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Family Menispermaceae
Makabuhay
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook.f. & Thomson

HEAVENLY ELIXIR
Fa leng teng

Scientific names  Common names
Menispermum crispum Linn. Makabuhai (Tag., Bis., Ilk.) 
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson Makabuhay (Tag., Ilk.)
Tinospora gibbericaulis Hand.-Mazz.  Paliaban (Bis.)
Tinospora mastersii Diels  Paliahan (Bis.)
Tinospora thorelii Gagnep. Panauan (Bis.)
  Pañgiauan (Bis.)
  Pañgiauban (Bis.)
  Sañgaunau (Bag,)
  Taganagtagua (Bis.)
  Taganagtagwag (Tag., Bis.)
  Tagua (Bis.)
  Heavenly elixir (Engl)
Tinospora rumphii Boerl. is a synonym of Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson The Plant List
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Bo ye qing niu dan, Fa leng teng.
FRENCH: Liane-quinine.
INDIA: Giloya.
MALAYSIA: Akar patawali, Akar seruntum.
THAI: Bora phet, Chung ching, Kuakhohoo (Don Daeng), Wan kab hoi yai.

Botany
Makabuhay is a climbing, dioecious vine reaching a height of 4 to 10 meters. Stems are up to 1 centimeter thick and somewhat fleshy, with scattered protuberances. Leaves are thin, ovate, 6 to 12 centimeters long, and 7 to 12 centimeters wide, with pointed and truncate or somewhat heart-shaped based, smooth and shining. Petioles are 3.5 to 6 centimeters long. Racemes are solitary or in pairs arising from axils of fallen leaves, pale green, slender, 10 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are pale green and short pedicelled. Fruit is 8 millimeters long, in long clusters.

Additional info
- Classified in Ayurvedic medicine as a rasayana herb, meaning "circulation of the nutrient" in Sanskrit, considered to enhance longevity, promote intelligence and prevent disease. (www.prevention.com)
-
Propagated by stem cuttings or seeds. Support needed for climbing.

Distribution
- In and nearby towns in thickets, in most or all islands of the Philippines.
- Perhaps an introduced species.
- Occurs in Malaya.

Chemical constituents
• Plant contains a bitter principle, colombine (2.22%); traces of an alkaloid; and a glucoside. Also contains a amorphous bitter principle, picroretine and traces of berberine.
• A study showed that the bitter extract of the stem does not contain an alkaloid.
• Leaves yielded picroretine, traces of an alkaloid, and a substance similar to glyzirrhizin.
• Bitter principle is glucosidal in nature.
• Study reported two alkaloids, tinosporine and tinosporidine. (Later studies failed to confirm these.)
• Study yielded two new diterpenes along with known compounds tinotufolin D and vitexilactone. (7)

• Ethanol extract of vines yielded three new diterpenoids, 2-O-lactoylborapetoside B (1), 6′-O-lactoylborapetoside B (2), and tinocrispol A (3), and nine known diterpenoids (4–12). (see study below) (28)
• Prozimate analysis of stem (S) and leaves (L) yielded: protein 4.7% (L) 1.2% (S), fat 1.5% (L) 0.43% (S), carbohydrate 11.8% (L) 19.4% (S), ash 2.7% (L) 1.1% (S), moisture 79.3 (L) 77.9% (S), fiber 1.59% (L) 0.65% (S). (see study below) (37)

Properties
- Considered febrifuge, vulnerary, tonic, antimalarial, parasiticide, and insecticidal.
- Studies suggest cardiotonic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, hypolipidemic, antimalarial, antinociceptive properties.


Parts utilized
Stems and leaves.

Uses
Edibility
• The basis of a popular preparation used as cordial, tonic, or ingredient in cocktails.
Folkloric
• Decoction of leaves and stems used for malaria and fever and as a tonic (40 gms to pint of boiling water).
• Scabies: Crush fresh stem and apply juice over the affected.
• Tropical ulcers and wound healing: Decoction of the stem as wash, or crush stem, soak in oil for 12 hours and apply oil extract on affected areas.
• Pounded stem, mixed with coconut oil, has been used for a variety of rheumatic and arthritic complaints; also for abdominal colic.
• Used for athlete's foot.
• Used for fertility regulation.
• Preparation with coconut oil use as cure for rheumatism; also for flatulence (kabag) in children.
• Decoction or powder form of plant used as febrifuge. Decoction of stem used as vulnerary for itches, ordinary and cancerous wounds.
• Aqueous extract used for treatment of stomach trouble, indigestion, and diarrhea.
• Rheumatism and flatulence: mixture of the vine with oil. Cut 100 gms of the vine in small pieces, mix with 3 ounces of coconut oil. Place in bottle and "cook" under the sun for 5-7 days.
• For stomach ulcers: stem is pounded inside a plastic bag, water is added, strained, and drank once daily. Also, stems are dried, thinly sliced, decocted, then drank.
• Used by nursing mothers to assist in weaning infants off breast-feeding. The bitter juice of the stem is applied to the nipple area causing the infant's aversion to breast-feeding and facilitating transfer to breast feeding.
• Internally, used as tonic and antimalarial; externally, as parasiticide.
• In Malaysia, extract taken orally to treat hyperglycemia. Also, used for treatment of malaria.
• In Thailand, wood decoction used for diabetes, fever and to reduce thirst; also used as appetizer.
Others
• As pesticide (rice blackbugs, rice green leafhoppers, rice stem borers) using pounded chopped vines stirred in one liter of water and sprayed on seedlings before transplanting or soaking the seedlings overnight before transplanting.
• Makabuhay, with madre de cacao and hot red pepper extract in water sprayed on rice plants at weekly intervals.
New applications
- Being studied for it possible stimulant effect on the immune system. Anecdotal benefits for a variety of HIV-related complaints.
Recent uses and preparations
• Used Preparation of ointment: Wash and chop 1/2 glass of stem. Sauté chopped stem on low fire for about five minutes in one glass of coconut oil. Remove the stems then add half a glass of grated white candle wax. When the wax is melted, pour
into clean bottle and label. Use the ointment over the whole body, save the face area, for three consecutive nights.

Caution
Should not be used by pregnant women. Some caution use by patients with cardiac disorders.



Studies

Hay Fever / Allergic Rhinitis: A study in the Indira Ghandi Medical College showed it effective in relieving symptoms of hay fever or allergic rhinitis. The study used the supplement Tinofend 300 mg three times a day.
Anti-scabies: Tinospora rumphii Boerl. (Makabuhay) in the Treatment of Scabies: The study established the acaricidal property of Tinospora rumphii. A concomitant antimicrobial action could not be ruled out.
Furanoid Diterpenes: Study yielded cleordane type furanoid diterpenes: a new rumphioside I and known borapetodies C and F, plus three other compounds. (6)
Clerodane Diterpenes:
Study yielded two new diterpenes (1 and 2) from the leaves of Tinospora rumphii, along with known compounds tinotufolin D and vitexilactone. (7)
Swine Diarrhea Control: Study showed reduction of diarrhea with use of 25% fresh makabuhay decoction from day 15-35 in piglets with diarrhea. (8)
Antifertility Effect: Study on Sprague-Dawley rats investigated the effect of T rumphii on the activity of 3-B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the ovary. (9)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study on the extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of blood and urine glucose and lipids in serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats. (10)
Antimicrobial / Diterpenes: Study on chloroform extract of air-dried leaves yielded a new clerodane diterpene, B2, and known diterpenes B1, tinotufolin D (B5) and vitexilactone (B3). B2 was found to have antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and T. mentagrophytes, and antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. (11)
Hypoglycemic / Insulinotropic Activity: Study of aqueous extract on alloxan-diabetic rats showed significant reduction of blood glucose and higher levels of serum insulin levels. The insulinotropic effect was also evident in perfused human and rat islets and HIT-T5 B cells. Results suggest the hypoglycemic effect is associated with increased insulin secretion. (14)
No Diabetic Benefits / Human Study: Study of dry powder capsule of Tinospora crispa in healthy and type 2 diabetic patients showed no effect on serum glucose and insulin levels. The result was inconsistent with other studies in animal model and metabolic syndrome subjects. (1
5)
Anti-TNF-a / Prevention of Atherosclerosis-related Cardiovascular Diseases: Study investigated an aqueous and methanol extract on Tumor Necrosis Factor induced inflammation on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells in vitro. Results showed T. crispa extracts have an inhibitory effect in vitro on the levels of inflammation signaling molecules and may have potential in the development of nutraceuticals for the prevention of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases. (16)
Toxicity Study / Hepatic and Renal Toxicity / Prolonged Use Concern: Results of chronic toxicity study of ethanolic extract showed hepatic and renal toxicity potential in rats. Results suggest prolonged use of high doses of T. crispa in humans should be avoided or discontinued immediately if signs of liver or renal toxicities occur while using T. crispa. (17)
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant: Various extracts showed very significant cytotoxicity on brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Strong antioxidant activity was seen on DPPH assay. A chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract showed significant activity against tested organisms on antimicrobial screening. (18)
Borapetoside C / Improved Insulin Sensitivity: Study isolated the hypoglycemic actions of borapetoside C isolated from T. crispa. Results showed borapetoside C can increase glucose utilization, delay the development of insulin resistance and enhance insulin sensitivity. (19)
Antioxidative / Antiatheroslcerosis: Study investigated the effect of T. crispa stem aqueous extract in hypercholesterolemic-induced rabbits. Results showed improvement in lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and increased HDL). Extract also showed strong antioxidative properties and markedly reduced atheroslcerotic lesion formation. Results suggest a potential for incorporation of T. crispa as part of therapeutic regimens in the prevention of atherosclerosis. (20)
Hepatotoxin Concerns: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanolic extract of dried stems of T. crispa i a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. Results showed a significant increase in the activity of liver enzymes. The in vivo study establishes the extract contains hepatotoxins and suggests reliance on data from in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions. (21)
Antioxidative / Anti-Proliferative: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity potential and antioxidant activity of various extracts. A methanol extract showed the highest flavonoid and phenolic content, with highest scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. T. crispa also showed dose-dependent antiproliferative activity against many types of cancer cells. (22)
Cardiotonic / Cycloeucalenol and Cycloeucalenone: Study isolated two triterpenes from the stems, namely, cycloeucalenol and cycloeucalenone. Results showed mild cardiotonic effects: cycloeucalenol slightly increased right atrial force contractions and reduction in left atria of rat in vitro, while cycloeucalenone showed slight change from control on right and left atrial force. (23)
Borapetol B / Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B (C1) isolated from T. crispa in normoglycemic and spontaneous type 2 diabetic rats. Results showed 2-fold increase in plasma insulin levels in treated rats. C1 dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in isolated islet cells. Results suggest borapetol B has antidiabetic effects due to its stimulation of insulin release. (25)
Antimalarial / Plasmodium berghei: Study evaluated the antimalarial activity of T. crispa methanol extract of dried stem powder against P. berghei infection in mice. The crude extract exhibited dose-dependent antimalarial activity with strong inhibitory effect when used in combination with pyrimethamine. (26)
Anti-MRSA Activity: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect and interaction between Tinospora crispa and S. mahagoni extracts against Methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA). Both extracts were effective against MESA strains. However, no interaction or synergism was found in the two-plant combination. (27)
Hypoglycemic Diterpenoids / Borapetoside C: Study of EtOH extract of vines yielded three new diterpenoids and nine known diterpenoids. Compounds 4-6 (borapetosides A-C) were examined for in vivo hypoglycemic activities. Results showed significant lowering of plasma glucose levels in normal and STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Borapetoside C exhibited a hypoglycemic effect with increased peripheral glucose utilization and reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis. (see constituents above) (28)
Immunomodulatory / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of T. crispa. Findings showed T. crispa had higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. T. crispa exhibited an immunomodulatory effect through stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The immunomodulatory effect might be due to cordioside, quercetin, and eicosenoic acid from the T. crispa fraction. (29)
Effect on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate / Stems: Study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of an n-butanol extract of stems on blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized rats. Findings suggest T. crispa possesses at least three different cardiovascular-active components that act via (1) ß2-adrenergic receptors to cause a decrease in blood pressure, and ß1 - and ß2 -adrenergic receptors to cause an increase in heart rate, (2) α-adrenergic receptors to cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate, and (3) a non-adrenergic and non- cholinergic pathway to cause a decrease in MAP and heart rate. (
30)
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Endophytic Actinomycetes: Study isolated and selected alpha glucosidase inhibitor-producing endophytic actinomycetes from various diabetic medicinal plants. Of fourteen studied plants, the highest inhibition activity to alpha-glucosidase was shown by BWA65 found from Tinospora crispa. Production of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the plant was largely due to the contribution of actinomycetes endophytes. Findings suggest any plant can contain several endophytic microbes that can produce compounds or secondary metabolites. (
31)
Antimetastatic / Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line: Study investigated the effect of T. crispa extract on matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression and cell migration. Findings suggest T. crispa could be considered a potential therapeutic drug to prevent metastasis of HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma). (
32)
Anti-Atherogenic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the lipid lowering and antioxidant effects of T. crispa in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet. Results suggest the supplementation with T. crispa extract can reduce or retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaque development induced by high cholesterol diet. The antiatherogenic effect could be due to enhanced serum HDL, increase antioxidant status and flavonoid composition. (
33)
Wound Healing / Stem: Study evaluated the effect of Tinospora crispa on wound healing in diabetic albino mice given intraperitoneally and with local ointment application. Results showed potential benefits as remedy for diabetic wound healing, possibly through reduction of blood glucose level and prevention of microbial infection in the affected area. The addition of the ointment did not significantly contribute to wound healing with regards wound healing time and percent wound contraction. (
35) Study evaluated a methanol and chloroform extract of stems of T. crispa for healing efficiency on excision wound model in albino rats. The methanol and chloroform fractions showed significant wound healing effect comparable with standard drug use. The methanol fraction ointment showed greater activity than the chloroform fraction. (48)
Protective Against Malaria-Induced Renal Damage and Hemolysis / Stem: Study of Tinospora crispa stem extract showed protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. Potent antioxidant activity of the extract may play a central role in protecting against oxidative stress induced by malaria. T. crispa stem extract has also been reported to have antimalarial activity against P. yoelii infection in mice. (
36)
Antiproliferative / Stem: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of aqueous crude extract of T. crispa stem. No significant toxicity was recorded, with IC50 value of more than 1000 µg/ml. Extract exhibited moderate anti-proliferative activity on selected human cancer cell lines (IC50 MCF-7 107 µg/ml, HeLa 165 µg/ml, Caov-3 100 µg/ml, and HepG2 165 µg/ml. (see constituents above)  (
37)
No Benefit as Additional Treatment in T2 Diabetes / Clinical Trial: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trail evaluated the efficacy of T. crispa as additional treatment in patients with T2 diabetes mellitus who did not respond to oral hypoglycemic drugs and refused insulin injection therapy. Results showed no antidiabetic benefit. Patients on T. crispa had significant weight reduction and cholesterol elevation. Moreover, study suggests an increased risk of hepatic dysfunction with T. cripa treatment supplementation. (
38)
Antimicrobial / Roots: Study evaluated various extracts of roots of T. crispa for in vitro antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative strains of E. coli, and fungal strains of Candida albicans. A methanol extract exhibited moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. An ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition against growth of Candida albicans. (
39)
Antioxidant / Stem: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of T. crispa. Stem extract showed high antioxidant activity in the following order: DPPH > reducing power > metal chelating,98.8%, 0.957, 81.97%, respectively. The high antioxidant activity was attributed to apigenin and magnoflorine. There was high correlation with total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of T. crispa. (
40)
Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of dried stems of T. crispa in a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. (
41)
Mechanisms of Anti-Hyperglycemic Action / Review: The mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic actions are due to stimulation of insulin secretion, enhancement of glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and reduction of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Borapetoside A and C are active ingredients for lowering plasma glucose. In human studies, the anti-hyperglycemic effect shown in metabolic syndrome is not evident in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
42)
Hepatoprotective in Malarial Infection: One of the major causes of death in malaria is organ damage to the liver. In the study, liver damage during malarial infection was evidenced by significant (p<0.05) increase in AST and ALT with markedly increased albumin. Study in mice showed T. crispa extract exhibited hepatoprotective effect during malarial infection. at dose of 500 mg/kg. (
43)
Anti-MRSA Activity / No Synergism with S. mahagoni: Study showed the extracts of T. crispa and S. mahagoni were effective against MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strains. However, the combination of the two plants showed no synergism against MRSA strains. (
44)
Antimalarial / Plasmodium yoelii: Study evaluated the in vivo antimalarial effect of crude extract of Tinospora crispa in mice inoculated with Plasmodium yoelii. Results showed dose-dependent anti-malarial effect. (
45)
Antimalarial / Plasmodium falciparum / Stem: Study evaluated the anti-plasmodial activity of T. crispa stem extract against P. falciparum 3D7 strain in vitro. Results showed anti-plasmodial activity with IC50 between 0.27 mg/ml and 0.29 mg/ml. The effective dose to inhibit growth of P. flaciparum 3D7 strain is 2.0 mg/ml. The reduction in parasitemia degree of 3D7 strain suggests a potential candidate as antimalarial. (
54)
Enhancement of Glucose Transport: Study evaluated the effect of water-ethanol extract of T. crispa on glucose transporter (GLUT1 and GLUT4) and AMPK alpha1 and PPAR gamma expression. Results showed enhancement of glucose transport by T. crispa in L6 myotubes, mediated by the up-regulation of GLUT1, AMPK alpha and PPAR gamma expression. (
46)
Immunomodulatory Effects: Study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of stem on innate immune responses by evaluation of chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from blood of male Wistar rats. Main extract ingredients were identified as syringin and magnoflorine. Results showed increased chemotactic activity of neutrophils, a dose-dependent increase in number of migrated cells and neutrophilic phagocytic activity, a dose-dependent T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation with concanavain A and lipopolysaccharide. Results suggest immunomodulatory activity and potential for use in the prevention of immune diseases. (
47)
Antifungal / Stem Bark: Study of ethanol of stem bark of T. crispa showed antifungal activity against C. albicans (20.59%). Of five fractions obtained, fraction 1 exhibited the greatest antifungal activity (27.73%). (
49)
Effect on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) / Synergism with Gelam Honey Mixture: Study investigated the effect of T. crispa and Gelam (Melaleuca cajupati) honey mixture on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and normal human hepatocytes.. Results showed potent antioxidant activity and moderate antiproliferative activity against human heptocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) depending on treatment concentration. Furthermore, the extract may improve insulin sensitizing activity, with its potential to increase expression of PY20. (
50)
Thrombolytic Activity / Gelam Honey Mixture: Study evaluated a methanol extract of stems of T. crispa for thrombolytic (in vitro clot lysis) and cytotoxic (brine shrimp lethality bioassay) activities. Results showed the stem possesses promising thrombolytic activity in vitro against human blood as well as preliminary cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp. Study suggests potential as thrombolytic medicine. (
51)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Stem: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of T. crispa stem for antinociceptive (writhing and hot plate tests) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema test) activities. Intraperitoneally administered exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose-dependent manner. (
52)
Hypoglycemic in Metabolic Syndrome / Dry Powder Stem: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design evaluated T. crispa dry powder in patients with metabolic syndrome. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose from baseline. Results raised the concern of using T. crispa dry power in patients on statin with statin elevated liver enzyme. ((also see: study 38) (
53)

Availability
- Wild-crafted. 
- Capsules, supplements in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update November 2016


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Tinospora rumphii Boerl. (Makabuhay) in the Treatment of Scabies / Nelia P Salazar et al /
(2)
Stop Sneezing This Season / Sara Altshul / Prevention Sept 2007
(3)
Insecticidal use of Tinospora rhumhii
(4)
New antimicrobial diterpenes from Tinospora rumphii.
(5)

Recent uses / Philippine Inquirer. Monica Feria. Oct 6, 2007

(6)
Furanoid diterpene glucosides from Tinospora rumphii / Teresita Martin et al / Phytochemistry
Volume 42, Issue 1, May 1996, Pages 153-158 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00902-7

(7)
Clerodane Diterpenes from Tinospora rumphii / C Y Ragasa et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2000, 63 (4), pp 509–511
DOI: 10.1021/np9902946

(8)
The use of 25% fresh makabuhay (Tinospora rumphii Boerl) vine decoction as preventive medication for swine (Sus domesticus) suckling diarrhea (15-35 days old) / Carace G B and Villaver T T / CLSU Scientific Journal • Vol 1-2. pp 59-60

(9)
The modulation of ovarian 3B-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in rats during treatment with Tinospora rumphii Boerl / Else Dapat / 1999 / DOST SciNET-Phil
(10)
Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats / Stanely Mainzen Prince, Menon VP / Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):410-3.
(11)
New antimicrobial diterpenes from Tinospora rumphii / Cruz, Ma. Cecelyn S. / Thesis / 2000 / De La Salle University
(12)
Sorting Tinospora names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(13)
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. et Thomson (accepted name) / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(14)
The hypoglycaemic and insulinotropic activity of Tinospora crispa: studies with human and rat islets and HIT-T15 B cells. / Noor H, Hammonds P, Sutton R, Ashcroft SJ. / Diabetologia. 1989 Jun;32(6):354-9.
(15)
The Effect of Tinospora crispa on Serum Glucose and Insulin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
/ Theerawut Klangjareonchai and Chulaporn Roongpisuthipong / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Volume 2012 / doi:10.1155/2012/808762
(16)
Inhibitory Properties of Tinospora crispa Extracts on TNF-α Induced Inflammation on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECS) / Ihsan Safwan Kamarazaman, Zulkhairi Hj. Amom , Rasadah Mat Ali , Abdah Md Akim , Khairunnuur Fairuz Azman , Daryl Jesus Arapoc , Mohd Kamal Nik Hassan , Mohd Shahidan Mohd Arshad , Zamree Md Shah and Khairul Kamilah Abdul Kadir / International Journal of Tropical Medicine, 7: 24-29. / DOI: 10.3923/ijtmed.2012.24.29
(17)
Toxicological study of crude extract of Tinospora crispa Mier ex Hook F.& Thoms / Pranee Chavalittumrong, Aimmanus Attawish, Anchalee Chuthaputti, Pranee Chuntapet / Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1997; 21(4): 199-210
(18)
Antimicrobial, Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Tinospora crispa / Haque Aminul Md., Islam Ashraful S. M. and Shahriar Mohammad / JPBMS, 2011, 13 (12)
(19)
Borapetoside C from Tinospora crispa improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. / doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.03.009 / The Free Library by Farlex
(20)
AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CRISPA POSSESSES ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES AND REDUCES ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC-INDUCED RABBITS / ZULKHAIRI AMOM*, KHAIRUNNUUR FAIRUZ AZMAN, NOR AMALINA ISMAIL, ZAMREE MD SHAH, MOHD SHAHIDAN MOHAMAD ARSHAD / Journal of Food Biochemistry, Volume 35, Issue 4, pages 1083–1098, August 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00436.x
(21)
Effect of Tinospora crispa on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats / Farkaad A Kadir, Faizah Othman, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Farida Hussan, Pouya Hassandarvish / Indian Journ of Pharmacology, 2011, Vol 43, No 1, pp 64-68 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.75673
(22)
Anti-proliferative and antioxidant effects of Tinospora crispa (Batawali) / Ibahim MJ, Wan-Nor I'zzah WMZ, Narimah AHH, Nurul Asyikin Z, Siti-Nur Shafinas SAR, Froemming GA / Biomedical Research 2011, 22 (1): 57-62
(23)
Study on cardiac contractility of cycloeucalenol and cycloeucalenone isolated from Tinospora crispa /
Kongkathip N, Dhumma-upakorn P, Kongkathip B, Chawananoraset K, Sangchomkaeo P, Hatthakitpanichakul S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov;83(1-2):95-9.
(24)
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson / Synonyms / The Plant List
(25)
Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release. / Lokman FE, Gu HF, Wan Mohamud WN, Yusoff MM, Chia KL, Ostenson CG. / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:727602 / doi: 10.1155/2013/727602. Epub 2013 Nov 10.
(26)
ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF STEM EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CRISPA AGAINST PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTION IN MICE / Jariya Niljan, Ubonwan Jaihan, Somdet Srichairatanakool, Chairat Uthaipibull, Voravuth Somsak / Journal of Health Research 01/2014
(27)
In vitro interaction of combined plants: Tinospora crispa and Swietenia mahagoni against Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
/ N. T. Al- alusi*, F. A. Kadir, S. Ismail and M. A. Abdullah / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(21), pp. 2309-2312, 4 November, 2010
(28)
Hypoglycemic Diterpenoids from Tinospora crispa / Sio-Hong Lam, Chi-Tun Ruan, Po-Hung Hsieh, Ming-Jai Su*, and Shoei-Sheng Lee* / J. Nat. Prod., 2012, 75 (2), pp 153–159 / DOI: 10.1021/np200692v
(29)
Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8 / Walaa Najm Abood, Iman Fahmi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla* and Salmah Ismail / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:205 / http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/14/205
(30)
Effects of an n-butanol extract from the stem of Tinospora crispa on blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized rats / Siwaporn Praman, Michael J. Mulvany, Yves Allenbach, Andrew Marston, Kurt Hostettmann, Poungpen Sirirugsa, Chaweewan Jansakul / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 675–686
(31)
ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITOR ACTIVITY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATED FROM SOME INDONESIAN DIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS / Pujiyanto et al. / Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 4, Suppl 1, 327-333
(32)
Tinospora crispa extract inhibits MMP-13 and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines / Hataipan Phienwej, Ih-si Swasdichira, Surattana Amnuoypol, Prasit Pavasant, Piyamas Sumrejkanchanakij / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(9): 738–743
(33)
ANTI-ATHEROGENIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF PATAWALI (TINOSPORA CRISPA) ON RABBITS FED WITH HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET / HASNAH BAHARI / Thesis, July 2007
(34)
Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand / Maneenoon et al. / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2015) 11:43 / DOI 10.1186/s13002-015-0031-5
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Wound healing potential of Tinospora Crispa (Willd.) Miers [Menispermaceae] stem on diabetic mice / Ryan O Arcueno, Jinger Lyn B Retumban, Joycelyn E Echano, Jonathan Jaime G Guerrero / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2015; 3(2): 106-109
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Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice / Narain Nutham, Sakuna Sakulmettatham, Suwit Klongthalay, Palatip Chutoam, and Voravuth Somsak / J Pathog. 2015; 2015: 738608 / doi: 10.1155/2015/738608
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Biological Properties of Tinospora crispa (Akar Patawali) and Its Antiproliferative Activities on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines / Zulkhairi A, Abdah MA, M Kamal NH, Nursakinah I, Moklas MAM, Hasnah B, Fazali F, Khairunnur FA, Kamilah KAK, Zamree MS & Shahidan MMA / Mal J Nutr 14(2): 173 - 187, 2008
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Randomized Controlled Trial of Tinospora crispa for Additional Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Chawanya Sangsuwan MD*, Suthipol Udompanthurak MSc**, Sathit Vannasaeng MD*, Visanu Thamlikitkul MD* / J Med Assoc Thai 2004; 87(5): 543-6
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Antimicrobial Activity of Tinospora crispa Root Extracts / Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed, Gunjan Manish, Chellappan Kumar Dinesh / IJRAP 3(3), May-Jun3 2012
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Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extract of Tinospora crispa and Tabernaemontana corymbosa / Heida Nadia Zulkefli, JamaudiN Mohammad* & Nurhayati Zainal Abidin / Sains Malaysiana 42(6) (2013): 697–706
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Review of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Tinospora crispa / Theerawut KLANGJAREONCHAI, Supanee PUTADECHAKUM, Chulaporn ROONGPISUTHIPONG / Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 12, No 5 (2015)
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Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Tinospora Crispa on Plasmodium Berghei Induced Liver Damage in Mice / Voravuth Somsak*, Jutatip Kittitorn, Sukanya Chachiyo, Somdet Srichairatanakool and Chairat Uthaipibull / Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination 4:127. / doi: 10.4172/2470-6965.1000127
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In vitro interaction of combined plants: Tinospora crispa and Swietenia mahagoni against Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) / N. T. Al- alusi*, F. A. Kadir, S. Ismail and M. A. Abdullah / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(21), pp. 2309-2312, 4 November, 2010
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IN VIVO ANTIPARASITIC ACTIVITY OF THE THAI TRADITIONAL MEDICINE PLANT-TINOSPORA CRISPA-AGAINST PLASMODIUM YOELII / Thanaporn Rungruang and Thidarut Boonmars / SOUTHEAST ASIAN J TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol 40 No. 5 September 2009
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The Activation of GLUT1, AMPK alpha and PPAR gamma by Tinospora crispa in L6 Myotubes
/ Kusumarn Noipha, Putrada Ninla-aesong / Spatula DD. 2011; 1(4): 245-249doi: 10.5455/spatula.20111206115628
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Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats / Ahmad W, Jantan I, Kumolosasi E, Abbas Bukhari SN / Drug Design, Development and Therapy, Volume 9 / DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S85405
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Assessment of In-vitro Wound Healing Activity of the Tinospora crispa Extracts / Santalaxme Vijendren, Shankar Jothi, Kushha Rajandran, Vignesh Muruganandham / International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology (IJPPT), Volume-1, Issue- 2, 2012
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Screening of Volatile Compounds of Brotowali (Tinospora Crispa) and Antifungal Activity Against Candida albicans / Warsinah, Harwoko, Nuryanti / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2015; 7(1); 132-136
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Insulin Sensitivity Enhancement of the Mixture of Tinospora Crispa and Gelam (Melaleuca Cajuputi) Honey and Its Antiproliferative Activity on Hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2: A Preliminary Study
/ Mohd Nazri Abu, Muhammad Ashraf Mohd Salleh, Nabilatul Hani Mohd Radzman, Wan Iryani Wan Ismail*, Rosmadi Mohd Yusoff, Hamzah Fansuri Hasan / Journal of Medical Research and Development (JMRD) Jul. 2013, Vol. 2 Iss. 3, PP. 48-54
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EVALUATION OF THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF STEMS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA / Md. Ariful Islam, Zobaer A. Mahmud*, S.M. Abdur Rahman, Md. Monirujjaman and Sajal K. Saha / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH (IJPSR)
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Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Tinospora crispa in Various Animal Models / M.R. Sulaiman , Z.A. Zakaria and R. Lihan / International Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3: 66-69 (2008)
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HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF TINOSPORA CRISPA DRY POWDER IN OUTPATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AT KING CHULALONGKORN MEMORIAL HOSPITAL / Chutima Sriyapa,∗ Rawadee Dhumma-upakorn, Somkiat Sangwatanaroj, Ngampong Kongkathip and Sarinee Krittiyanunt / J Health Res 2009, 23(3): 125-133
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Antiplasmodial Test of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 Strain In Vitro / Ihwan, Muhaimin Rifa, Fitri LE / Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, Vol. 28, No. 2, Agustus 2014

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