase activity with IC50 3.4 ± 0.5 µg/mL and LPS-induced NO production at 11.8 µM at concentration of 100 µg/mL. Results suggest flavonoids from leaves may be useful as an α-glucosidase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agent. (4)

Herbal teas and supplements in the cybermarket.

September 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Bunga lenggadai (Bruguiera parviflora). Dari Kotabaru, alimantan Selatan / Wibowo Djatmiko (Wie146) / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rhizophoraceae : Bruguiera parviflora Twig / det. Jeffrey T Lobrio Rey / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL48633] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Bruguiera parviflora / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Bruguiera parviflora: Vernacular names / PROSEA
A New Triterpenoid Ester from the Fruits of Bruguiera parviflora / Parinuch Chumkaew, Shigeru Kato, Kan Chantrapromma / Chem Pharm Bull., 2005; 53(1): pp 95-96
Anti-Inflammatory and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Chemical Constituents from Bruguiera parviflora Leaves / Tung Thanh Bui, Khanh Phuong Thi Nguyen, Phung Phi Kim Nguyen,, Dung Tien Le  Thuy Le Thi Nguyen / Journal of Chemistry, Vol 2022, Article ID 3049994 / DOI: 10.1155/2022/3049994
Bruguiera parviflora / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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