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Family Euphorbiaceae / Phyllanthaceae
Matang-hipon
Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg.
INDIAN SNOWBERRY

Shan qi jing

Scientific names Common names
Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. Dagum (Sub.)
Breynia officinalis Hemsley Gungumayi (Bon.)
Breynia microcalyx Ridley Kabaong (Bon.)
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) Matang-hipon (Tag.)
Phyllanthus rhamnoides Retz. Matan saga (Kuy.)
  Matang-ulang (Tag.)
  Salamagi (Bon.)
  Santing (Sulu.)
  Singtug (Sul.)
  Tañgisan-bagio (Bag.)
  Torog-torog (P. Bis.)
  Tulug-tulug (P. Bis.)
  Indian snowberry (Engl.)
  Shan qi jing (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiao ye hei mian shen, Shu li zhuang shan qi jing.
JAPANESE: Hime kobannoki, Takasago kobannoki.
MALAY: Hujan panas, Semomah, Seruyan.
TAIWANESE: Ang-sim-a, Ang-chu-a, Ang-a-chu.
THAI: Phiafān, Dapphit.
VIETNAMESE: Cu de.

Botany
Matang-hipon is an erect, monoecious, slender, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 4 meters high. Leaves are distichous, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are very small, greenish, axillary, and about 1 millimeter in diameter. Fruit is pink, somewhat fleshy, nearly spherical, about 5 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters.
- Also occurs in India and Sri Lanka to China and Malaya.

Constituents
- Study yielded a new megastigmane glucoside, canangaionoside.
- Aerial parts yielded a new sulfur-containing spiroketal glycoside, breynin, and a new terpenic glycoside, breyniaionoside E, together with 10 known compounds. (5)

Properties
Bark is astringent.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bark is astringent and used to prevent hemorrhages.
- In Behar, dried leaves are smoked, like tobacco, for tonsillitis.
- In Chinese traditional medicine, used for treatment of chronic bronchitis and wounds.
- In Ayurveda, used for leucorrhea, edema, menorrhagia, diabetes, dental caries.
- In India, root decoction used as mouthwash. (4)
- Tamil ethnic communities use the mature stem as a herbal toothstick.
(6)
- In Tamil Nadu, juice prepared from ten grams of fresh leaves taken with water twice daily for ten days to treat jaundice.
(7)

Studies
Glycosides:
Study of leaves of Breynia officinalis isolated six terpenic glucosides and six phenolic glycosides. Two terpenic glucosides were identified as tupinionoside B and betulabuside A. The six phenolic glycosides were found to be arbutin and its derivatives. (1)
Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Study evaluated hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial parts of Breynia vitis-idaea for antioxidant activities. All three extracts showed significant radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant property was attributed to phenolic/flavonoid contents. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update September 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C. E. C. Fisch. / Alor Merah, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia / ADADUITOKLA / Ahmad Fuad Morad / Creative Commons / flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Terpenic and phenolic glycosides from leaves of Breynia officinalis HEMSL / Morikawa H, Kasai R, Otsuka H, Hirata E, Shinzato T, Aramoto M, Takeda Y. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Sep;52(9):1086-90.
(2)
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.) C. E. C. Fisch. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(3)
Breynia vitis-idaea / Common names / Wikipedia
(4)
In Vitro antioxidant activities of Breynia Vitis-Idaea extracts
/ Chandrashekar. G. Joshi*, Gopal M and Vaigundan D / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(5):340-347
(5)
Two new glycosides from Breynia vitis-idaea. / Meng DH, Wu J, Wang LY, Zhao WM. / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010 Jun;12(6):535-41. doi: 10.1080/10286021003745452.
(6)
Dental care of Andaman and Nicobar folks: medicinal plants use as tooth stick
/ Rasingam L, Jeeva S, Kannan D* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S1013-S1016
(7)
ETHNO-MEDICO-BOTANY OF THE PALLIYARS OF SADURAGIRI HILLS, WESTERN GHATS, TAMIL NADU / V.R. MOHAN, C. KALIDASS & D. AMISH ABRAGAM* / J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Vol. 34 No.3 (2010)


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