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Family Myrtaceae
Leptospermum polygalifolium Salisb.

Scientific names Common names
Glaphyria sericea Jack Paripiñgin (Neg.)
Leptospermum acutifolium Otto & Dietr. Malasulasi (Tag.)
Leptospermum aquaticum Otto & Dietr. Tinikaran (Bag.)
Leptospermum blumei Steud. Common tea tree (Engl.)
Leptospermum buxifolium H.L.Wendl. Tantoon tea tree (Engl.)
Leptospermum flavescens Sm.  
Leptospermum nervosum Otto & Dietr.  
Leptospermum obtusum Sweet ex G.Don  
Leptospermum polygalifolium Salisb.  
Leptospermum porophyllum Cav.  
Leptospermum retusum Otto & A.Dietr.  
Leptospermum roseum Otto & A.Dietr.  
Leptospermum thea (Schrad. & J.C.Wedl.) Muhl. ex. Willd.  
Leptospermum tuberculatum Poir.  
Melaleuca aromatica Dum.Cours.  
Melaleuca thea Schrad. & J.C.Wendl.  
Leptospermum polygalifolium Salisb. is an accepted name The Plant List
Leptospermum flavescens is a synonym of Leptospermum polygalifolium.
Leptospermum is derived from the Greek words leptos (thin) and sperma (seed, referring to the small seeds). Polygalifolium is derived from the Latin word folius (a leaf, i.e., leaves resembling the genus Polygala). (4)

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Gelam bukit, Hurong
MALAYSIA: Gelam bukit, Cina maki, Serai kayu wangi.

Malasulasi is a shrub or small tree growing to a height of about 5 meters. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, 0.8 to 3 centimeters long, and 2 to 6 millimeters wide; the apex is slightly pointed or blunt, and the base, pointed. Flowers are white and star-like, 1 centimeter wide, with very short stalks, if any. Fruit is about dark crimson, 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter.

- Usually on exposed ridges in mossy forests at altitudes of 1,000 to 2,700 meters in Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Batangas, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; in Negros; and in Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Burma through Malaya to tropical Australia.

- Leaves and twigs yield an essential oil containing d-pinene, b-pinene, sesquiterpene, aromadendrene and eudesmen, sesquiterpene alcohol, eudesmol, citral 0.25 to 0.75 %; terpineol, geraniol, and phenol leptospermol.
- Aqueous extract of leaves yielded the flavonoids aromadendrin glucoside, kaempferol rhamnoside, quercetin rhamnoside, and vindoline. (see study below) (2)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded quercetin, gallic acid and tannic acid. Crude water extract of leaves showed the highest total phenols. Hexane crude extract of leaves showed the highest total flavonoids. (2)
- An ethanol extract of L. polygalifolium subsp. polygalifolium yielded 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxyflavanone and its isomer 2,5-dihydroxy-8-methyl-7-methoxyflavanone as principal components. (see study below) (5)

- Stomachic.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Leaves, oil.


- In Malaya, dried leaves use for making tea.
- Leaves used internally to stimulate the appetite and relive stomach discomfort.
- Leaves also used internally for dysmenorrhea.
- In the Moluccas, mountaineers distill a little volatile aromatic oil from the plant which is inhaled for bronchitis; also used as embrocation for rheumatism.

Study evaluated various extracts of leaves and stems of Leptospermum flavescens for antidiabetic activity. An aqueous extract significantly inhibited glycogen phosphorylase. There was a significant decrease of fasting blood glucose of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity correlated with the high total phenol content at 1.57 ± 0.01 GAE/g and total flavonoids at 1.41 ± 0.01 mgQE/g. The antidiabetic activity was attributed to the presenc3 of aromadendone glucoside, kaempferol rhamnoside, quercetin rhamnoside and vindolin in the aqueous extract. (2)
Hydroxyflavanones / Antimicrobial:
Study yielded 2-hydroxyflavanones 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxyflavanone and its isomer 2,5-dihydroxy-8-methyl-7-methoxyflavanone as principal components, together with an equilibrating mixture of novel 2,3,5-trihydroxyflavanones. Study confirmed the presence of triketones, flavesone and leptospermone, along with closely related isoleptospermone as anti-microbial components. (see study above) (5)
LF1 / Anticancer / Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells:
Study investigated the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. LF1, a semi-pure fraction, showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCl-H1299) with IC50 values of 7.12 ±0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 µg/ml respectively. Findings suggest LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. (7)

Seeds in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update January 2016

IMAGE SOURCE:Fruiting twig / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL28707]/ Non-Commercial Use / Click on photo to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHERS MAGE SOURCE: Phot / Flowers / © Brian Walters / Non-Commercial Use / Click on photo to go to source page / Australian Native Plants Society
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Leptospermum flavescens / Common names / GLOinMED
Antidiabetic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leptospermum flavescens in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats /
(Aktiviti Antidiabetik Ekstrak Akues Leptospermum flavescens dalam Tikus Diinduksi Aloksan) / ASMAWATI ABD RAHIM, JAMALUDIN MOHAMAD* & ZAZALI ALIAS / Sains Malaysiana 43(9)(2014): 1295–1304
Leptospermum polygalifolium Salisb. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Leptospermum polygalifolium / Australian Native Plants Society
2-Hydroxyflavanones from Leptospermum polygalifolium subsp. polygalifolium Equilibrating sets of hemiacetal isomers / Kamarul'Ain Mustafa, Nigel B Perry, Rex T Weavers / Phytochemistry, 01/2004; 64(7):1285-93. / DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2003.09.006
Flavonoids, phenolic acids and abscisic acid in Australian and New Zealand Leptospermum honeys / Lihu Yao, Nivedita Datta, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Federico Ferreres, Isabel Martos, Riantong Singanusong / Food Chemistry, 03/2003; 81(2):159-168 / DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00388-6
Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells / Suerialoasan Navanesan, Norhanom Abdul Wahab, Sugumaran Manickam, Kae Shin Sim / / DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0135995
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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