Manga is a large tree, with
a dense and spreading crown. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate,
10 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers are yellow, small, 3 to 4 millimeters long, borne
on erect and hairy panicles, which as as often as long as the leaves. The fruit
is a drupe, of varying shades of yellow, fleshy, oblong-ovoid,10 to 15 centimeters long, and slightly compressed, the skin is thin, and in the center is a large flattened, fibrous seed, and when ripe, surrounded by an edible yellow pulp.
It is a widely cultivated tree
for its fruit. It has several varieties in cultivation, the most popular
are the "carabao" and "piko," and the former used to be the
preferred export variety. The Guimaras mango is now considered the sweetest of mango varieties produced in the Philippines.
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
- Certainly introduced.
- In cultivation in the Indo-Malayan region.
- Now planted in all tropical countries.
- Mangiferin; mangin; piuri-yellow
dye; benzoic acid; citric acid; tannin, 10%.
- The leaves contain 43-46 percent euxanthin acid and some euxanthon.
- Seed contains a fixed oil, oleostearin, starch, gallic acid, and tannin.
- The bark exudate yields a resin, gum, ash, and tannin.
- Study of fruit exudation, "chep" resin, isolated three products: a resin, mangiferene; a resinous acid, mangiferic acid; and a resinol (phenol), mangiferol
- Mangostine, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid, mangiferin and flavonoids have
been isolated from the stem bark. Leaves and flowers yield an essential
oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool and nerol. (Source)
- Methanol extract of twigs yielded 4, 8Bishydroxymethyl7(1 hydroxy1methylethyl)1(3,4,6trihydroxy5
hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran2yl)478 trihydronaphthalen2one. (25)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded the presence of saponins, steroids, tannin, flavonoid, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, and anthraquinone.
- Study of twigs yielded 4, 8-Bishydroxymethyl-7-(1- hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-1-(3,4,6trihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2yl)4-7-8-trihydro-naphthalen-2-one. (39)
• Root, diuretic;
bark, astringent; seeds, astringent and vermifuge; leaves, pectoral.
• Considered antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic,
stomachic, vermifuge, cardiotonic and laxative.
• Seed kernel considered antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antiviral against uropathogens.
• Ripe fruit considered invigorating, refreshing, fattening, slightly laxative, and diuretic.
• Rind, fiber, and unripe fruit considered astringent and acid. The pickled unripe fruit is considered stomachic and appetizing.
Parts used and preparation
Leaves, kernel, bark and
Edibility / Nutritional
- Good source of iron (deficient in calcium); excellent source of vitamins
A, B, and C.
Fruit contains citric, tartaric and mallic acids.
- Food: As fruit or mango-ade. Makes a delicious ice cream. Slice and served with cream and sugar, taste has slightly similarity to peaches. Mangoes are canned with syrup, dried and candied, jammed. Unripe mangoes are chutneyed, or pickled in brine.
- Young, fresh leaves are used in native dishes like "kasui." Also, prepared as tea.
- In the Philippines, decoction of root is considered
- Bark and seeds are astringent. In Cambodia, used in hot lotions for rheumatism and leucorrhea.
- In India and Cambodia, solution of the gum from the bark is swallowed for dysentery.
- Resin is used for aphthous stomatitis.
- Cough: Drink infusion of young leaves as needed.
- Diarrhea: Take decoction of bark or kernel as tea.
- Fluid extract, or infusion, used in menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and hemorrhage from the lungs, nasal catarrh, and for lumbrici.
- Gum resin from the bark and fruit is used as sudorific; also as antisyphilitic.
- Root bark is a bitter aromatic, and in Sind, used for diarrhea and leucorrhea.
- Decoction of leaves with a little honey used for loss of voice.
- Gum resin from bark, mixed with coconut oil, used for scabies and other
parasitic skin diseases.
- Juice of leaves used for dysentery.
- Tea of leaves with a little honey used for hoarseness and aphonia, 4
- Powdered dried leaves, 1 tbsp to a cup of warm water, 4 times daily,
used for diabetes. Also, decoction of 10-15 fresh mango leaves used for the same purpose.
- Ashes of burned leaves used for scalds and burns.
- Infusion of young leaves used in asthma and cough.
- Tea of powdered dried flowers, 4 times daily for diarrhea, urethritis.
- Juice of peel of unripe mangoes used for skin diseases.
- Seed is vermifuge and astringent.
- Seed is considered astringent, vermifuge; given in obstinate diarrhea and for bleeding piles.
- Kernel or stone from the green mango considered an anthelmintic.
- For asthma, bleeding piles, chronic dysentery, hematemesis, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and round worms, powdered seed is given, with or without honey.
- In Indian traditional medicine, seeds used for vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea. Paste is made from seed, honey and camphor and applied over the vagina to make the vagina contracted and firm.
- Dye: Yellow coloring produced from the leaves, bark, and fruit, called "peori dye" in India.
• Review: Review article updating info on phytochemical and pharmacological activities indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other studies suggest other effects: antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, anti-bone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective.
• Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Study
showed that leaf extracts of M. indica possess some antibacterial activity
against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and provides a basis for its
medical use in Uganda. Phytochemical study showed saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, anthracenocides, flavonones, tannins and reducing sugars. (1)
• Effects on Hematologic Parameters/ Stem Bark: Study evaluated crude aqueous extract of stem bark extracts of MI on body weight and hematologic parameters in normal albino rats. Results showed
positive effects on the haemopoietic system of test rats evidenced by an increase in levels of hematocrit, RBC, WBC and platelet counts. There was also an increase in the weight of rats. (2)
• Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and
Hypoglycemic / Stem Bark: Results of the study support the folkloric use of
the plant for painful arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as
well as T2DM. (3)
• Anti-Clostridium tetany activity:
Study showed both the ethereal and ethanolic fractions of leaf extracts showed anti-clostridium tetani activity. (4)
• Anti-asthmatic: Mangifera indica
stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and
histamine: Study showed MI blockage of histaminic and muscarinic
receptors, supporting the traditional use of MI stem back in the treatment
of asthma. (5)
• Immunostimulant: Immunomodulatory
activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice: Study
showed increased humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity
in mice suggesting a potential for a drug with immunostimulant properties. (6)
• Antihyperglycemic: Study showed leaf extract of
MI possess hypoglycemic activity, possibly due to reduction in intestinal
absorption of glucose. (7)
• Flavonoids / Antihyperlipidemic Effect: Flavonoids from M indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with induced-hyperlipidemia. Degradation and elimination of cholesterol were enhanced. (8)
• Antioxidant: Oral administration of flavonoids showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly reduced in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. (9)
• Anti-diarrheal Activity / Seeds: Study of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of M indica showed significant anti-diarrhea activity, the effect partly attributed to the effect on intestinal transit. (10)
• Anti-Diabetic Activity / Stem Bark: Study showed all extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats. (11)
• Ethnopharmacology / Mangiferin: Mangiferin is a major C-glucosylxanthone from the stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits of M indica and has been reported to have a variety of pharmacologic activities including antioxidant, radioprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, among others, supporting the numerous traditional uses of the plant. (12)
• Polyphenols / Antiulcerogenic Activity: Study showed oral pretreatment with mangifera leaf decoction decreased the severity of gastric damage in induced-gastric lesions. Two main phenolic compounds isolated were mangiferin and C-glucosyl-benzophenone. The findings show the potential gastroprotective properties of the aqueous decoction from M indica leaves. (13)
• Anti-Cancer / Polyphenols: A Texas Agrilife Research study by food scientists Dr. Susanne Talcott and Dr Steve Talcott found that polyphenol extracts from mango promote anticancer activity in certain colon and breast cancer cells in lab. The polyphenols also showed some effects on lung, leukemia and prostate cancers. Polyphenolics, more specifically gallotannins, belong to a class of bioactive compounds that can prevent of stop cancer cells. Further studies will look into efficacy and clinical relevance. (14)
• Antibacterial / Seeds: Bioactive studies of Mangifera indica against bacterial isolated from urine samples showed the aqueous and ethanolic seed kernel extract good antibacterial activity against E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes. The antibacterial activity may be due to specific phytochemical components. Toxic components were not detected in the seed kernel and also appear to be a safe source of antioxidants. (15)
• Anti-Diabetic / Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Activity: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent addition to diabetes therapy, is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and inhibition of DDP IV enhance GLP-1 which improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Study on the methanolic extract of Mangifera indica leaves show the inhibitory effect on DPPIV and present a potential novel approach to diabetes therapy. (16)
• Toxicological Studies / No Lethality : Study of stem-bark aqueous extract (MSBE), by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses, with no adverse effects. it was non-irritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. It also had minimal irritancy following vaginal application. (17)
• Antidiabetic / Seed Kernels : Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potency of seed kernels of Mangifera indica ethanol extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent hypoglycemic activity. Possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action may be through potentiation of plasma insulin effect by increasing pancreatic insulin secretion from regenerated ß-cells or its discharge from bound insulin. (22)
• Mangiferin / Leaves : Studies on mangiferin have shown antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-HIV, antipyretic, anticancer, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective properties. The study isolated the pharmacologically active mangiferin using an uncomplicated method, with ethanol as solvent to obtain a crude extract. (23)
• Memory-Enhancing / Fruit : Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of fruit on cognitive performances in step down passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze task in mice. Treatment reversed the aging and scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Results showed effects that are memory-enhancing in nature. (24)
• Leaves as Functional Food: Study showed aqueous extract of mango leaves to be rich in total phenols and total flavonoids, and as powerful antioxidants should be used in manufacture processes of the natural products as function foods or as dietary supplement with antidiabetic activity and hypoglycemic effect. (26)
• Cytotoxic Effect on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line: Study evaluated the potential anticancer effects of an ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). Results showed the extract to be more cytotoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. (27)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated various leaf extracts for antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. The hexane-ethyl acetate extract showed significant inhibition of almost all tested pathogenic organisms. (28)
• Combination Mangifera Extract and Methotrexate (MTX) in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Study evaluated the possible therapeutic effects and safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Only patients of MTX-Vimang group showed statistically significant improvement in DAS (disease activity score) 28 parameters. In the same group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs use. (29)
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed decreased alloxan effect and improvement in the laboratory parameters, suggesting a potential benefit for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (30)
• Antioxidant / Protective Against Lipofundin-Induced Oxidative Stress: Lipofundin is a lipid rich emulsion used in parenteral nutrition, known to induce an oxidative stress state characterized by increase lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidants. Study showed Vimang protects against Lipofundin-induced oxidative stress, reinforcing the antioxidant properties of the natural product. (31)
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent treatment for type 2 diabetes, is metabolized by DDP-IV (dipeptidyl peptidase IV). Inhibitors of DPP-IV enhance the level of GLP-1, which improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin secretion. Study showed a methanolic leaf extract to have potent in-vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity, and may present a novel addition to the treatment of diabetes. (32)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Various extracts of M. indica var. Thotapuri and M. indica var. Neelam were evaluated for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity. (33)
• Cationic Biosorbent / Leaves: Study evaluated the efficacy of unfertilizable fruiting buds of the mango plant as biomass for biosorbent for the removal of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel metal ions. Results showed the non-living biomass of Mangifera indica present comparable biosorption capacity for lead, copper, zinc, and nickel metal ions and is effective in removing metal ions from single metal solutions. (34)
• Immunostimulatory / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of an ethanolic extract of M. indica stem bark in dexamethasone induced immunosuppressed male albino rats relative to immunoboosting effect of levamisole. Results showed a hepato-protective effect, a cholesterol lowering effect, and a stabilising tendency on the alanine aminotransferase concentrations. (35)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Colitis Model: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in rats. Results showed anti-inflammatory properties with improvement of clinical signs, reduction of ulceration, and reduced MPO activity when administered before DSS. (36)
• Anti-Gouty Arthritis: Study evaluated the therapeutic effects of ethanol extract of M. indica in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Treatment revered pretreatment ankle swelling, TNF-a, IL-1ß mRNA and protein levels. The beneficial anti-gouty effect may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of TNF-a and IL-1ß expression in synovial tissue. (37)
• Activated Carbon from Pyrolysis of Seed: Study reports of the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) by pyrolysis of mango seeds in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities). Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. KOH produces AC with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH. (40)
• Acute Toxicity Study / Seed Kernel: Study reports the seed kernel of Mangifera indica is practically non-toxic drug and reports on its safety. SKMI powders in dose up to 5 g/kg did not show any variations in mice, so 500 mg/kg body weight (1/10th part of 5 g/kg) can be used for experimental study for longer duration. (41)
• Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Study / Mangiferin / Stem Bark: Study evaluated acute and 28-day subchronic studies on mangiferin, a glucosyl xanthone isolated from M. indica stem bark. Results showed a low level of toxicity for orally administered mangiferin to rodents in acute and subchronic studies. Although there were some toxicity signs in repetitive dose assay, there is a wide margin of safety for oral administration under the experimental conditions. (42)
• Hypoglycemic / Leaves / Type 2 Diabetes: Clinical study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of leaves of M. indica in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Results showed significant hypoglycemic activity in high dose and can be successfully combined with oral hypoglycemic agents in type-2 diabetic patients not controlled by these agents. (43)
• Antibacterial / Fruit and Seed: Study evaluated the difference in antimicrobial activity of ripe and unripe seed and fruit extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference. Ripe fruit extracts showed no activity against P. aeruginosa while ripe and unripe seed extracts showed antibacterial activity, with the ripe seed extract showing highest inhibitory action. (44)
Small and large-scale
planting for fruit production.