HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Euphorbiaceae
Jatropha multifida

Xi lie shan hu you tong

Scientific names Common names
Adenoropium multifidum (L.) Pohl Mana (Span., Tag.)
Jatropha janipha Blanco. Tawiwa-tawwa (Ilk.)
Jatropha multifida L. Tubang-americano (Bik.)
Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz Coral bush (Engl.)
  Coral nut (Engl.)
  Coral plant (Engl.)
  Coral tree (Engl.)
  Physic nut (Engl.)
Jatropha multifida L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xi lie shan hu you tong.
FRENCH: Médicinier, Médicinier espagnol, Pignon d'Inde, Plante bouteille.
GERMAN: Korallenbaum.
JAPANESE: Yatorofa muruchifida.
NEW CALEDONIA: Abre a corail (Fr.)
RUSSIAN: Iatrofa mul'tifida, Iatrofa rassechennaia, Korallovoe derevo.
SPANISH: Árvore coral, Árvore de bálsamo, Árvore de coral, Árvore dos corais, Árnica, Avellano purgante, Cabalonga, Cabalongo, Ceibilla, Chicaquil, Dontomás, Emético vegetal, Flor de sangre, Palo de fraile, Piñón extranjero, Piñón vómico, Tártago chicaquil, Tártago emético, Tártara.
THAI: Fin ton, Ma hung daeng, Malako farang.
TONGA: Fiki papalangi.

Mana is a smooth shrub 2 to 3 meters high, with the petioles as long as the leaves. Leaves are glaucous beneath, 15 to 30 centimeters in diameter, and cleft nearly to the base into about 10 lanceolate, entire or pinnately incised lobes, the lobes about 1 to 4 centimeters wide. Flowers are red, borne on long peduncled cymes, 3 to 6 centimeters broad. Capsules are obovoid, about 2 centimeters long, somewhat three-angled, with the angles rounded.

- Ornamental cultivation. The inflorescences often in great demand by florists for making red corsages.
- Planted as a hedge.
- Introduced from tropical America.

- Seeds contain 6% glucose, 1% bitter principle, 30% fixed oil. The latter turns vermillon with sulfuric acid.
- Seed oil is similar to Jatropha curcas.
- Leaves contain saponin.

- Phytochemical analysis of root bark extract yielded alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, and flavonoids. (See study below) (10)
- An immunologically active novel cyclic decapeptide, Labaditin, consisting of 1 Ala, 2 Gly, 1 Ile, 2 Thr, 2 Trp, and 2 Val, was isolated from the the latex. (11)
- Sap yielded alkaloids, saponin, carbohydrate, phenol and tannins, with the absence of glycosides, flavonoids, and steroid. (12)

- Study of methanolic stem bark extract yielded three metabolites, microcyclic lathyrane diterpenoids (1-3). (see study below) (13)
- An ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded two C-glycosyl flavones viz. vitexin (1) and isovitexin (2). (see study below) (18)
- Study isolated Labaditin, an immunologically active novel cyclic decapeptide, consisting of 1 Ala, 2 Gly, 1 Ile, 2 Thr, 2 Trp and 2 Val, has been isolated from the latex of Jatropha multifida L. (22)
- Leaves of J. multifida yielded flavones apigenin, acacetin and luteolin; phenolic acids such as vanillic, syringic, p-OH- benzoic acid, melilotic, cis- and trans-ferulic; p-coumaric and phloretic acids, tannins, proanthocyanidins and glycoflavones. (25)

- When wounded, the plant exudes a milky juice.
- Seeds are poisonous, cathartic, emetic.
- Oil is also reported as emetic and purgative.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, seeds, oil.


- Tuberous roots can be eaten after roasting.
- In French Guiana, seeds are used fresh as purgative and emetic.
- In Indo-China, decoction of dried roots used for indigestion and colic. Also, prescribed as tonic, for orchitis, and for edema. Leaves are used for scabies; the latex applied to wounds and ulcers.
- Oil used internally and externally as abortifacient.
- Oil is also emetic and purgative.
- A single seed acts as emeto-cathartic.
- Lime juice and stimulants are suggested antidotes for seed poisoning.
- In Nigeria, leaf juice extract used for treatment of thrush. Leaves and leaf sap used as purgative. Leaves and fruits are boiled, used internally or externally in a bath for fever. Poultice of root bark and roots used as wound dressing. Roots, taken internally, for worms and gonorrhea. Latex used for wounds and skin infections.
- In Benin, sap used
to stop external bleeding.
- In New Caledonia, seeds used as abortifacient. (24)
- In African folk medicine, used for the treatment of pain, infection, inflammatory conditions, tumors.
- Decorative: Red flowers in demand by florists for making beautiful red corsages.
- Poison: Plant used as fish poison.

- Illuminant:
Oil used for illuminating purposes.

Toxicity / Poisoning
- Seeds are poisonous. Once they were considered an energetic and dangerous cathartic. A single seed is effective as emeto-cathartic. Its use has been abandoned in many native medical systems. Lime juice and stimulants are reported best antidotes to seed poisoning.
- Curcin and Ricin: Seeds, fruit and sap contain a chemical called curcin which causes symptoms when ingested. A single seed can cause symptoms in children. Jatropha species contain the toxalbumin ricin which can cause severe vomiting
and diarrhea, dehydration, shock,, renal and hepatic impairment. Ricin also has cardiotoxic, hemolytic effects, and deaths have been reported. (3)
- Case report of Jatropha multifida intoxication in two children: Two children were admitted after ingestion of a large amount of Jatropha multifida fruits, presenting with mental obtundation, vomiting and dehydration. Treatment consisted of intravenous fluid replacement and electrolyte replacement and urine alkalinization. (3)
- Case report:
Four siblings presented with vomiting, diarrhea and miosis following ingestion of J multifida. The clinical presentation warranted the consideration of organophosphate ingestion in the differential diagnosis.

Oral Candidiasis:
Study compared the efficacy of Jatropha multifida in the management of oral candidiasis compared to oral Nystatin. The juice extracts from J multifida leaves were applied to the tongue and oral mucosa of affected children as a single application. Results showed JM to be efficacious in the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the advantages of acting faster (clearing of lesions noted within 24 hours compared to Nystatin at 48 hours) and and in its efficacy as a single dose. It presents as an alternative in third world countries where it is easily cultivated and accessible. (1)
Anti-Complement / Latex: Study isolated and characterized the anti-complement constituent(s) in the latex of J multifida to explain the use traditional application of latex in the treatment of infected wounds. Study isolated a polymer characterized as a proanthocyanidin. The polymer inhibited the classical pathway (CP) activation of the complement cascade. It was attributed to selective depletion of Ca++, but not Mg++, from the incubation medium. (2)
Antimicrobial: Extracts and fractions exhibited antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms especially those responsible for sexually transmitted diseases endemic in Africa.
Wound Healing: Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaves for wound healing activity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed wound healing activity based on reduced numbers of PMN (polymorphonuclears) leucocytes and increase number of fibroblasts.
Hemostatic Effect: Study evaluated the hemostatic potential of J. multifida. Results showed the sap of J. multifida did not act on the classical cascade reaction of coagulation, neither the intrinsic nor the extrinsic pathway. The action was independent of the individual clotting factors. There was an immediate fall of fibrinogen levels, together with precipitation of all plasmatic macroproteins, and a dose-dependent effect on coagulation. The mechanism of coagulation by the sap was attributed to the formation of protein network, independent of coagulation factors.
Skin Toxicity of Sap / Hemostatic: Study proved the sap had some effects on hemostasis. Also, the study showed no skin toxicity so its use as local hemostatic is recommended.
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Root Bark: Study evaluated a methanol root bark extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and dose-dependent analgesic activities in Wistar albino rats.
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Sap: Study screened the sap of J. multifida for antibacterial and antifungal activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, S. typhi and Candida spp. Results showed all the organisms were susceptible to the sap; Gram positive bacteria, B. subtilis and S. aureus were most susceptible. (see constituents above) (12)
Antileishmanial / Antifungal / Sap: Study of methanolic stem bark extract yielded three known metabolites, microcyclic lathyrane diterpenoids (1-3). The three compounds exhibited antileishmanial, antimalarial, and antimicrobial activities against tested organisms, with compounds 2 and 3 showing activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, with IC50 of 8.2 and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively. (13)
Wound Healing/ / Sap: Study evaluated the effectiveness of J. multifida latex for wound healing. Results showed J. multifida latex is as effective as Betadine in treating wounds. Also, latex was shown to hasten the healing of wounds. (14)
Anti-Tubercular / Leaves: Study evaluate various extracts of leaves for anti-tubercular activity. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. Results showed inhibition of M tb H37Rv 128 µg/mL, with the hexane extract showing the highest anti-tubercular activity. (15)
Larvicidal / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties of various extracts of J. multifida. Results showed activity against Bacillus algicola and Staphylococcus epidermis and good larvicidal activity against Bactrocera zonata. (16)
Novel Biflavone di-C-glycosides / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Hypotensive / Toxicity Study: Study of leaves yielded three novel biflavone di-C-glycosides, Jatrophenol I-III, together with seven phenolic compounds. No toxicity was seen up to maximum soluble dose (LD50 4 g/kbw). Findings showed dose dependent significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, together with significant hypotensive effect. (17)
• C-Glycosyl Flavones / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Bark: An ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded two C-glycosyl flavones viz. vitexin (1) and isovitexin (2). On Phophomolyb- denum and DPPH assays, the bark extracts showed more activity than the leaf extracts. On hemolytic capacity evaluation, both extracts did not cause hemolysis. On brine shrimp lethality assay, the bark showed higher toxicity with LC50 57.59 µg/mL, a value close to quinidine sulfate with LC50 of 50.1 µg/mL. (19)
• Molluscicidal: Study evaluated 86 Philippine plants for molluscicidal activity against golden snail (Pomacea spp.) using volatile oil, aqueous and organic extracts of plants. Jatropha multifida was one of 23 plants were considered promising causing 100% mortality at a concentration below 10,000 ppm, with leaves of Jatropha multifida at 4,000-8,000 ppm. (20)
• Antibacterial Acti
vity on Wound Isolates / Latex: Preliminary screening analysis showed Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 is susceptible to Jatropha mutifida plant latex with moderate inhibitory zone of 13.6 mm and MIC of 0.098%. Using 104 bacterial wound isolates, the aqueous solution of J. multifida latex is as effective as 100% concentration. At 50% concentration, the latex was strongly inhibitory to Staphylococcus isolates and moderately inhibitory to Proteus and Citrobacter isolates. (21)
• Labatidin / Latex: Study isolated Labaditin, a novel cyclic decapeptide from the latex of Jatropha multifida, consisting of 1 Ala, 2 Gly, 1 Ile, 2 Thr, 2 Trp, and 2 Val. (22)
• Anti-Influeza Virus Activity / Stems: Study evaluated crude extracts from 118 medicinal plants collected in Myanmar for anti-influenza activity. The aqueous and CHCl3 extracts from stems of JM showed the strongest inhibition of influenza A H1N1 viral infection or growth in MDCK cells, respectively. Results suggest stems of JM has potential as an anti-influenza herbal medicine as well as a crude drug source for development of anti-influenza compounds. (23)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated October 21018 / March 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: File: Jatropha multifida 0001.jpg / Coral Plant / Korallenbaum / Atamari / 13 July 2007 / Creative Commons Attribution / Click on photo to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Jatropha multifida Blanco2.342-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Jatropha multifida / Euphorbiaceae - Jatropha multifida - Manihot folio tenuiter diviso / Hortus elthamensis seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornatissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard / Johann Jacob Dillenius / London, author, 1732. Engraving by the author (uncut, unpressed sheet 300 x 485 mm; impression 218 x 309 mm) / MEEMELINK

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The Efficacy Of Jatropha Multifida In The Management Of Oral Candidiasis: A Preliminary Study / Aladekomo Theophilus Adesola and Oyedeji Olusola Adetunji / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2007 Volume 4 Number 1
Inhibitory activity of Jatropha multifida latex on classical complement pathway activity in human serum mediated by a calcium-binding proanthocyanidin / S Kosasi, L A 't Hart, H van Dijk and R P Labadle / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, November 1989; Volume 27, Issues 1-2
: pp 81-89 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90080-
Rare jatropha multifida intoxication in two children / Yotam Levin MD, Yaniv Sherer MDet al /Journal of Emergency Medicine, Aug 2000; Volume 19, Issue 2: pp 173-175
A Case of Jatropha multifida Poisoning Resembling Organophosphate Intoxication / Dror Koltin, Yosef Uziel et al / Clinical Toxicology, Volume 44, Issue 3 May 2006 , pages 337 - 338 / DOI: 10.1080/15563650600584584
The Antimicrobial Activity of Jatropha multifida Extracts and Chromatographic Fractions Against Sexually Transmitted Infections / Journal of Medical Science

Sorting Jatropha names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Effects of Methanolic Jatropha multifida L. Extract in Wound Healing Assessed by the Total Number of PMN Leukocytes and Fibroblasts
/ Juniarti, Aryenti, Yuhernita, Ernie Hernawati Poerwaningsih, Ahmad Aulia Jusuf, Hans- Joachim Freisleben, and Mohamad Sadikin / Makara Journal of Science 16/3 (2012) 178-182
In vitro Hemostatic Activity Screening of Sap of Jatropha Multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae) used in
Traditional Medicine at Cotonou (Benin)
/ Dougnon T. V. et al / J. Phys. Pharm. Adv., 2012, 2(6): 227-234

Hemostatic activity screening and skin toxicity of sap of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae) used in traditional medicine (Benin) / Dougnon Tamègnon Victorien et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S927-S932
Chemical Characterization, Anti inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Jatropha Multifida Root Bark /
Labaditin, a novel cyclic decapeptide from the latex of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae): Isolation and sequence determination by means of two-dimensional NMR / S. Kosasia, W.G. van der Sluisa, R. Boelensb, L.A.'t Harta, R.P. Labadiea
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Jatropha multifida (Ogege) Sap against Some Pathogens / Michael Niyi Aransiola, Charles Ehikhase, Joy C. Mmegwa, Idris Olayinka Wahab / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) e-ISSN: 2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676. Volume 9, Issue 4 Ver. I (Jul -Aug. 2014), PP 53-57
Isolation of antileishmanial, antimalarial and antimicrobial metabolites from Jatropha multifida / Abiodun Falodun, Vincent Imieje, [...], and Mark Hamann / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2014;4(5): Pp 374-378. / doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1312.
The Use Of Jatropha Multifida In Treating Wounds / VERGIL JOHN ASCABANO JONAS GONZALES
CHEMICAL AND ANTI-TUBERCULAR SCREENING ON THE LEAVES OF JATROPHA MULTIFIDA LINN / Erwin C. Mina, * Marjorie R. Ibarra Scott G. Franzblaud and Dr. Alicia M. Aguinaldo / Pure Appl. Bio., 2(1): 32-36, March- 2013
Antimicrobial, phytochemical and larvicidal properties of Jatropha multifida Linn. / Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa, Vijayanti Mala Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya / Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014 Sep;7S1:S380-3
Biological examination and novel biflavone di-C-glycosides from Jatropha multifida L. leaves / FA Moharram, MS Marzouk, EG Haggag, S El-Batran 3, RR Ibrahim / Planta Med 2007; 73 - P_048 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-986830
Jatropha multifida / Synonyms / The Plant List
C-glycosyl flavones and a comparative study of the antioxidant, hemolytic and toxic potential of Jatropha multifida leaves and bark / Beatriz C. K. Hirota, Cristina M.S. Miyazaki, Camila A. Mercali, Maria C. Verdan, Milena Kalegari, Carlos Gemin, Ana L.L. Lordello, Marilis D. Miguel, Obdulio G. Miguel / International Journal of Phytomedicine, 2012; 4(1): pp 01-05
Bioassay of Philippine plants for molluscicidal activity. / Rejesus B.M.Punzalan E.G. / Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 1995 / AGRIS
The in vitro antibacterial activity of Jatropha multifida Linn. latex against common bacterial wound isolates.
/ Delia C. Ongtengco / Acta Manilana, 1992; 40: pp 25-28
Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae): Isolation and sequence determination by means of two-dimensional NMR / S Kosasi, W G van der Sluis, R Boelens, L A 'tHart, R P Labadie / FEBS Letters, Oct 1989; Vol 256, Issues 1-2: pp 91-96 / https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(89)81724-7
Anti-influenza virus activity of extracts from the stems of Jatropha multifida Linn. collected in Myanmar. / Shoji M, Woo S Y, Masuda A, Win N N,, Ngwe H, Takahashi E, Kido H, Morita H, Ito T, Kuzuhara T / BMC Complement Altern Med, 7 Feb 2017; 17(1): pp 96 / doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1612-8.
Antifertility Plants of the Pacific / R C Cambie, Richard Conrad Cambie
Pharmacognostic and phytochemical constituents of leaves of Jatropha multifida Linn. and Jatropha podagrica Hook / Sallykutty Thomas / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2016; 5(2): pp 243-246


It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT