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Family Rubiaceae

Oldenlandia prostata (Blume) Kuntze

Scientific names  Common names
Exallage congesta (R. Bar. ex G.Don) Bremek. Dilang-butiki (Tag.)
Exallage philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Bremek. Magdadakan (S. L. BIs.) 
Hedyotis argentea Wall. ex G.Don Malantubas (S. L. BIs.) 
Hedyotis congesta R.Br. ex G.Don Pulapasagit (P. Bis.) 
Hedyotis congesta R.Br. Genie's tongue (Engl.)
Hedyotis laevigata (DC.) Miq.  
Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng) Merr. ex CB Rob.  
Hedyotis prostata Blume  
Metabolus laevigatus DC.  
Oldenlandia congesta (R.Br. ex G.Don) Kuntze    [Illegitimate]  
Oldenlandia laevigata (DC) Kuntze    
Oldenlandia prostata (Blume) Kuntze    
Spermatococe philippensis Willd. ex Spreng.    
Dilang-butiki is a common name shared by: (1) Hedyotis philippensis, magdadakan, and (2) Dentella repens
Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Merr. ex C.B.Rob. is a synonym of Oldenlandia prostrata (Blume) Kuntze . The Plant List
Oldenlandia prostrata (Blume) Kuntze is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
MALAYSIA: Sebueh, Bunga kakarang, Sampu pucat.
THAILAND: Mae klon, Saam nam.
VIETNAM: An di[eef]n philippin.

Magdadakan is a low and spreading herb, up to 1 meter high, with slender twigs which are hairy when young. Leaves are smooth, except for the prominent midrib beneath, narrowly oblong, up to 9 centimeters long and 3.5 centimeters wide; the terminal ones much smaller, lanceolate, borne on 1-centimeter long petioles, acuminate and pointed on both ends. Flowers are axillary, white, crowded on heads in the axils of leaves. Calyx is bell-shaped. Corolla is a little longer than the calyx, and the limb separates into oblong, spreading segments. Fruit is green, smooth, somewhat rounded, 1.5 to 2 millimeters in diameter.

- Commonly found In forests, chiefly at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao, and Basilan, in most islands and provinces.
- Also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.

- Investigation of leaves and stems of H. philippensis yielded the major iridoid glycoside, asperuloside, along with scopoletin and astralgin. (see study below) (6)

- Considered stomachic, anti-dysenteric.
- Studies have shown antifungal, smooth muscle relaxant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, aerial parts.

- Roots used internally and externally.
- Decoction of roots used as a stomachic and for dysentery.
- Used externally on wounds.
- Also used for gonorrhea.
- Poultice of roots applied to scalds and external body pain.

- Aerial parts eaten with bitter gourd (ampalaya) after childbirth. (7)
- Malays use a leaf infusion of H. congesta as baths for the infant made sickly by spirits.
- In Malaysia, Temuan villagers take root decoction for juvenile fever associated with weak joints. (9)

Smooth Muscle Activities: Of 27 plants studied, 48% demonstrated smooth muscle relaxant activity and 17% contraction. The bark of Hedyotis congesta demonstrated the most potent contraction. (1)
Antifungal: Methanol extract of bark and leaves showed activity against Candida albicans. (3)
Phytochemicals / Antoxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated 13 Rubiaceae plants for biologic activities and its bioactive constituents. H. philippensis yielded the major iridoid glycoside, asperuloside, along with scopoletin and astralgin. For antioxidant potential using FTC, TBA, DPPH assays, all the plants exerted strong antioxidant potential. H. philippensis leaves and stems showed potent inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS and IFN-y-induced RAW 264.7 cells in the anti-inflammatory assay. (6)
• Asperuloside / Anti-Inflammatory / Nitric Oxide Radical Inhibitory Activity / : Study evaluated three methanolic extracts of Hedyotis species (H. philippensis, H. corymbosa, H. havilandii) together with the H. philippensis marker compound, asperuloside, for anti-inflammatory activity against LPS- interferon-(IFN)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Leaves and stems of H. philippensis showed good NO radical inhibitory activity with IC50 OF 139.76 ± 12.50 and 176.21 ± 2.48 g/ml, respectively. Asperuloside also moderately inhibited LPS/IFN-induced NO production. (8)


Updated April 2019 / March 2017 / April 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Oldenlandia cristata / © www.NatureLoveYou.sg / File:Koeh-157.jpg / NatureLoveYou / Click on image to go to source page
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Phot / Oldenlandia cristata / Flowers and Fruits at MacRitchie / © URBAN FOREST / Click on image to go to source page

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Shaman, Saiva and Sufi: A Study of the Evolution of Malay Magic / Richard Winstedt, Sir Richard Olof Winstedt
/ Google books
Potential antifungal plants for controlling building fungi / Rajesh K Verma et al / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 7(4), 2008, pp 374-387
Oldenlandia prostata / Synonyms / The Plant List
Hedyotis philippensis / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Biological activity studies of some rubiaceous plants (subfamily rubioideae) and phytochemical investigation of hedyotis philippinensis / Emi Norzehan Mohamad Mahbob / Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi MARA.
Hedyotis philippensis / Useful Tropical Plants
Nitric oxide (NO) radical inhibitory of hedyotis philippinensis and its marker compound, asperuloside /
Emi Norzehan Mohamad Mahbob, Rohaya Ahmad, Syahida Ahmad / Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 2014; Vol 10, No 1 / DOI: 10.11113/mjfas.v10n1.62
Ethno-medicinal Plants Used by the Temuan Villagers in Kampung Jeram Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia / H. C. Ong, S. Chua and P. Milow / Ethno Med, 2011; 5(2): 95-100 (2011)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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