Lansones is a tree growing to a height of 4 to
15 meters. Leaves are alternate, 20 to 40 centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets,
oblong to oblong-elliptic, 7 to 18 centimeters in length, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are small,
yellow and borne on spikes, solitary or fascicled on the trunk or
larger branches. Fruit is yellowish-white, occurring in bunches on
a single stem, ellipsoid or globose, 2 to 4 centimeters long, with bitter seeds
that are surrounded by a translucent pulp (arillus). The outer skin is thin
and tough, abundant in a milky juice. The pulp occurs in five sections
with one well-developed seed.
- Cultivated for its fruit in Luzon, particularly the Quezon and Laguna Provinces, and occurs wild in Mindanao and Basilan.
Also occurs in Indo-China, and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, in general cultivation.
The rind yields 6% lansium
acid which is toxic.
The fresh peeling yielded a volatile oil, a resin, and some reducing
The resin is believed to be nontoxic and protective to the stomach
The outer skin of the fruit is rich in tannin.
From the seeds, two toxic and bitter substances and traces of
The fruit pulp contains sucrose, saccharose, fructose and glucose.
Bark is astringent.
• Study isolated a new tetranortriterpenoid (Source)
• Study yielded five tetranoterpenoids, domesticulide A-E (1-5)
from the seed. The seed extract was rich in limonoids.
• Yields triterpenoid lansiolides with antimalarial activity.
• Seeds yielded two tetranortriterpenoids, kokosanolide A (1) and C (2), together with 3 onoceranoid-type triterpenoid: kokosanolide B (3), 8,14-secogammacera-7,13-diene-3,21-dione (4) and a mixture of 8,14-secogammacera-7,14(27)-diene- 3,21-dione (5) and compound 4 isolated from the bark. (see study below) (13)
Bark is considered antipyretic and anthelmintic.
Bark, fruit, leaves, seeds.
-The fruit pulp is succulent and
delicious, and may be candied or preserved in syrup.
- Food value per 100 g of edible portion: Moisture 86.5 g; protein 0.8
g; carbohydrates 9.5 g, fiber 2.3 g; calcium 20 mg; phosphorus 30
mg; vitamin A 13 IU; thiamine 89 mcg; riboflavin 124 mcg; ascorbic
acid 1 mg.
- Decoction of bark and leaves used
- Peel, rich in oleoresin, used for diarrhea and intestinal spasms.
- Crushed seeds used for fevers.
- Astringent bark used for dysentery and malaria.
- Powdered bark used for scorpion stings.
- Bark resin used for flatulence and gastrointestinal colic, for swellings,
and as antispasmodic.
- Grounded seeds mixed with water as vermifuge and antipyretic.
- Tincture prepared from the dried rind used for diarrhea and abdominal
- In Java. seeds are used as vermifuge and antipyretic.
- In Indonesia, used
- Cosmeceutical value from its antioxidant,
moisturizing, whitening and lightening effects. Dry extract
of fruit, re-dissolved in propylene glycol is used for skin depigmentation
and as a moisturizer.
- The dried fruit skins when burned
emit an aromatic smell which repels mosquitoes. It also makes a pleasant
- The juice of the bark and fruit is recorded as used for poison arrow.
• Anti-Malarial / Skin and Leaf Extracts: Lansium domesticum: skin and leaf extracts of this fruit
tree interrupt the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, and are active
towards a chloroquine-resistant strain of the parasite (T9) in vitro:
Study indicates extracts of LD are a potential source for compounds
with activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum. (1)
• Anti-Malarial / Tetratriterpenoids: Study yielded five tetratriterpenoids –
domesticulide A-E from the seeds of Lansium domesticum together with
11 known triterpenoids. Eight of the compounds showed antimalarial
activity against Plasmodium falciparum. (6)
Extract of LD has shown to have antioxidant activity against
DPPH free radical and anti-tyrosinase activity.
• Skin Moisturizing
/ Lightening Effect: Study showed LD extract can significantly
increase skin moisture and decrease the skin melanin index. (3)
LD methanol extract was one of the study extracts that showed
strong inhibition of melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without
significant cytotoxicity, presenting as a potential ingredient for
skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. (4)
The air-dried fruit peel of LD yielded five onoceroid triterpenes;
the air-dried seeds yielded one onoceroid triterpene (lansionic acid)
and germacrene D. Studies of the compounds showed varying degrees
of activity against P. aeruginosa, B subtilis, C albicans, A niger
among others. (5)
• Anti-Skin Tumor / Cycloartanoid Triterpene / Leaves: Study isolated a new cycloartanoid triterpene from the leaves of LD. Some of the natural product derivatives show significant inhibitory activity on skin-tumor promotion on the basis of Epstein Barr virus activation. (7)
• Onoceramoid Triterpenes / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated three new natural onoceranoid triterpenes from the fruit peel of LD together with two known triterpenoids. The triterpenoids exhibited mild toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). (8)
• Onoceranoid-type Triterpenoids / Antibacterial: Study yielded a rare class of onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lamesticumin a, lamesticumins B-F, lansic acid 3-ethyl ester and ethyl lansiolate and four known analogues from the twigs of LD. Compounds 1-9 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. (9)
• Fruit Peels / Nutrition and Medicinal Potential: Study evaluated the phytochemicals present in peels of selected fruits from Manila. All studied fruit peels (rambutan, lanzones, pomelo, longgan, mangosteen) showed the presence of reducing sugars and glycosides. In phytochemical screening, lanzones yielded highest in alkaloids and sugars. (11)
• Anticancer / Young Fruit Extract: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activities and phytoconstituents of Longkong extracts. Highest total phenolic and flavonoid content were seen in the cold and hot methanol extract of stalks. Hot and cold chloroform young fruit extracts exhibited cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. Cold chloroform young fruit extracts showed the highest apoptotic effect against KB cells. (12)
• Antifeedant / Triterpenoids: Study isolated two tetratriterpenoids and three onoceranoid-type triterpenoids. Triterpenoids 1-5 exhibited moderate to strong antifeedant activity against 4th stage instar larvae of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata. (see constituents above) (13)
• Mosquito Repellent: Study evaluated the repellant effect of Lansium domesticum (lanzones) peel on mosquitoes. Results revealed that the effect of Lanzones peel as repellant is comparable to commercially available "katol," a popularly used insecticide vaporizer. (14)
• Non-Genotoxic / Antioxidant: Study investigated the antioxidant and genotoxicity property of L. domesticum fruits, particularly seeds and skins. Results showed the skin of fruits possessed higher antioxidant potential than seeds. On genotoxicity study on TK6 human lymphoblasts using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay, the ethanol extract of seeds were non-genotoxic to TK6 cells. (15)
• Antipyretic: Study investigated the antipyretic activity of LD seed extract on male rabbits with Brewer's yeast induced fever. Results showed a dose dependent antipyretic effect. (16)
• Lansioside D / Antibacterial: Study isolated a major antimicrobial compound, lansioside D, from the fruit peel of L. domesticum. Evaluation showed remarkable activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. (17)