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Family Myrtaceae
Syzygium cerasiforme (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry
Chuang hua pu tao

Scientific names Common names
Clavimyrtus latifolia Blume Lagi-lagi (Tag.)
Clavimyrtus lineata (DC.) Blume Lubeg (Apayao)
Clavimyrtus symphytocarpa Blume Malatambis (Tag.)
Eugenia cerasiformis (Blume) DC. Malubeg (Apayao)
Eugenia lineata (DC.) Duthie Common kelat (Engl.)
Eugenia longicalyx Ridl. Philippine cherry (Engl.)
Eugenia longiflora (C.Presl.) Fern.-Vill.  
Eugenia marivelesensis Merr.  
Eugenia miquelii Elmer  
Eugenia rubricaulis (Miq.)  
Eugenia teysmanmii (Miq.) Koord. & Valeton  
Jambosa cerasiformis (Blume) Hassk.  
Jambosa latifolia (Blume) Miq.  
Jambosa lineata DC.  
Jambosa rubricaule Miq.  
Jambosa symphytocarpa (Blume) Korth ex Miq.  
Jambosa teysmanmii Miq.  
Myrtus cerasiformis Blume  
Myrtus lineata Blume  
Syzygium cerasiforme (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry.  
Syzygium lineatum (DC.) Merr. & L.M.Perry.  
Syzygium longicalyx (Ridl.) Massam.  
Syzygium longiflorum C.Presl  
Syzygium teysmanmii (Miq.) Massam.  
Syzygium cerasiforme (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Onliine

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Galam, Obah.
CAMBODIA: Pring,  Pring chan, Pring phnom.
CHINA: Chang hua pu tao.
INDONESIA: Kayu udang.
JAVA: Gelam, Ki  sireum,, Nagasari.
MALAYSIA: Kayu kelat,  Kelat puteh,  Sekujah.
THAILAND: Daeng song  plucak,  Khi tai,  Phung kha.
VIETNAM: Tram ba vo, Tram hang, Tram khe.

Gen info
- Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, comprising of about 1200 species.
- Etymol
ogy: Genus name derives from the Greek word  syzygos, meaning joined or paired, referring to the paired opposite leaves. (Similarly, the Latin word syzygia means joining together or conjunction.) The species epithet lineatum refers to striped, netted veins on the leaves. (7)

Syzygium lineatum is a shrub or evergreen tree  growing up to 30 meters tall, usually much lower,  with a dense foliage. Trunk is erect, up to 50 cm diameter, with a grayish bark  tending to flake off with age. Leaves are simple, opposite, 6-12 cm long and 2.5-4.5 cm wide, with acuminate to caudate apex, and entire margin, rather leathery, with numerous secondary veins, parallel and spaced 1-2 mm;  petioles about 1 cm.  Inflorescences are terminal or axillary erect cymes, 4-12 cm long bearing several white or white-pinkish bisexual flowers,  fragrant, rich in nectar, with obconical hypanthium. about 6 mm long, calyx with  4 semicircular lobes,  2 mm long and 3 mm wide, persistent in the fruit, 4 ovate petals precociously deciduous, 3-4 mm long and wide,  numerous white stamens 0.6-1 cm long, and about 1 cm long style. Fruits are globose to ellipsoid berries,  1-1.4 cm long, 1 cm diameter,  initially green, turning white and reddish when ripe, fleshy, edible and one-seeded. (1)

Syzygium lineatum is a tree. Branchlets blackish brown when dry, terete; old branches grayish white. Petiole 1-1.2 cm; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 6-8 × 2.5-3.5 cm, leathery, abaxially slightly colored when dry, adaxially dark brown and glossy when dry, abaxially with numerous glands, adaxially with small glands, secondary veins dense, ca. 1 mm apart, at an angle of ca. 75° from midvein, abaxially visible but slender, and adaxially inconspicuous, intramarginal veins less than 1 mm from margin, base wide and obtuse, apex acuminate and with a 1-1.5 cm cusp. Inflorescences terminal, paniculate cymes, 8-10 cm, 3-branched, many-flowered. Flower buds pyriform, 6-7 mm. Hypanthium obconic, ca. 5 mm. Calyx lobes semiorbicular, short. Petals distinct, ovate, ca. 3 mm. Stamens 5-7 mm. Style 6-7 mm. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 1 cm. (Flora of China)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Borneo, Cambodia, China Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, and Vietnam. (1)
- Common in swamps and flooded zones.

- Study of leaves for essential oil   by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID)  with GC-MS yielded 0.15 (v/w) calculated on dry weight basis. Main constituents were ß-caryophyllene (64.53%),  α-pinene (6.14%), α-selinene (4.76%),  and α-humulene (4.39^). (3)
- Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract yielded flavonoids, tannins, and saponins in both leaves,and fruits, with absence of alkaloids.  (4)

- Study has suggested  cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, roots.


- Fruit is edible. Ripe fruits are eaten fresh or used as ingredient in fish sinigang or meat dishes.
- Fruit has potential for processing into jam and jelly, and fermentation to produce wine and vinegar. (4)
- In the Apayao region, used for cancer-healing.
- Decoction of root used as postpartum tonic.
- Wine: In a study for its potential for processing, results suggest
lubeg wine may be preferable to bignay or duhat wine.
- Wood: Used for making tool handles, musical instruments, house construction, heavy carpentry, flooring, joinery, rafters.
- Bark: Used for tanning fishing nets.

Cytotoxic Lignan Esters / Bark and Roots::
Study evaluated ,ethanol extract of dried bark and roots of S. lineatum for cytotoxic activity against HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Three new  and several known lignan esters and a new triterpene acetate were isolated. Several lignan esters were found to b active. A preliminary structure-activity relationship study  showed that both ester groups and their dimeric  were required for the compounds to mediate cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. (6)
Taxonomic and Molecular Identification: Study aimed to taxonomically classify and molecularly identify the indigenous species through DBA barcoding. "Lubeg" was found to belong to the family Myrtaceae under the species Syzygium (Gaertn.). It was identified as Syzygium lineatum (Roxb.) (DC.) Merr. & Perr. This was the first sequence of Syzygium under the rbcL gene. Using the phylogenetic tree, the "Lubeg" sequence is closest to Syzygium malaccense, and the out-group is Eucalyptus globulus. (7)
Antiproliferative / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study of leaf extract exhibited antiproliferative effects on HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and cytotoxic effect on HeLa (cervical cancer cell line) by MTT assay. (8)
Anticancer / Antiproliferative / Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells / Leaves: Bioassay-guided approach evaluated the anti-cancer principles from crude extract of air dried leaves of lubeg (Syzygium lineatum). Purification of most active fractions isolated and identified mono- and dihydroxylated alkenylbezenoid derivatives. The alkenylated resorcinol conferred a highly selective antiproliferative activity against human chronic myeloid leukemia cells compared to the phenolic cogener. Results validate its purported traditional use. (9)


Updated May 2023 / February 2023

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / : Syzygium lineatum / Infructescence / Copyright © 2018 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL129283] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Syzygium lineatum / Infructescence / Copyright © 2018 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona teve (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL129242] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Syzygium lineatum / Flowering branch / Copyright © 2018 by Loupok / CC BY-NC-ND / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Syzygium lineatum / Pietro Puccio / Monaco Nature Encyclopedia
Syzygium cerasiforme / Synonyms / Plants of the World Online
Analysis of Essential Oils from Leaf of Syzygium hancei Merr., & Perry, Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.)Alston, and Syzygium lineatum (DC.) Merr. and Perry from Vietnam /  Tran Hau Khanh, Pham Homg Ban / Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 2020; 23(3)  DOI:  10.1080/0972.2020.060X.2020.1790429
Phytochemical analysis of Lubeg (Syzygium lineatum (DC.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) species in Apayao
/ Maria Christina Zarate-Manicad /  International Journal of Novel Research in Life Sciences,  Dec 2016;  3(6): pp  1-5 / ISSN:  2394-966X
Development of Lubeg (Syzygium lineatum (Roxb.)   MNenette T Columna / err. & Perry Processed Products
/  Ocampo and  Usita /  Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2015; 3(4): pp 118-123 / pISSN:  / eISSN:2350-7756 / eISSN: 2350-8442

Cytotoxic Lignan Esters from the Bark and Roots of Syzygium l Cf. lineatum
/   Y Ren,  T N Ninh,,  H B Chai,  Planta Med, 2016; A D Kinghorn et al / Planta Med, 2016 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1578773
"Lubeg" (Phlippine Cherry), Syzygium llineatumm(Roxb.) DC. Merr. & Perry: Its Taxonomic and Molecular Identification / Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2019; 12(35): pp 1-7
Traditional uses, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical constituents of the genus Syzygium: A Review / A B M Neshar Uddin, A H M  Khurshid Alam et al / Food Sci Nutr., 2022; 10(6): pp 1789-1819 /
DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.2787 / PMID: 35702283
Alkenylated Phenolic Natural Products Validate the Claimed Anti-Cancer Property of Syzygium lineatum (Lubeg) / Agnes Llamasares Castillo, Franklin Ibana, Allan Patrick Macabeo / Conference: 27th Federation of Asian Pharmaceutical Associations Congress FAPA 2018

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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