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Family Araliaceae
Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem.

Scientific names Common names
Aralia nodosa Blume Bongliw (Bik., Cam. Sur.)
Aralia pendula Blanco Bungliu (Bik.)
Aralia umbraculifera Roxb. Malapapaya (Tag., Bis., Pamp.)
Eupteron nodosum (Blume) Miq. Panalatangen (Ilk.)
Hedera nodosa (Blume) Hassk.  
Hedera umbraculifera Sweet  
Paratropia nodosa (Blume) DC.  
Paratropia umbraculifera (Roxb) Wall. ex Voigt.  
Polyscias floribunda Elmer  
Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem.  
Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Ki langit, Pata tulan, Kambowa.


Gen info
- Polyscias is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araliaceae. In 2003, a published checklist and nomenclator for Araliaceae listed 116 species for Polyscias. (2)

Malapapaya is a tall tree reaching a height of about 25 m and a diameter of 50 cm. Bole is very long, cylindrical, with no buttresses or with very low, simple, rounded and inconspicuous buttresses. Outer bark is whitish or creamy white. Leaves are crowded on the twig apices, widely spreading downward, simple pinnate, 1-2 cm long, with 14-20 pairs of leaflets. Leaflet is ovate-oblong to lanceolate with short acuminate base, crenate-serrate margins, 10-25 cm long and 4-10 cm wide. Inflorescences are panicles about 1.5 cm long with sessile, yellow-green flowers about 2 cm long. Fruits are subglobose, ridged and yellowish, with a red persistent calyx, and five-ribbed when dry. (4)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Found in Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Bulacan, Laguna, Mindoro, Palawan, Leyte, Surigao, and Basilan.
- In open thickets and secondary growth forests at low and medium altitudes. Also in moist areas along gullies and creeks.
- Native to Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, New Guinea,
Queensland, Solomon Is. (1)

- Study of dichlormethane extract of Polyscias nodosa yielded squalene (1). phytyl fatty acid esters (2), lutein (3), ß-sitosteryl-3∂-glucopyranoside-6'-0-palmitate (4) from the leaves; and 1,triacylglycerols (5), and a mixture of stigmasterol (6a) and ß-sitosterol (6b) in a 5:1 ratio from the twigs. (5)

- Considered febrifuge and contraceptive.

Parts used


- Leaves used for purpuric fever.
- Reported use of leaves as contraceptive.
- Fish poison: Powdered leaves used as fish poison.
- Wood: A good source for the manufacture of plywood and veneer, wooden shoes, handicrafts and a variety of common-use products (matchsticks, popsicle sticks, toothpicks, chopsticks, ice cream spoons).It is a good replacement for non-biodegradable food containers.

- Agroforestry: Useful for the reforestation of denuded forest areas.

Phytochemical Study / Leaves and Twigs:
See study above.



May 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Polyscias nodosa terminal leaflets / Copyright 2013 by P. B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL63746] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Polyscias nodosa Habit / Copyright 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL25617] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Polyscias nodosa / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Polyscias / Wikipedia
Growing malapapaya, Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seeman, and environmentally, economically and friendly source of livvelihood / AGRIS
Malapapaya / Philippine Flora
Chemical constituents of Polyscias nodosa
/ C. R. Ragasa, V D Ebajo, S. Urban et al / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences, 2015; 6(5): pp 1210-1214

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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