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Family Meliaceae
Lansones
Lansium domesticum Correa

LANGSAT
Da guo lan sa

Scientific names  Common names 
Aglaia aquea Kosterm Boboa (Bis.)
Aglaia domestica Correa Buahan (Mbo., Sul.)
Aglaia dookoo Griff. Bulahan (Bis.)
Lansium aqueam Jack Buan (Mbo.)
Lansium javanicum Koord. & Valet. Bukan (Bis.)
Lansium parasiticum Sahni & Bennet Kaliboñgan (Mbo.)
  Lansones (Tag., Bik.)
  Tubua (Bag.)
  Longkong (India)
  Langsat (Engl.) 
  Duku (Engl.)
  Da guo lan sa (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Duku.
CHINESE: Lan sa, Lan sa guo.
DANISH : Sød duku. Langsat, Langsep.
DUTCH : Doekoe , Kokosan.
FRENCH: Duku Doux à Large Fruit, Duku Doux à Petit Fruit, Langsep.
GERMAN : Süßer Duku, Dukubaum.
ITALIAN : Duku dolce, Lansio.
JAPANESE: Duku, Ransa.
KOREAN: Long kong, Long sat.
MALAY: Ceroring, Dookkoo, Duki, Duku, Kokosan.
PORTUGUESE: Arbol-do-duku, Duku-doce.
SPANISH: Arbol de duku, Duku dulce, Lanson.
THAI : Duku, Langsat waan, Long gong, Longkong.
VIETNAMESE : Bòn bon.

Botany
Lansones is a tree growing to a height of 4 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, 20 to 40 centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 7 to 18 centimeters in length, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, yellow and borne on spikes, solitary or fascicled on the trunk or larger branches. Fruit is yellowish-white, occurring in bunches on a single stem, ellipsoid or globose, 2 to 4 centimeters long, with bitter seeds that are surrounded by a translucent pulp (arillus). The outer skin is thin and tough, abundant in a milky juice. The pulp occurs in five sections with one well-developed seed.

Distribution
- Cultivated for its fruit in Luzon, particularly the Quezon and Laguna Provinces, and occurs wild in Mindanao and Basilan.
- Also occurs in Indo-China, and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, in general cultivation.

Constituents
The rind yields 6% lansium acid which is toxic.
The fresh peeling yielded a volatile oil, a resin, and some reducing acids.
The resin is believed to be nontoxic and protective to the stomach against alcohol.
The outer skin of the fruit is rich in tannin.
From the seeds, two toxic and bitter substances and traces of an alkaloid.
The fruit pulp contains sucrose, saccharose, fructose and glucose.
Bark is astringent.
• Study isolated a new tetranortriterpenoid (Source)
• Study yielded five tetranoterpenoids, domesticulide A-E (1-5) from the seed. The seed extract was rich in limonoids.
• Yields triterpenoid lansiolides with antimalarial activity.

Properties
Bark is considered antipyretic and anthelmintic.

Parts utilized
Bark, fruit, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Nutritional
-The fruit pulp is succulent and delicious, and may be candied or preserved in syrup.
- Food value per 100 g of edible portion: Moisture 86.5 g; protein 0.8 g; carbohydrates 9.5 g, fiber 2.3 g; calcium 20 mg; phosphorus 30 mg; vitamin A 13 IU; thiamine 89 mcg; riboflavin 124 mcg; ascorbic acid 1 mg.
Folkloric
- Decoction of bark and leaves used for dysentery.
- Peel, rich in oleoresin, used for diarrhea and intestinal spasms.
- Crushed seeds used for fevers.
- Astringent bark used for dysentery and malaria.
- Powdered bark used for scorpion stings.
- Bark resin used for flatulence and gastrointestinal colic, for swellings, and as antispasmodic.
- Grounded seeds mixed with water as vermifuge and antipyretic.
- Tincture prepared from the dried rind used for diarrhea and abdominal colic.
- In Java. seeds are used as vermifuge and antipyretic.
- In Indonesia, used for malaria.
Cosmetics
- Cosmeceutical value from its antioxidant, moisturizing, whitening and lightening effects. Dry extract of fruit, re-dissolved in propylene glycol is used for skin depigmentation and as a moisturizer.
Others
- The dried fruit skins when burned emit an aromatic smell which repels mosquitoes. It also makes a pleasant room inhalant.
- The juice of the bark and fruit is recorded as used for poison arrow.

Studies
Anti-Malarial / Skin and Leaf Extracts: Lansium domesticum: skin and leaf extracts of this fruit tree interrupt the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, and are active towards a chloroquine-resistant strain of the parasite (T9) in vitro: Study indicates extracts of LD are a potential source for compounds with activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falcifarum. (1)

Anti-Malarial / Tetratriterpenoids: Study yielded five tetratriterpenoids – domesticulide A-E from the seeds of Lansium domesticum together with 11 known triterpenoids. Eight of the compounds showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falcifarum. (6)
Antioxidant: Extract of LD has shown to have antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical and anti-tyrosinase activity.
Skin Moisturizing / Lightening Effect: Study showed LD extract can significantly increase skin moisture and decrease the skin melanin index. (3)
Antimelanogenesis: LD methanol extract was one of the study extracts that showed strong inhibition of melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity, presenting as a potential ingredient for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. (4)
Antibacterial: The air-dried fruit peel of LD yielded five onoceroid triterpenes; the air-dried seeds yielded one onoceroid triterpene (lansionic acid) and germacrene D. Studies of the compounds showed varying degrees of activity against P. aeruginosa, B subtilis, C albicans, A niger among others. (5)
Anti-Skin Tumor / Cycloartanoid Triterpene / Leaves: Study isolated a new cycloartanoid triterpene from the leaves of LD. Some of the natural product derivatives show significant inhibitory activity on skin-tumor promotion on the basis of Epstein Barr virus activation. (7)
Onoceramoid Triterpenes / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated three new natural onoceranoid triterpenes from the fruit peel of LD together with two known triterpenoids. The triterpenoids exhibited mild toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). (8)
Onoceranoid-type Triterpenoids / Antibacterial: Study yielded a rare class of onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lamesticumin a, lamesticumins B-F, lansic acid 3-ethyl ester and ethyl lansiolate and four known analogues from the twigs of LD.
Compounds 1-9 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. (9)
Fruit Peels / Nutrition and Medicinal Potential: Study evaluated the phytochemicals present in peels of selected fruits from Manila. All studied fruit peels (rambutan, lanzones, pomelo, longgan, mangosteen) showed the presence of reducing sugars and glycosides. In phytochemical screening, lanzones yielded highest in alkaloids and sugars. (11)
Anticancer / Young Fruit Extract: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activities and phytoconstituents of Longkong extracts. Highest total phenolic and flavonoid content were seen in the cold and hot methanol extract of stalks. Hot and cold chloroform young fruit extracts exhibited cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. Cold chloroform young fruit extracts showed the highest apoptotic effect against KB cells. (12)

Availability
Commercial cultivation.


Last Update August 2013

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Lansium domesticum Blanco1.117.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Lansium domesticum: skin and leaf extracts of this fruit tree interrupt the lifecycle of Plasmodium falciparum, and are active towards a chloroquine-resistant strain of the parasite (T9) in vitro / Donald T. T. Yapp, and S. Y. Yap / Journal of Ethnopharmacology / Volume 85, Issue 1, March 2003, Pages 145-150 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00375-6
(2)
Traditionally-Used Antimalarials from the Meliaceae / S Omar, J Zhang et al / Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 3, Number 2, January 2003 , pp. 133-139(7)
(3)
Review of Lansium domesticum Corrêa and its use in cosmetics / Martha TILAAR, Wong Lip WIH et al / Bol. Latinoam. Caribe Plant. Med. Aromaticas Vol. 7 (4) 2008
(4)
Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis / Enos Tangke Arung et al / Journal of Natural Medicines / 10.1007/s11418-009-0351-7
(5)
Antimicrobial Terpenoids from Lansium domesticum / Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Pamela Labrador and John A. Rideout / The Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 89(1), 101-105, 2006
(6)
Antimalarial tetranortriterpenoids from the seeds of Lansium domesticum Corr. / Saewan, Nisakorn et al / Phytochemistry • 2006-Oct; vol 67 (issue 20) : pp 2288-93

(7)
Isolation of a new cycloartanoid triterpene from leaves of Lansium domesticum novel skin-tumor promotion inhibitors / Mugio Nishizawa, Makota Emura et al / Tetrahedron Letters, Vol 30, Issue 41, 1989, Pages 5615-5618 / doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93813-4
(8)
New Onoceranoid Triterpene Constituents from Lansium domesticum / Tadamitsu Tanaka, Masami Ishibashi et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (11), pp 1709–1711 / DOI: 10.1021/np020239o
(9)
Onoceranoid-Type Triterpenoids from Lansium domesticum
/ Shi-Hui Dong, Chuan-Rui Zhang et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2011, 74 (5), pp 1042–1048 / DOI: 10.1021/np100943x
(10)
Sorting Lansium names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(11)
Potential Nutritional and Medicinal Sources from Fruit Peels in Manila, Philippines / Judilynn N. Solidum / International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Vol. 2, No. 4, July 2012
(12)
Anticancer activities of the extract from Longkong (Lansium domesticum) young fruits. / Aranya Manosroi, Pensak Jantrawut, Mathukorn Sainakham, Worapaka Manosroi, Jiradej Manosroi / Pharm Biol. 2012 Jul 31;: 22849519


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