HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Anacardiaceae
Manga
Mangifera indica Linn.

MANGO
Mang guo

Scientific names  Common names 
Mangifera indica Linn. Mampalam (Sul.) 
Mangifera anisodora Blanco   Mampalang (Sul.) 
Mangifera domestica Gaertn. Manga (Tag.) 
Mangifera fragrans F.-Vill. Mangachupadera (Span.) 
Mangifera rostrata  Blanco Mangang-kalabau (Tag.) 
Mangifera sylvatica  F.-Vill. Mangang-piko (Tag.) 
  Mango (Engl.) 
  Mangka (Ig.)
  Paho (P. bis) 
  Pao (Bon.) 
  Mang guo (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Manja, Manga, Mangô, Mangu.
ARMENIAN: Mang, Mango.
ASSAMESE: Aam, Aamro, Ghariyam.
BENGALI: Aama, Amchur.
BURMESE: Thayeq dhì, Thayeq.
CHINESE: Mi wang, Wang guo, Guo, Ma meng.
CZECH: Amčur , Mangovník indický.
DANISH: Mango, Mangofrugt, Mangotræ.
DUTCH: Manga, Mangga, Manja, Mangoestanboom, Mangostanboom.
ESTONIAN: India mangopuu (tree), Mangopulber.
FINNISH: Mango, Mangopuu.
FRENCH: Mangue, Manguier.
GEORGIAN: Mango.
GERMAN: Indischer Mangobaum, Mango , Mangofrucht, Mangobaum, Mangopalme.
GREEK: Magko, Mangko.
GUJARATI: Aambo, Ambodiya, Marvo.
HAUSA : Mangoro, Mangwaro.
HEBREW: Mango.
HINDI: Āma, Am chur, Āmacura, An̄cūra, Kaccā āma.
ICELANDIC: Mangó.
ITALIAN: Mango
JAPANESE: Anchaa, Mangoo, Mangou.
KANNADA: Āmra, Maavu, Māvina haṇṇu, Mavinkai churu.
KHMER: Svaay.
KOREAN : Mang go.
LAOTIAN: Mak mouang, Mwàngx.
LITHUANIAN: Indinis mangas.
MALAY: Ampelam, Mangga, Mangga, Mempelam.
MALAYALAM: Amram, Choothaphalam, Manga, Maav, Maavu, Mampalam.
MARATHI: Amba, Amchuur, Aamchuur.
NEPALESE: Aanpa, Amacura.
NORWEGIAN: Mango.
ORIYA: Aamba, Amchura.
PERSIAN: Anbeh.
POLISH: Drzewo mangowe, Mango indyjskie.
PORTUGUESE: Manga, Mangueira.
PUNJABI: Amb.
RUSSIAN: Манго Mango
SANSKRIT: Aamra, Ambrah, Amra chuta, Madhuula Madhuulaka, Madhuuli, Madhuulii.
SINHALESE: Amba, Dumpara, Etamba, Amba gasa.
SLOVAKIAN: Mangovník indický.
TELUGU: Amramu, Māmiḍi, Māmiḍi kāya, Māmiḍi paṇḍu, Myāṅgō.
THAI: Mamuang.
URDU: Aam, Amba, Amchur, Amchur.
VIETNAMESE : Xoài.

Botany
Manga is a large tree, with a dense and spreading crown. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 10 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers are yellow, small, 3 to 4 millimeters long, borne on erect and hairy panicles, which as as often as long as the leaves. The fruit is a drupe, of varying shades of yellow, fleshy, oblong-ovoid,10 to 15 centimeters long, and slightly compressed, the skin is thin, and in the center is a large flattened, fibrous seed, and when ripe, surrounded by an edible yellow pulp.

It is a widely cultivated tree for its fruit. It has several varieties in cultivation, the most popular are the "carabao" and "piko," and the former used to be the preferred export variety. The Guimaras mango is now considered the sweetest of mango varieties produced in the Philippines.

Distribution
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
- Certainly introduced.
- In cultivation in the Indo-Malayan region.
- Now planted in all tropical countries.


Chemical constituents
- Mangiferin; mangin; piuri-yellow dye; benzoic acid; citric acid; tannin, 10%.
- The leaves contain 43-46 percent euxanthin acid and some euxanthon.
- Seed contains a fixed oil, oleostearin, starch, gallic acid, and tannin.
- The bark exudate yields a resin, gum, ash, and tannin.
- Study of fruit exudation, "chep" resin, isolated three products: a resin, mangiferene; a resinous acid, mangiferic acid; and a resinol (phenol), mangiferol .
- Mangostine, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid, mangiferin and flavonoids have been isolated from the stem bark. Leaves and flowers yield an essential oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool and nerol. (Source)

Properties
• Root, diuretic; bark, astringent; seeds, astringent and vermifuge; leaves, pectoral.
• Considered antiseptic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, cardiotonic and laxative.
Seed kernel considered antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antiviral against uropathogens.
• Ripe fruit considered invigorating, refreshing, fattening, slightly laxative, and diuretic.
Rind, fiber, and unripe fruit considered astringent and acid. The pickled unripe fruit is considered stomachic and appetizing.


Parts used and preparation
Leaves, kernel, bark and fruit.

Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
- Good source of iron (deficient in calcium); excellent source of vitamins A, B, and C.
- Fruit contains citric, tartaric and mallic acids.
- Food: As fruit or mango-ade. Makes a delicious ice cream. Slice and served with cream and sugar, taste has slightly similarity to peaches. Mangoes are canned with syrup, dried and candied, jammed. Unripe mangoes are chutneyed, or pickled in brine.
- Young, fresh leaves are used in native dishes like "kasui." Also, prepared as tea.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, decoction of root is considered diuretic.
- Bark and seeds are astringent. In Cambodia, used in hot lotions for rheumatism and leucorrhea.
- In India and Cambodia, solution of the gum from the bark is swallowed for dysentery.
- Resin is used for aphthous stomatitis.
- Cough: Drink infusion of young leaves as needed.
- Diarrhea: Take decoction of bark or kernel as tea.
- Fluid extract, or infusion, used in menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and hemorrhage from the lungs, nasal catarrh, and for lumbrici.
- Gum resin from the bark and fruit is used as sudorific; also as antisyphilitic.
- Root bark is a bitter aromatic, and in Sind, used for diarrhea and leucorrhea.
- Decoction of leaves with a little honey used for loss of voice.
- Gum resin from bark, mixed with coconut oil, used for scabies and other parasitic skin diseases.
- Juice of leaves used for dysentery.
- Tea of leaves with a little honey used for hoarseness and aphonia, 4 glasses daily.
- Powdered dried leaves, 1 tbsp to a cup of warm water, 4 times daily, used for diabetes.
- Ashes of burned leaves used for scalds and burns.
- Infusion of young leaves used in asthma and cough.
- Tea of powdered dried flowers, 4 times daily for diarrhea, urethritis.
- Juice of peel of unripe mangoes used for skin diseases.
- Seed is vermifuge and astringent.
- Seed is considered astringent, vermifuge; given in obstinate diarrhea and for bleeding piles.
- Kernel or stone from the green mango considered an anthelmintic.
- For asthma, bleeding piles, chronic dysentery, hematemesis, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and round worms, powdered seed is given, with or without honey.
- In Indian traditional medicine, seeds used for vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea. Paste is made from seed, honey and camphor and applied over the vagina to make the vagina contracted and firm.
Others
- Dye: Yellow coloring produced from the leaves, bark, and fruit, called "peori dye" in India.


Studies
Review:
Review article updating info on phytochemical and pharmacological activities indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other studies suggest other effects: antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, anti-bone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective.
Antibacterial / Phytochemicals:
Study showed that leaf extracts of M. indica possess some antibacterial activity against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and provides a basis for its medical use in Uganda. Phytochemical study showed saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, anthracenocides, flavonones, tannins and reducing sugars.
(1)
Hematologic benefits:
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats: Stem bark extracts of MI showed positive effects on the haemopoietic system of test rats.
(2)
Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Hypoglycemic: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract: Results of the study support the folkloric use of the plant for painful arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as T2DM.
(3)
Anti-Clostridium tetany activity:
Study showed both the ethereal and ethanolic fractions of leaf extracts showed anti-clostridium tetani activity.
(4)
Anti-asthmatic:
Mangifera indica stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine: Study showed MI blockage of histaminic and muscarinic receptors, supporting the traditional use of MI stem back in the treatment of asthma.
(5)
Immunostimulant:
Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice: Study showed increased humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice suggesting a potential for a drug with immunostimulant properties.
(6)
Antihyperglycemic:
Study showed leaf extract of MI possess hypoglycemic activity, possibly due to reduction in intestinal absorption of glucose.
(7)
Flavonoids / Antihyperlipidemic Effect: Flavonoids from M indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with induced-hyperlipidemia. Degradation and elimination of cholesterol were enhanced.
(8)
Antioxidant: Oral administration of flavonoids showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly reduced in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.
(9)
Anti-diarrheal Activity: Study of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of M indica showed significant anti-diarrhea activity, the effect partly attributed to the effect on intestinal transit.
(10)
Anti-Diabetic Activity: Study showed all extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.
(11)
Ethnopharmacology / Mangiferin: Mangiferin is a major C-glucosylxanthone from the stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits of M indica and has been reported to have a variety of pharmacologic activities including antioxidant, radioprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, among others, supporting the numerous traditional uses of the plant.
(12)
Polyphenols / Antiulcerogenic Activity: Study showed oral pretreatment with mangifera leaf decoction decreased the severity of gastric damage in induced-gastric lesions. Two main phenolic compounds isolated were mangiferin and C-glucosyl-benzophenone. The findings show the potential gastroprotective properties of the aqueous decoction from M indica leaves.
(13)
Anti-Cancer / Polyphenols: A Texas Agrilife Research study by food scientists Dr. Susanne Talcott and Dr Steve Talcott found that polyphenol extracts from mango promote anticancer activity in certain colon and breast cancer cells in lab. The polyphenols also showed some effects on lung, leukemia and prostate cancers. Polyphenolics, more specifically gallotannins, belong to a class of bioactive compounds that can prevent of stop cancer cells. Further studies will look into efficacy and clinical relevance.
(14)
Antibacterial: Bioactive studies of Mangifera indica against bacterial isolated from urine samples showed the aqueous and ethanolic seed kernel extract good antibacterial activity against E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes. The antibacterial activity may be due to specific phytochemical components. Toxic components were not detected in the seed kernel and also appear to be a safe source of antioxidants.
(15)
Anti-Diabetic / Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV
Inhibitory Activity: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent addition to diabetes therapy, is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and inhibition of DDP IV enhance GLP-1 which improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Study on the methanolic extract of Mangifera indica leaves show the inhibitory effect on DPPIV and present a potential novel approach to diabetes therapy.
(16)
Toxicological Studies / No Lethality : Study of stem-bark aqueous extract (MSBE), by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses, with no adverse effects. it was non-irritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. It also had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.
(17)
Antidiabetic / Seed Kernels : Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potency of seed kernels of Mangifera indica ethanol extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent hypoglycemic activity. Possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action may be through potentiation of plasma insulin effect by increasing pancreatic insulin secretion from regenerated ß-cells or its discharge from bound insulin.
(22)
Mangiferin / Leaves :
Studies on mangiferin have shown antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-HIV, antipyretic, anticancer, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective properties. The study isolated the pharmacologically active mangiferin using an uncomplicated method, with ethanol as solvent to obtain a crude extract. (23)
Memory-Enhancing / Fruit :
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of fruit on cognitive performances in step down passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze task in mice. Treatment reversed the aging and scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Results showed effects that are memory-enhancing in nature. (24)

Availability
- Wildcrafted.
- Small and large-scale planting for fruit production.
 

Last Update September 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:The Botanical Magazine. Mango.jpg / Curtis's Botanical Magazine vol. 76 (ser. 3 no. 6) plate 4510. / Prior to 1870 / Walter Hood Fitch (1817-1892) del. et lith. / Description by John Smith, 1798 - 1888 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica (L.)
/ G S Bbosa et al / African Journal of Ecology • Volume 45 Issue s1, Pages 13 - 16 / DOI 0.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00731
(2)
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats
(3)
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycaemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract
(4)
The activity of Mangifera indica L. leaf extracts against the tetanus causing bacterium, Clostridium tetani / Godfrey S Bbosa, Aloysium Lubega et al / African Journal of Ecology, Volume 45 Issue s3, Pages 54 - 58 / DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00858.x
(5)

Mangifera indica stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine
(6)
Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice / Neelam Makare et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 78, Issues 2-3, December 2001, Pages 133-137/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00326-9
(7)
Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat / Aderibigbe A O et al / Phytother Res. 1999 Sep;13(6):504-7.

(8)
Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia
/ L Anila and N R Vijayalakshmi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 79, Issue 1, February 2002, Pages 81-87 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00361-0
(9)
Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats / L Anila and N R Vijayalakshmi / Food Chemistry • Volume 83, Issue 4, December 2003, Pages 569-574 / doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00155-9
(10)
Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica
/ K Sairam et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 84, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 11-15 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00250-

(11)
Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats / Amrita Bhowmik et al / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114

(12)
Ethnopharmacology of Mangifera indica L. Bark andPharmacological Studies of its Main C-Glucosylxanthone,Mangiferin / Nathalie Wauthoz et al / International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
(13)
Polyphenols with Antiulcerogenic Action from Aqueous Decoction of Mango Leaves (Mangifera indica L.) / Juliana Aparecida Severi et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 1098-1110 / doi:10.3390/molecules14031098
(14)
Mango effective in preventing, stopping certain colon, breast cancer cells /
AgriLife News / January 11, 2010
(15)
Bioactive Studies of Mangifera indica aganist Bacteria Isolated from Urine Samples / S Sowmiya, P Soundarapandian and S Rajan / Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 1(3): 139-143, 2009
(16)
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica / Shivanna Yogisha, Koteshwara Anandarao Raveesha / Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 3(2010):76-79
(17)
In vivo acute toxicological studies of an antioxidant extract from Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) / Gabino Garrido, Idania Rodeiro et al / Drug and Chemical Toxicology. January 2009, Vol. 32, No. 1 , Pages 53-58
(18)
Spray Drying of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L (Vimang): Scale up for the Process / J Acosta-Esquijarosa et al / World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (3): 408-412, 2009
(19)
Mangifera Indica (Mango) / A Review Article / Pharmacognosy Review, 2010, Vol 4, No 7, Pp 42-48.
(20)
Sorting
Mangifera names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(21)
Mangifera indica L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(22)
ANTIDIABETIC EFFICACY OF MANGIFERA INDICA SEED KERNELS IN RATS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH GLIBENCLAMIDE / Rajnish Gupta, R. S. Gupta / Diabetologia Croatica 40-4, 2011
(23)
ISOLATION OF MANGIFERIN FROM LEAVES OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR ALPHONSO / K. BHUVANESWARI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 2, 2013
(24)
Effects of Mangifera indica fruit extract on cognitive deficits in mice / Sokindra Kumar, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari and Vijender Singh / Journal of Environmental Biology, July 2009, 30(4) 563-566.


HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT