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Family Malvaceae
Helicteres hirsuta Lour.
Yan po ma

Scientific names Common names
Camaion hirsuta (Lour.) Raf. Balibago (Tag.)
Dombeya biserrata Blanco Bulbulin (Tag.)
Dombeya decanthera Blanco Buntot-usa (Tagalog)
Helicteres arborescens Mill. Danglin-kalabau (Tagalog)
Helicteres carthogonensis Wall. Kaag (Iloko)
Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Kakaab (Iloko)
Helicteres hirsuta var. lanigera Brandis Kakaag (Iloko)
Helicteres hirsuta var. normalis Kuntze Lailaiginan (Tag.)
Helicteres hirsuta var. oblonga (Wall. ex G.Don) Kurz Malamansanita (Tag., Ilokano)
Helicteres hirsuta var. spicata Kurz Pakin-bakir (Ilk.)
Helicteres hirsuta var. sublobata Kuntze Saging-sagiingan (Tag.)
Helicteres hirsuta var. vestita Kuntze Sarnugar a dadakkel (Ilk.)
Helicteres hirsuta var. vestita King Tongtongking (Amburayan)
Helicteres hispida C.Presl Pink isora (Engl.)
Helicteres lanigera Wall.  
Helicteres longifolia Wall.  
Helicteres oblonga Wall. ex G.Don  
Helicteres spicata Colebr. ex G.Don  
Helicteres spicata var. hainanensis Hance  
Helicteres spicata var. lanigera Mast.  
Helicteres vestita Wall.  
Helicteres vinosa Craib  
Isora grewiifolia Schott & Endl.  
Methorium spicatum (Colebr.ex G.Don) Ti=eijsm. & Binn.  
Mimusops talosanBlanco  
Orthothecium hirsutum (Lour.) Hassk.  
Oudemansia hirsuta (Lour.) Miq.  
Helicteres hirsuta Lour. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA Priël chrouk, Kantuy kamprok.
CHINA: Yan po ma.
INDONESIA: Jelumpang, Kucingan abang, Kekusin hendak.
THAILAND: Khee on, Potaohai.
VIETNAM: Du[oo]i ch[oo]n.

Helicteres hirsuta is a shrub, 1-3 m tall. Branchlets stellate. Petiole ca. 2 cm, densely tomentose; leaf blade ovate or ovate-oblong, 5-15 × 2.5-5 cm, both surfaces densely stellate puberulent, particularly abaxially, basal veins 5, base obliquely cordate or truncate, margin irregularly dentate, apex acuminate or acute. Inflorescence axillary, elongate, spikelike, one-sided, less than 1/2 as long as leaf blade, several-flowered. Pedicels shorter than flowers, articulate, with caducous epicalyx lobes at base. Calyx tubular, 12-15 mm, 4-5-lobed, puberulent. Petals red or red-purple, 2-2.5 cm, claw with pair of marginal teeth near apex. Androgynophore glabrous. Stamens 10; staminodes 5, as long as filaments. Ovary verrucose; ovules 20-30 in each locule; style as long as ovary. Capsule long exserted on glabrous stalk, cylindric, 3.5-4 × 1.1-1.2 cm, apex beaked, densely villous and verrucose. Seeds numerous, 1-2 mm in diam., surface rugose. (Flora of China)

Helicteres hirsuta is a straggling shrub, 1-2.5 m tall, densely covered with stellate hairs which are not viscid. Leaves lanceolate to elliptical, up to 22 cm × 8 cm, rather rough above. Inflorescence spiciform to racemose, 6 cm long with flowers usually dark red or pink and bearing a large, sessile red-purple gland at base, gynandrophore 1-2 cm long, petals 1-3 cm. Fruit composed of 5 follicles, straight (not twisted), up to 4 cm long, woolly hairy. (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- At low and medium altitudes in thickets, clearings and secondary forest. 
- Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of stems isolated six lignans, namely: (±)-pinoresinol, (±)-medioresinol, (±)-syringaresinol, (−)-boehmenan, (−)-boehmenan H and (±)-trans-dihydrodiconiferyl alcohol. (see study below) (3)
- Three powdered extracts from leaves and stems showed high levels of phenolic (177.07-241.03 mg GAE/g), flavonoids (158.03-280.06 mg CE g) and saponins (163.77-1035.33 mg ESE/g). (see study below) (4)
- Silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC of aerial parts isolated three new compounds: 4,4'-sulfinylbis(2-(tert-butyl)-5-methylphenol) (1), 7,4'-di-O-methylisoscutellarein (2), and 7-O-methylisoscutellarein (3). (see study below) (5)
- The LC/MS analysis of fractions from saponin-enriched extract of stems revealed bioactive compounds, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, sagerinic acid, usnic acid, cucurbitacins and absinthin. (6)
- Phytochemical study of H. hirsuta isolated 12 secondary metabolites, namely: 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (1), 3β-benzoylbetulinic acid (2), betulinic acid methyl ester (3), betulinic acid (4), lupeol (5), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (7), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (8), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (9), isoscutellarein 4’-methyl ether 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), methyl caffeate (11) and stigmasterol (12). (see study below) (8)
- Study of aerial parts isolated two terpenoids: 3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (1) and simiarenol (2) together with three phenolic compounds: 4,4’-sulfinylbis(2- (tert-butyl)-5-methylphenol) (3), 7-O-methylisoscutellarein (4), 7,4’-di-O-methylisoscutellarein (5), and a mixture of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. (see study below) (12)
- Study of methanol extracts of plant parts (branch, fruit, aerial parts) yielded luteolin in amounts of 49.06, 56.61, and 91.15 µg/g, respectively. (17)
- Study of methanol extract of stem isolated a new benzofurane 7-methoxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-benzofuran-5-carboxylate (1) and 5 known compounds, such as propacin (2), hisbiscolatone A (3), heliclactone (4), rosmarinic acid (5), and syringaldehyde (6). (see study below) (18)
- Four compounds were isolated from CHCl3-soluble fraction: (+)-pinoresinol (1), (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid ethyl ester (2), 7-O-methylisoscutellarein (3) and ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactate (4).  (19)
- In studies in Indo-China in the 1940s, the fiber of H. hirsuta, separated by retting for 8 days, contained 55% cellulose, 17% pentosans, 14% lignin and 1% ash. (2)

- Studies have suggested cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, α-glucosidase inhibitory properties.

Parts used
Stems, roots, leaves.


- No reported info on fruit edibility

- In Vietnam, used in herbal mixes for treatment of fatty liver. (7) The Cho Ro ethnic group use preparations of stems and leaves for treatment of liver cancer and hepatitis B. (15)
- Used in traditional medicine for treatment of malaria, diabetes, and cancer.
- In rural Thailand, decoction of roots used for treatment of diabetes.
- Fiber: The fibrous bast is made into rough cordage. There are contradictory reports on durability of the cordage under humid conditions. In Sumatra, rope is made and used only in dry season only.

Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines:
Study of stems isolated six lignans. Of these, (±)-pinoresinol exhibited potent cytotoxic effects against a small panel of cancer cell lines. (see constituents above) (3)
Antioxidant / Leaves and Stems: Study compared phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of various extracts from stems and leaves. All three powdered extracts from leaves and stems showed high levels of phenolic (177.07-241.03 mg GAE/g), flavonoids (158.03-280.06 mg CE g) and saponins (163.77-1035.33 mg ESE/g) and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. Results suggest powdered aqueous fractions and saponin-enriched butanol fractions are potential sources of biologically active compounds. (4)
Anti-Inflammatory / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of aerial parts extracts of Helicteres hirsuta using COX-1/COX-2 enzyme inhibition assays in vitro for inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis. All extracts exhibited inhibition of COX-1/COX-2 enzymes at 50 µg/ml with DCM showing most potency. (see constituents above) (5)
Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activity / Stem: Study evaluated fractions from saponin-enriched extract of H. hirsuta stem and examine the in vitro anti-pancreatic cancer activity of derived fractions (F0-F5). Except for F0, the five fractions (F1-F5) possessed strong inhibitory activity against PC cells at IC50s of 3.11-17.12 µg/mL. The fractions caused cell cycle arrest at S phase and promoted apoptosis in MIAPaCa-2 PC cells. Results suggest the fractions exhibited potent in vitro anti-pancreatic activity. (see constituents above) (6)
Anticancer Activity / Stem: Phytochemical study of H. hirsuta isolated 12 secondary metabolites.  Eight were tested for cytotoxicity against 5 cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2, SK-LU-1, AGS, and SK-MEL-2). Compounds 1, 3, 4, 5, and 9 showed moderate cytotoxic activities. (see constituents above) (8)
Effect of Extraction and Drying Methods on Antioxidant Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of various extraction solvents and drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of H. hirsuta leaves. Among five solvents, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, while methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins. Leaves dried under hot-air drying at 80°C (HAD80) or vacuum drying at 50°C (VD50) yielded highest amount of phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively) and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively), and possessed strongest antioxidant power. Results suggest HAD%80 and VD50 are recommended for preparation of dried leaves, and water and methanol solvents for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from leaves. (9)
Antioxidant Activity / Methyl Gallate: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of H. hirsuta. The ethyl acetate fraction of leaf showed the most potent antioxidant activity with IC50 of 9.50 µg/mL, which is 4 times lower than IC50 of curcumin. Methyl gallate and rutin dominated the extracts at 8.62 and 6.76 mg/g, respectively, out of a total of 21.00 mg/g active fraction. Methyl gallate strongly correlated with total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity, and may be used as a marker of antioxidant activity in medicinal plants. (10)
Antibacterial / Anticancer / Leaf and Stem: Study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial and anticancer properties of leaf and stem extracts and sub-fractions from H. hirsuta. Using disc diffusion method, the saponin-enriched fractions of leaves and stems showed highest antibacterial activity against E. coli (MIC 2.50  and 5.00 mg/mL, respectively) and S. lugdunensis (MIC 0.35 and 0.50 mg/mL, respectively). The fractions possessed strong anticancer activity towards cancer cell lines MIS PaCa-2 (pancreas); A2780 (ovarian); H460 (lung); A431 (skin); Du145 (prostate); HT29 (colon); MCF-7 (breast); SJ-G2, U87, SMA (glioblastoma) and BE2-C (neuroblastoma) at low doses (GI50 values of 0.36–11.17 µg/mL). There was potent anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vitro against MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells with IC50 values of 1.80–6.43 µg/mL.  (11)
Anticancer Activity / Triterpenoids and Phenolics / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts isolated triterpenoids, phenolic compounds (1-5), and a mixture of stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol from aerial parts of H. hirsuta. Compounds 1-5 were tested for cytotoxicity on four human cancer cell lines.  Compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and colon HCT116 cancer cells with IC50s ranging from 14.6 to 31.5 µM (p<0.05). (see constituents above) (12)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats for the first time. Groups that received silymarin and extracts had milder liver damage cirrhosis stage F1-F2 compared to stage F-4 cirrhosis in the model group. (13)
Suppression of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Mobility: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of H. hirsuta against a breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Crude extract was partitioned in n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Total phenolic compounds were 22.07, 58.57, and 235.56 mg GAE/g in the nH, Cl and EA fractions, respectively. Flavonoids contents were 5.76, 9.25, and 19.37 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The EA fraction significantly decreased the viability of breast cancer MCF-7 cells after 48h treatment with IC50 of 95 µg/mL, and suppressed the invasion and migration of MCF7 cell lines in a dose dependent manner at non-toxic concentrations. (14)
Suppression of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Mobility: Study of aerial parts isolated three pure compounds: ß-stigmasterol (1), protosta-17(20),24-dien-3b-ol (2), and icosanoic acid (3). Compound 2 showed remarkable cytotoxic activity against SK-LU-1, Hep-G2, and HeLa cells lines with IC50s from 32.86 to 77.31 mg/mL. Compound 3 showed moderate cytotoxicity against SK-Mel-2, AGS, SK-LU-1, Hep-G2, and Hela cell lines with IC50 values from 59.02 to 80.87 mg/mL. (16)
Anticancer / Benzofuran / Stems: Study of methanol extract of stem isolated a new benzofurane 7-methoxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-benzofuran-5-carboxylate (1) and 5 known compounds, such as propacin (2), hisbiscolatone A (3), heliclactone (4), rosmarinic acid (5), and syringaldehyde (6). The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against 4 human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against Lu-1, MCF-7, HepG2, and KB cell lines with IC50s of 43.97, 46.53, 52.63, and 56.37 µg/mL, respectively. (18)
Antidiabetic / Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibition / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated a chloroform extract of aerial parts for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity . Four compounds were isolated from CHCl3-soluble fraction: (+)-pinoresinol (1), (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid ethyl ester (2), 7-O-methylisoscutellarein (3) and ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactate (4). All compounds exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50s of 37.9, 69.1, 12.5, and 9.4 µM, respectively, better than positive control acarbose (IC50 168). (19)


March 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Helicteres hirsuta / Flowers and fruits / Copyright © 2013 by Ravan Schneider (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL72555] / Non-Commercial Use  / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Helicteres hirsuta / Francisco Manuel Blanco / Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / Wikidata
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Helicteres hirsuta / Inflorescence / Copyright © 2011 by P B Pelser (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL23767 / Non-Commercial Use  / click on image to go to source page/ Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Blood lily--Scadoxus multiflorus / Jim Evans / CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Scadoxus multiflorus / image modified /  © World of Succulents / click on image to go to source page / World of Succulents

OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Scadoxus multiflorus berries / Maja Dumat  / CC by 2.0 / click on image to go to source page / North Carolina EXTENSION GARDENER Plant Toolbox
IMAGE SOURCE: Hedyotis costata / Subject Database of China Plant <http://www.naturemuseum.net/album/ShowPhoto.aspx?photoid=2671c974-77ca-44f9-b304-0f16660a06f7> Helixcn
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. - quickstick GLSE2 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org
flickr /
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Helicteres hirsuta Lour. / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Helicteres hirsuta (PROSEA) / Pl@ntUse
Cytotoxic lignans from the stems of Helicteres hirsuta collected in indonesia / Young-Won Chin, William P Jones, Ismail Rachman et al /  Phytotherapy Research, 2006; 20(1): pp 62-65 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1806
Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of the crude extracts, aqueous- and saponin-enriched butanol fractions of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. leaves and stems / Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham, Q V Vuong, Michael C Bowyer. Christopher J Scarlett / Chemical Papers, 2017; 71: pp 2233-2242 /
DOI: 10.1007/s11696-017-0216-6
Activity-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory constituents from the aerial parts of the Vietnamese medicinal plant Helicteres hirsuta Lour / Nguyen T T, Gao X, Nikles S, Pferschy-Wenzig E M, Kunert O, Bauer R / Reviews of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 2017; 15(Sippl1)
In vitro anti-pancreatic cancer activity of HPLC-derived fractions from Helicteres hirsuta Lour. stem / Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham, Quan Van Vuong et al / Molecular Biology Reports, 2020; 47: pp 897-905
Combining a Number of Medicinal Herbs in order to Treat Fatty Liver Disease / Dong Thi Thao Nguyen / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2020; Suppl Issue
Cytotoxic constituents from Helicteres hirsuta collected in Vietnam / Dang Ngoc Quang, Chung Thanh Pham, Linh Thi Khanh Le, Quynh Ngoc Ta, Ngoc Kim Dang, Nhung Thi Hoang et al /  Natural Product Research, 2020; 34(4): pp 585-589 / DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1490907
Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves / Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham, Cristopher J Scarlett et al / Technologies, 2015; 3(4): pp 285-301 / DOI: 10.3390/technologies3040285
Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Helicteres Hirsuta Extracts / Le T Hieu, T V Tran, Le Lam Son, Nguyen Minh Nhung, Quan V Vo et al / Letters in Organic Chemistry, 2021; 18(2): pp 128-133 /
DOI:   10.2174/1570178617999200728205824
In vitro antibacterial and anticancer properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. leaf and stem extracts and their fractions / Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham, Jennette A Sakoff, Christopher J Scarlett et al / Molecular Biology Reports, 2018; 45: pp 2125-2133 / DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4370-x
Triterpenoidal and Phenolic Compounds Isolated from the Aerial Parts of Helicteres hirsuta and their Cytotoxicity on Several Cancer Cell Lines / Triet Thanh Nguyen, Nadine Kretschmer, Eva-Maria Pferschy-Wenzig, Olaf Kunert, Rudolf Bauer / Natural Product Communications, 2019; 14(1): pp 1-10
Hepatoprotective Effects of Extract of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats / Dac Thang Hoang, Thi Thu Hien Truong, Ngo Viet Duc et al / Applied Sciences, 2021; 11(18) / DOI: 10.3390/app11188758
Ethyl Acetate Extract of Helicteres hirsuta Suppresses MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Mobility / Tru Van Nguyen, Luong Thi Tran, Huong Ho Thi et al / Annual Research & Review in Biology, 2022; 37(7): pp 10-17 / DOI: 10.9734/2022/v37i730517
Indigenous knowledge on using medicinal plant of Cho Ro ethnic group in Vietnam: A case study at Dong Nai Cultural Nature Reserve / Kiieu Manh Huong, Nguyen Van Hop, Doan Anh Vu / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies / 2020; 8(6): pp 123-130 / eISSN: 2320-3862 / pISSN: 2394-0530
CYTOTOXIC CONSTITUENTS FROM AERIAL PARTS OF HELICTERES HIRSUTA COLLECTED IN BINH PHUOC PROVINCE / Pham Huu Dien, Phong Thi Thanh Huyen, Le Thi Khanh Linh, Dang Ngoc Quang /  Hue University Journal of Science: Natural Science, 2018; 127(1A) /
DOI: 10.26459/hueuni-jns.v127i1A.4741
Determination of luteolin from extracts of Helicteres hirsuta by HPLC / Le Trung Hieu, Le Lam Son, Nguyen Minh Nhung, Ho Xuan Anh Vu, Tran Thi Anh Thi / Hue University Journal of Science: Natural Science, 2019; 128(1B) /  DOI: 10.26459/hueuni-jns.v128i1B.5195
A New Benzofuran Derivative From the Stems of Helicteres hirsuta / Nguyen Thanh Tra, Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Ba Thi Cham, Le Thi Tu Anh, Le Thi Hai Yen, Bach Long Giang, Dang Thi Tuyet Anh, Nguyen Van Tuyen, Phan Van Kiem / Natural Product Communications, 2019; pp 1-5 /
DOI: 10.1177/1934578X19858814
Chemical constituents of the aerial parts Helicteres hirsuta Lour (Malvaceae) / Thao Ly Thi Nguyen, Hoai Tu Tran, Ngoc Mai Tran, Nhan Trung Nguyen et al / VNUHCM Journal of Natural Sciences, 2022; 6(3): pp 2281-2286 / DOI: 10.32508/stdjns.v6i3.1203
Thai Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Diabetes Treatment / Methee Phumthum, Henrik Balslev / OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine,  2018; 3(3) / DOI: 10.21926/obm.icm.1803020
Local names / William Henry Brown, ed., A. F. Fischer, Leon Ma Guerrero / Minor Products of Philippine Forests



DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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