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Family Euphorbiaceae / Phyllanthaceae
Matang-hipon
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch.
INDIAN SNOWBERRY

Shan qi jing

Scientific names Common names
Breynia accrescens Hayata Dagum (Sub.)
Breynia formosana (Hayata) Hayata Gungumayi (Bon.)
Breynia keithii Ridl. Kabaong (Bon.)
Breynia officinalis Hemsl. Matang-hipon (Tag.)
Breynia rhamnoides Muell.-Arg. [Illegitimate] Matan saga (Kuy.)
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C.E.C.Fisch. Matang-ulang (Tag.)
Melanthesa ovalifolia Kostel. Salamagi (Bon.)
Melanthesa rhamnoides Blume [Illegitimate] Santing (Sulu.)
Phyllanthus calycinus Wall. [Invalid] Singtug (Sul.)
Phyllanthus rhamnoides Retz. [Illegitimate] Tañgisan-bagio (Bag.)
Phyllanthus rhamnoides Willd. Torog-torog (P. Bis.)
Phyllanthus sepiarius Roxb. ex Wall. [Invalid] Tulug-tulug (P. Bis.)
Phyllanthus tinctorius Vahl ex Baill. Coral berry tree (Engl.)
Phyllanthus tristis A.Juss. Indian snowberry (Engl.)
Phyllanthus vitis-idea (Burm.f.) D.Koenig ex Roxb. Mountain coffee bush (Engl.)
Rhamnus vitis-idea Burm.f.  
Breynia rhamnoides Mull.Arg. is an synonym of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C. The Plant List
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiao ye hei mian shen, Shan qi jing.
JAPANESE: Hime kobannoki, Takasago kobannoki.
KANNADA: Bilisuli, Kaadu nugge.
MALAY: Hujan panas, Semomah, Seruyan.
MALAYALAM: Kattuniruri, Pavalapula.
TAIWANESE: Ang-sim-a, Ang-chu-a, Ang-a-chu.
TAMIL: Civappu-p-pula, Pavala-p-pula.
TELUGU: Pogada, Yellari, Yerra-balli, Yerra purugudu.
THAI: Phiafān, Dapphit.
VIETNAMESE: Cu de.

Botany
Matang-hipon is an erect, monoecious, slender, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 4 meters high. Bark is yellowish grey. Leaves are distichous, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are very small, greenish or pink, axillary, and about 3 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is pink, purple or dull red, somewhat fleshy, nearly spherical, about 5 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters.
- Also occurs in India and Sri Lanka to China and Malaya.
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins.

Constituents
- Study yielded a new megastigmane glucoside, canangaionoside.
- Aerial parts yielded a new sulfur-containing spiroketal glycoside, breynin, and a new terpenic glycoside, breyniaionoside E, together with 10 known compounds. (5)

Properties
- Bark is astringent.
- Antioxidant, larvicidal, adaptogenic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, radical scvavenging, anti-cancer, larvicidal, adaptogenic properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bark is astringent and used to prevent hemorrhages.
- In Behar, dried leaves are smoked, like tobacco, for tonsillitis.
- In Chinese traditional medicine, used for treatment of chronic bronchitis and wounds.
- In Ayurveda, used for leucorrhea, edema, menorrhagia, diabetes, dental caries.
- In India, root decoction used as mouthwash. (4)
- Leaf juice given to mothers after childbirth.
- Tamil ethnic communities use the mature stem as a herbal toothstick. (6)
- In Tamil Nadu, juice prepared from ten grams of fresh leaves taken with water twice daily for ten days to treat jaundice. (7)
- In Coastal Karnataka, leaves used in the treatment of herpes. (9)


Studies
Glycosides:
Study of leaves of Breynia officinalis isolated six terpenic glucosides and six phenolic glycosides. Two terpenic glucosides were identified as tupinionoside B and betulabuside A. The six phenolic glycosides were found to be arbutin and its derivatives. (1)
Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Study evaluated hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial parts of Breynia vitis-idaea for antioxidant activities. All three extracts showed significant radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant property was attributed to phenolic/flavonoid contents. (4)
Larvicidal Against Vector Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the mosquito larvicidal activity of various solvent extracts of leaves of B. vitis-idaea. The leaf extracts showed larvicidal properties against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi. Results suggest a potential source of natural products for mosquito control. (8)
Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized From Stem: Study describes a simple, green method for the synthesis of gold *Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles from the stem extract of Breynia rhamnoides. Efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of AuNOs and NaBH4 was observed and found to depend on nanoparticle size or stem extract concentration. (10)
Adaptogenic: Study evaluated the adaptogenic activity of various extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea leaves using in-vivo Swim Endurance testing. All the extracts showed significant increase in swimming time. The adaptogenic property may be attributed to extract constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. (11)
• Anti-Cancer / HepG2 Cell Line / Leaves: Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Breynia vitis-idaea showed anti-cancer activity in HEPG2 cell lines against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in the cell line. The extracts were found nontoxic. The activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins. (13)
• Adaptogenic / Anti-Stressing Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the adaptogenic activity of ethanol, aqueous, and ethyl acetate extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea using in-vivo Swim Endurance test and compared the results with standard fluoxetin. All the extracts showed significant increase in swimming time. The adaptogenic activity may be attributed to constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. (14)
• Ovicidal and Pupicidal Activity Against Vector Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the ovicidal and pupicidal activity of B. vitis-idaea leaf extracts against three mosquito species. An ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest percentage of ovicidal activiry against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi,and Cx. quinquefasciatus The EA extract also exhibited maximum pupicial activity on Ae. aegypti and Xc. quinquefasciatus. Results suggest a potential for an ecofriendly alternative for mosquito management and control. (15)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of alcohol and aqueous leaf extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea in albino Wistar rats with intraperitoneally induced STZ diabetes. Both extracts signficantly (p<0.001 reduced fasting glucose of STA-diabetic rats in a dose-related manner. There was also improvement in hyperlipidemia and reduction in complications associated with experimental diabetes. (17)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update January 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: / Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C. E. C. Fisch. / Alor Merah, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia / ADADUITOKLA / Ahmad Fuad Morad / Creative Commons / flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Terpenic and phenolic glycosides from leaves of Breynia officinalis HEMSL / Morikawa H, Kasai R, Otsuka H, Hirata E, Shinzato T, Aramoto M, Takeda Y. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Sep;52(9):1086-90.
(2)
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.) C. E. C. Fisch. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(3)
Breynia vitis-idaea / Common names / Wikipedia
(4)
In Vitro antioxidant activities of Breynia Vitis-Idaea extracts
/ Chandrashekar. G. Joshi*, Gopal M and Vaigundan D / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(5):340-347
(5)
Two new glycosides from Breynia vitis-idaea. / Meng DH, Wu J, Wang LY, Zhao WM. / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010 Jun;12(6):535-41. doi: 10.1080/10286021003745452.
(6)
Dental care of Andaman and Nicobar folks: medicinal plants use as tooth stick
/ Rasingam L, Jeeva S, Kannan D* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S1013-S1016
(7)
ETHNO-MEDICO-BOTANY OF THE PALLIYARS OF SADURAGIRI HILLS, WESTERN GHATS, TAMIL NADU / V.R. MOHAN, C. KALIDASS & D. AMISH ABRAGAM* / J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Vol. 34 No.3 (2010)
(8)
Larvicidal properties of Breyenia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) Fischer (Euphorbiaceae) against important vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) / A. Jeyasankar & G. Ramar / J Vector Borne Dis 51, September 2014, pp. 239–241
(9)
Herbal therapy for herpes in the ethno-medicine of Coastal Karnataka / Bhandary MJ & Chandrashekar KR / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol.10(3), July 2011, pp. 528-532
(10)
Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol using Biogenic Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Derived from Breynia rhamnoides / Abilash Gangula, Ramakrishna Podila, Ramakrishna M, Lohith Karanam, Chelli Janardhana, and Apparao M. Rao * / Langmuir, 2011, 27 (24), pp 15268–15274 / DOI: 10.1021/la2034559
(11)
EVALUATION OF ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF BREYNIA VITIS-IDAEA (BURM.F) C. FISHER LEAVES BY USING SWIM ENDURENCE TEST / Manju Gowda M R*, Gnanasekaran D, Ashik navas T, Antony george / PHARMATUTOR-ART-2326
(12)
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF BREYNIA VITIS-IDAEA (BURM.F) C. FISHER LEAVES BY USING HEPG2 CELL LINE / Manju gowda M R*, Gnanasekaran D, Ashik navas T and Antony George / World Journal of Pharmacy and Phamaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 2, pp 830-840, 2015
(14)
Evaluation of adaptogenic activity of various extracts of Breynia Vitis-idaea (burm.f) C. Fisher leaves by using swim endurance test / Manju Gowda M R*, Gnanasekaran D, Ashik Navas T, Antony George / PharmaTutor; 2015; 3(4); 26-32
(15)
Ovicidal and pupicidal activity of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) Fischer. (Euphorbiaceae) against vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) / G. Ramar, R. Sivakami and A. Jeyasankar* / Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. (2016) 3(10): 66-71 / DOI: 10.22192/ijarbs
(16)
Breynia vitis-idaea / Common names / efloraofindia
(17)
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF BREYNIA VITIS- IDAEA LEAF EXTRACTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Jagdish Chandra Nagar*and Lalit Singh Chauhan / EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH - ejpmr, 2016,3(2), 194-199

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