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Family Opiliaceae
Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.
Tai wan shan you

Scientific names Common names
  Apeng (Ilk.)
Cansjera manillana Blume            Garimo (Tag.)
Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.            Gelenjub (Mindanao)
Opilia manillana (Blume) Bail.            Getipun (Mindanao)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Ichikamanok (Tag.)
Champereia manillana var. longistaminea (W.Z.Li)  H.S.Kiu        Laniti (Palawan)
Champereia manillana var. manillana   Liong-liong (Tag.)
  Liyong-liyong (Tag.)
  Luingluing (Tag.)
  Malakabuan (Tag.)
  Malalukban (Tag.)
  Marisparis (Tag.)
  Panalayapin (Tagb.)
  Panalayapen (Ilk.)
  Sulanmanok (Sbl.)
  Talaminuk (Sub.)
  Malulukban (Iv.)
  Duro-manok (Palawan)
  False olive (Engl.)
  Manila champereia (Engl.)
  Manila cypress (Engl.)
  Manila false cypress (Engl.)
  Manila vigna (Engl.)
  False olive (Engl.)
Champereira manillana is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AMBOINA: Sayor garing.
CHINA: Tai wan shan you.
INDONESIA: Sayor garing, Cemperai, Siminyak.
MALAY: Belkan, Chemperai, Chimpri, Chipreh, Poko kuching-kuching.
SULAWESI: Borongbenisi, Kajuwatu.
SUMATRA: Tutup-mateh.
TALAUD IS.: Amaloana, Aramalu.
THAILAND: Phakwan, Phak pa, Phak puem, Sen.

Gen info
- Champereia is a genus of plants in the family Opiliaceae. It was described as a genus in 1843, and contains only one known species, Champereia manillana.  (2)
- Etymology: The genus name derives from the Malay name cemperai for the species. The specific epithet is manillana is likely Latinized Manila, referring to one of the localities of natural distribution. (4)

• Trees 2-10 m tall. Bark pale. Leaves glabrous; petiole 2-5 mm; leaf blade ovate, ± lanceolate, lanceolate, or oblong, 5-13 × 2.5-6 cm, ± leathery to papery, base cuneate to obtuse, apex acute to acuminate; veins 4-9 on each side of midvein. Panicles 1 or 2 fascicled, 4-20 cm; bracts ovate to lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm, apex acute. Bisexual flower: pedicel 1-5 mm; tepals oblong, 1.5-1.7 mm; filaments filiform; anthers ovoid, ca. 0.3 mm; disk crenulate; ovary conic, ca. 0.5 mm. Female flowers: pedicel ca. 0.5 mm; tepals ca. 0.5 mm; staminodes ca. 0.2 mm; disk lobes smaller than staminodes; ovary cylindric to ovoid, ca. 0.5 mm; stigma cushion-shaped. Drupe orange-red or red, ellipsoid, 1-2.5 × 0.7-1.7 cm; pedicel 1.5-5 mm. (Flora of China)

• A tree or shrub, usually about 4–8 m tall, sometimes reaching 20 m. Its flowers grow on the stem and trunk. Foliage: Leaves are alternate and stalked with fleshy or leathery leaf blades that are egg-shaped, oblong or lance-shaped, and about 4.5–25 by 1.5–11 cm. The leaf blades are hairless on both surfaces. Flowers: Flowering shoots are solitary or in groups of 2–4, up to 20 cm long. Shoots bear both unisexual and bisexual flowers. Unisexual flowers are green, whereas the bisexual flowers are yellowish-green. Fruits: Fruits are orange-red drupes that are 8–15 by 7–9 mm. (4)

- Native to the Philippines. (1)
- Also native to
Andaman Is., Borneo, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)
- Champereia manillana var. manillana is naturalized. (3)
- Ornamental in gardens and parks.

- Study of dichloromethane extract of dried leaves isolated squalene (1), lutein (2), ß-carotene (3), phytol (4), chlorophyll a (5), and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-linolenoylglycerol (6). (6)
- In a study of five Malaysian vegetables, C. manillana showed highest calcium content (565 mg/kg edible fresh sample). (6)

- Studies have suggested water purifying properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, shoots.


- Young leaves and fruits edible; eaten as vegetables.
- In Mindanao, pounded leaves applied to headache or stomachache.
- Pounded leaves and roots applied as poultice to ulcers.
- Boiled roots used for rheumatism.
- In Thailand, leaves used as scabicide. (8)

Potential for Drinking Water Treatment / Shoots:
Alum-based coagulant treatment for drinking water leaves residues, which besides being expensive poses a risk to health. Study evaluated the efficacy and optimum dosages of C. manillana to remove turbidity and heavy metals from surface water sources. Flavonoids and tannins are coagulating agents naturally present in C. manillana shoots. Study showed the best and optimum turbidity removal is in low and moderate turbid water sample (5-50 NTU) up to 62.9% at 2.0 mg/L of extract. Results showed the shoot extract has natural and inexpensive potential to replace chemical coagulant in drinking water treatment. The author suggests water treatment for own use  by drying and pounding shoots until fine, pouring it in a bucket of water, stirring, and allowing it to settle to the bottom, leaving the water safe to use. Certainly, a great boon to many rural communities and poverty eradication programs. (5)
Potential for Drinking Water Treatment / Crude Extracts of C. manillana and P. guajava: Another study evaluated the use effectiveness and optimum dosages of concoction of C. manillana and Psidium guajava for removal of turbidity and heavy metals in surface water sources. The concoction of crude extracts of P. guajava and C. manillana in dosages of 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg/L and concoction ration of 1:1, 1:0 and 0:1.  The best optimum turbidity removal was observed in low and moderate turbid water sample (5-50 NTU) up to 64.3% at 2.0 mg/L 1:1 rations of Cm and Pg. Results suggest ability to remove suspended solid in water, and potential for replacing chemical coagulant in drinking water treatment. (7)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

December 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Opiliaceae : Champereia manillana Fruits / Copyright © 2013 by Michael Agbayani Calaramo (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL64647] / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Opiliaceae : Champereia manillana twig / (det/ by Michael Calaramo) / Copyright © 2015 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL101342] / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Opiliaceae : Champereia manillana / Fruiting twig / (det/ by Michael Calaramo) / Copyright © 2013 by Michael Agbayani Calaramo (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL64677] / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Champereia manillana / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Champereia manillana / AsianPlantNet

Opiliaceae : Champereia / Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, July 2022 / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Potential of Champereia manillana Shoots Extract as Coagulant for Drinking Water Treatment / ER Aweng, J Jessuta, K Prawit, AA Liyana / The 6th International Seminar of Regional Network on Poverty Education, Nov 13-16, 2015, Sri Venkateswara University, India.
Chemical Constituents of Champereia manillana (Blume) Merrill / Consolacion Y Ragasa, S Urban, Vincent Antonio S Ng / Corpus ID 102438430 / Semantic Scholar
Potential of the concoction of Champereia manillana and Psidium guajava shoot extracts as coagulant for drinking water treatment /  Aweng Eh Rak, Liyana Ahmad Afip / Malayan Nature Journal, 2015; 67(4): pp 419-426
Ethnobotanical Studies in Muslim Thai Communities Located Around Tah-Daeng Peat Swamp Forest in Thailand / Ubonwan Upho, Chusie Trisonthi, Kongkanda Chayamarit / Chiang Mai J Sci., 2004; 31(2): pp 157-170

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you know of a plant to suggest for inclusion, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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