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Family Malvaceae
Pentapetes phoenicea Linn.

Wu shi hua

Scientific names Common names
Assonia phoenicea (L.) Raeusch. Limang-dahon (Tag.)
Blattaria phoenicea Kuntze Yamyampaka (Sub.)
Brotera phoenicea (L.) Cav. Copper cups (Engl.)
Cavanila phoenicea J.F.Gmel. Noon flower (Engl.)
Dombeya phoenicea Cav. Midday flower (Engl.)
Eriohaphe phoenicea (L.) Bamps Scarlet mallow (Engl.)
Eriohaphe punicea Miq. Scarlet pentapetes (Engl.)
Pentapetes angustifolia Blume  
Pentapetes cebuana Blanco  
Pentapetes coccinea Blanco  
Pentapetes phoenicea Linn.  
Pentapetes phoenicea L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Kat-lata bandhuli, Bandhuka, Dibbucchi.
CHINESE: Ye luo jin qian, Wu shi hua.
GUJARATI: Saubhagyasundari.
HINDI: Bandhuka, Behsaram, Dopa-hariya, Tambridupari.
MALAYALAM: Uchchamalari.
SANSKRIT: Madhyadina, Bandhuka.
SPANISH: Flor de a las doce.
SRI LANKAN: Banduwada.
TAMIL: Nagappu.
TELUGU: Makinaccettu.

Gen info
- Pentapetes is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae. It contains a single species, Pentapetes phoenicea.
- The "Midday Flower" or "Noon Flower" name refers to its opening around noon and closing early morning the next day.

Limang-dahon is an erect, half-woody plant, 0.5 to 1 meter high. Branches are long and spreading. Leaves are alternate, linear, 6 to 10 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, usually having a broad, pointed base, tapering to a pointed tip. Flowers are borne in axils of the leaves, with 5 large, deep rose, and showy petals. Fruit is five-valved, rounded, with a hairy capsule 1 centimeter in diameter. Seeds, which are not winged, occur 8 to 12 in two series in each cell.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In Cagayan, La Union, Quezon, Bataan, Pampanga and Laguna Provinces in Luzon, and in Samar, Negros, and Mindanao.
- In open and damp grasslands.
- Occasionally cultivated.
Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. (2)

- Phytochemical analysis of stem, leaf, and root extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, phenolics, coumarins, and triterpenoids. (7)
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extract yielded tannins, flavonoids, sterols, saponins, carbohydrates, and traces of alkaloids. (16)

- Fruit is mucilaginous.
- Root considered astringent, antibilious, antiphlegmonous.
- Plant is considered aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, demulcent, detoxicant, emollient, mucilaginous, purgative, cathartic, thermogenic.
-Studies have suggested hypoglycemic, antioxidant, cerebroprotective, neuropharmacological properties.

Parts used
Fruit, roots.


- In Celebes, leaves used as tea substitute.
- Decoction of fruit used as emollient.
- Root used to alleviate wind and fever.
- Santals use the plant as astringent, antibilious, antiphlegmonous and to alleviate fever.
- Plant is demulcent and used for snake bites.
- In Annam used for its emollient property.
- Used for coryza.
- India's ethnic people of Andhra Pradesh use root decoction, twice daily, for burning micturition.
Local healers used the milky juice for skin diseases, leucoderma.
- In Mizoram, India, decoction of leaves drunk for inflammatory glands. Juice also applied to inflammatory glands. (6)
- In Bangladesh, garland of flowers worn around the neck as treatment for fever. (5) Juice from macerated flowers of P. pheonicea combined with oil obtained from the leech, Hirudo medicinalis, used for treatment of sexual disorders—massaged onto the penis or vaginal area at night for 7 days. (9) Women from the Khumi, Marma and Tripura tribal communities use the root juice, extracted through rubbing in stone, twice daily for a week, for irregular menstruation. (13) Leaves used for the treatment of boils. (22)
- In Dumka (Bihar), flowers are pounded together with kamal and kumudini and given to females with general weakness after menstrual cycle. (12)
- The Tripura tribe of Northeast India used cooked tender shoots in the treatment of nephritic disease. (15)
- Flower paste used to cure abnormally heavy menstrual flow. Mucilaginous capsules given for diseases of the bowels. Fruit decoction used as emollient. (17)
- In Bangladesh, juice from macerated flowers is mixed with oil obtained from leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, massaged onto penis or vaginal region for sexual disorders, twice daily for 7 days. (18)
- In Bundelkhand, India, roots used as antidote for snake bites. (23)
- Traditional Chinese Medicine: P. phoenicea is a component of a multiherbal traditional Chinese medicine used for treating exfoliative dermatitis type of drug reaction. (11)

Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay / Safety:
Studies on various fractions of leaves of P. phoenicea showed none of the extracts to be toxic up to a dose level of 600 µg/ml. Results suggest P. Phoenicea can be used safely for its traditional claims.
Hypoglycemic Potential:
Studies evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of 70% alcoholic extract of Pentapetes phoenicea in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant dose dependent lowering of blood glucose in STZ induced hyperglycemic rats. Effect may be related to tannins, terpenoids, sterols and flavonoid contents. (8)
Hypoglycemic Activity / Antioxidant / Leaves:
Studies evaluated the in-vitro antiradical property using DPPH test and in-vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity to establish in-vitro hypoglycemic potential of various fractions of leaves. Results showed promising antiradical property. Aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions showed α-amylase inhibitory activity attributed to flavonoids, tannins, and saponins in the fractions. (10)
Cerebroprotective: Study evaluated the cerebroprotective activity of a methanolic extract of P. phoenicea in a global cerebral ischemic model induced in male albino Wistar rats by temporary bilateral carotid artery occlusion. Results showed treatment with P. phoenicea enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global ischemia/reperfusion and exerts cerebroprotection. In P. phoenicia treated groups, there was significant restoration of biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner. (14)
Neuropharmacological Effects: Study evaluated the neuropharmacology of Pentapetes phoenicea using rats and mice in models of seizures, spontaneous activity, exploratory behavior and motor coordination. The extracts elicited significant prolongation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, reduction in spontaneous motor activity and exploratory behavior. The extract also prolonged the onset of seizures and caused significant muscle relaxation. The underlying mechanisms was assumed to involve GABAnergic activity. (19)
Neuroprotective in Hypoxia: Study evaluated the cerebroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Pentapetes phoenicea in hypoxic rats. The ME (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced (p<0.001) escape latency (25.4) in water maze task and significantly increased locomotor activity. P. phoenicea restored the reduced levels of glutamate and dopamine brain enzymes and significantly decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Antioxidant enzymes SOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase levels reduced by hypoxia were significantly restored, along with hypoxia induced lipid peroxidation. (21)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated August 2023 / July 2020 / February 2017 October 2013

                                                    PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Pentapetes Phoenicia / Flower / Deepak Adhikari / CC BY-SA 2.0 / click on link or image to go to the source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pentapetes Phoenicia / Flower / File:Pentapetes phoenicea.jpg / Lalithamba from India / 20 December 2010 / click on link or photo to go to the source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Public Domain / Pentapetes phoenicea Blanco2.235-original.png / Flores de Filipinas / 1880-1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / WikimediaCommons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Plants used by the ethnic people of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh / K N Reddy, G Trimurthulu and C Sudhakar Reddy / Indian Jour of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9 (2), April 2010, pp 313-317
Pentapetes phorenicea / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Midday flower / Common names / Flowers of India
Brine Shrimp bioassay of Pentapetes phoenicea Linn. and Ipomoea carnea jacq. leaves
/ Nisha Sharma*, Prakash Chandra Gupta, Anju Singh and ChandanaVenkateshwara Rao / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2013, 5 (1): pp 162-167
Medicinal Plants Used by the Mandais - A Little Known Tribe of Bangladesh / Ishita Malek, Tabibul Islam, and Mohammed Rahmatullah / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines
Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources of Mizoram, India: Implication of Traditional Knowledge in Health Care System / Prabhat Kumar Rai and H. Lalramnghinglova / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 274-305, 2010.
Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Pentapetes phoenicea L. / Yawalikar N., Bhowal M., Rudra J. / Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Nov-Dec 2014; Vol 9, Issue 6, Ver III: pp 36-39
Therapeutic Hypoglycemic Potential of Pentapetes phoenicea L. in Experimentally Induced Hyperglycemic Rats / Nisha Sharma, Prakash Chandra Gupta and Chandana Venkateshwar Rao / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: pp 709-714 /DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.709.714
Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail district, Bangladesh / Md. Ashrafi Haque, Mridul Kumer Shaha, Salah Uddin Ahmed, Rumana Akter, Hafizur Rahman, Sujan, Chakravotry, A.H.M. Nahid Imran, Md. Tarequl Islam, Rajendra Chandra Das, Mohammed Rahmatullah / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2011; 5(4): pp 415-423
In-vitro antiradical and inhibitory potential of Pentapetes phoenicea Linn. leaves against digestive enzymes related to diabetes / Sharma, Nisha; Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Rao, Ch. V. / Journal of Pharmacy Research; 2013, Vol 6, Issue 5: pp 569-572 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jopr.2013.04.034
Traditional Chinese medicine for treating exfoliative dermatitis type drug eruption / CN 103520390 A / Patents
FOLKLORE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DUMKA (BIHAR) / K.CHANDRA, B.N. PANEY and V.K.LAL / Ancient Science of Life, Vol. IV, No.3 January 1985, Page 181-185
Herbal Healing: An Old Practice for Healthy Living among Khumi, Marma and Tripura Communities of Thanchi Upazila, Bangladesh / Mohammad Abdul Motaleb, M. M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun*, M. K. Hossain, M. Khairul Alam and Marufa Sultana / European Journal of Medicinal Plants 5(1): 23-52, 2015

Cerebroprotective activity of Pentapetes phoenicea on global cerebral ischemia in rats / Koneru Naga, Sravanthi and Nadendla Rama Rao / Indian J Pharmacol. 2016 Nov-Dec; 48(6): pp 694–700 /
DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.194849
Practice Pattern of Traditional Pharmaceutical Formulations by the Tribes of Tripura, Northeast India / Koushik Majumdar and B.K. Datta / Global Journal of Pharmacology 7 (4): 442-447, 2013 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjp.2013.7.4.7652
Pharmacognostical, phytochemical investigations and HPTLC fingerprinting of Pentapetes phoenicea L. leaves / Nisha Sharma, Prakash Chandra Gupta, Anju Singh, and Ch. V. Rao / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, June 2014; 5(2): pp158-163 / DOI:  10.56042/ijnpr.v5i2.1934
Pentapetes phoeniccea / Umberto Quattrocchi / CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants
Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail district, Bangladesh / Md. Ashrafi Haque, Mridul Kumer Shaha, Salah Uddin Ahmed, Rumana Akter, Hafizur Rahman, Sujan, Chakravotry, A.H.M. Nahid Imran, Md. Tarequl Islam, Rajendra Chandra Das, Mohammed Rahmatullah / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2011; 5(4): pp 415-423
Pentapetes / Wikipedia
NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PENTAPETES PHOENICEA ON HYPOXIC RATS. / K Naga Sravanthi, Ramarao Nadendla / Advances in Pharmacology & Toxicology, 2015; 16(3): pp 1-10
MEDICO-BOTANICAL REPORT ON THE CHAKMA COMMUNITY OF BANGLADESH  / Snigdha Roy, Mohammad Zashim Uddin, Md Abdul Hassan, M Matiiur Rahman / Bangladesh J Plant Taxon., 2008; 15(1): pp 67-72
Ethnomedicinal Plants Used As Antidote for Snake- Bite and Scorpion-Sting in Bundelkhand (U.P.), India  / Vijay Kumar, PK Singh / IOSR: Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8(1) Ver. IV: pp 52-55 / eISSN: 2319-2402 / pISSN: 2319-2399


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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