- Quisumbing's compilation lists Coleus atropurpureus (badiara) and Coleus blumei (mayana) as separate species. More recent compilations list the species as synonymous. K. Heyne does not separate it from C. blumei (now Solenostemon scutellarioides).
- The name 'Coleus', widely used by horticulturists and gardeners, refers to a defunct genus, and is used as a common name for the genus Solenostemon and for this species. (22)
- The genus name Sollenostemon is derived from the Greek words 'solen' meaning tube and 'stemon' meaning stamen. The specific epithet scutellarioides means 'resembling scutellarioides.' In Latin, scutella means a small dish or bowl. (22)
- There was a report of psychoactive use among the Mexican Mazatecs discovered in 1962 in connection with Gordon Wasson's research into Salvia divinorum.
- There are a large number of Coleus blumei hybrids which can be mistaken for other Coleus species.
Mayana is an erect, branched, fleshy,
annual herb, about 1 meter high. Stems are purplish and 4-angled. Leaves are
variously blotched or colored, usually more or less hairy, ovate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, rather coarsely toothed in the margins; and in the most common form uniformly velvety-purple. Flowers
are purplish, numerous, and borne in lax, terminal, simple or branched inflorescences, 15 to 30
centimeters long. Calyx is green, and about 2.5 millimeters long, with the upper lip ovate and the lateral lobes short and ovate, the lower one being 2-cleft. Corolla is about 11 millimeters long.
- Introduced in the Philippines.
- Cultivated for ornamental purposes.
- Popular for its incredible range of foliage colors.
- Native of Java.
- Now, a pantropic ornamental.
Various species of Solenostemon scutellarioides include Aurora. Religious Radish, Red Trailing Queen, Trailing bleeding heart, Trailing Salamander, Ruby Ruffles, Vulcan, and Meandering Linda.
- Volatile oils.
- Leaves reported to yield psychoactive material.
- From the leaves, study isolated a mixture of sterols and triterpenes, campesterol, α-amyrin and ß-amyrin.
- Yields salvinorinlike substances
of undetermined chemical structures.
- Screening yielded flavonoids, sterol and triterpenoid compounds.
- Leaves have yielded alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, tannin, volatile oils, and quercetin.
- Phytochemical screening of crude leaf extract
yielded terpenoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, and anthraquinones. (see study below) (19)
- Carminative, vulnerary.
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antimalarial, phytoremediative analgesic, anti-inflammatory properties.
Leaves, seeds, bark.
• In the Philippines, pounded leaves used as a cure for headaches, applied to the temples or nape of the neck. Also used for healing bruises.
• Decoction taken internally for dyspepsia and for wasting away.
• Decoction used as eye drops for ophthalmia and conjunctivitis.
• Bruises and sprains:
Crush or pound 10-12 leaves and apply over the ankles, wrists or affected
areas for 30 minutes, three times daily. Use a bandage to hold the poultice
• Carminative: Take decoctions of leaves.
• Mild bleeding of wounds: Wash the young leaves; crush and extract
the juice. Drop a few drops of the juice directly on the wound. Apply
the crushed leaves as poultice.
• Sinusitis: Heat 10-12 fresh leaves over a fire; apply while
still hot over the forehead for the frontal sinuses or over the cheeks
for the maxillary sinuses, twice daily.
• Dyspepsia: Decoction, taken internally.
• Reported use in Asian traditional medicine for asthma, angina, bronchitis, epilepsy, insomnia, skin rashes and various digestive problems.
• In India, fresh juice of leaf and stem is mixed with the juice of raw Citrus fruits and applied over the skin during scorpion bite. source
• In Samoa, used to treat elephantiasis.
• In Southeast Asia, used to treat dysentery and various digestive problems.
• In Vanuatu, leaves used for abortion; also for amenorrhea. Sap is used as contraceptive, and whole plant leaves used as emmenagogue. Leaves also used to facilitate lactation by heating or softening flowers in hot water and applying the preparation on the nipples. (14)
• In Fiji, used to treat diarrhea; juice of leaves used to treat earache.
• Psychoactive: The psychoactivity of the leaves is highly controversial. (1) There are reports of psychoactive effects from the smoking of leaves. Leaves are dried and soaked alone or mixed with other herbs, and the psychoactive effect achieved with as few as 3 leaves. (2) The Mazatecs consider coleus as a member of the "family" of psychoactive herbs, using coleus as a substitute for Salvia divinorum.
(3) About 30% of subjects who smoked dried Mexican Coleus blumei leaves reported effects similar to smoking a small dosage of Salvia divinorum. (4) Some experience no effects with large amounts of leaves.
• Dye: Sap from leaves of the wild, purple-black species used in tattooing. (18)
• Toxicity: Reported toxicity to dogs from ingestion of leaves.
• Antimicrobial / Diterpenes: Diastereomeric Diterpenes
from Coleus blume: Study
yielded a new abietane type diterpene that showed antimicrobial activity
against B subtilis, P aeruginosa and C albicans. (1)
• Antioxidant: Antioxidant Activity
of Coleus Blumei, Orthosiphon Stamineus, Ocimum basilicum and Mentha
arvensis from Lamiaceae Family: Study showed all methanol samples
exhibited antioxidant activity and suggested that Lamiaceae plants has
pharmaceutical potential for its antioxidant properties. (2)
• Forskolin / Erectile Dysfunction: Study has shown forskolin may enhance smooth muscle relaxation. Studies are needed to assess the use of coleus in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
• Anthelmintic: Leaf extract showed high efficacy against Hymenolepsis nana (mice). (4)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Antimicrobial: Study isolated a mixture of sterols and triterpenes from the leaves of Coleus blumei. The isolates exhibited analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The study also isolated campesterol, α-amyrin and ß-amyrin. (5)
• Antioxidant / Phenolic Content / Minerals: Study investigated whether antioxidant, minerals and phenolic content can be extracted by boiling the leaves in water. The mineral concentration, antioxidant activity and phenolic content seemed to be highly correlated. Study concludes the leaves have a high potential value for a nutritional purpose. (9)
• Antibacterial / Antitumor: An ethyl ethanoate soluble separate of an ethanol extract showed antibacterial and anti-tumor properties.
• Quercetin / Histamine H4 Receptor Inhibitor: A Plecranthus leaves extract yielded 0.05% quercetin. Quercetin is known to have a strong affinity for mast cells and basophils. The compound was able to interact with H4R. Results suggest Plecranthus leaves extract might have potential use as histamine H4 receptor inhibitor. (13)
• Phytoremediation with Selenium Treatment / Lead Exposure: Study showed lead (Pb) is tolerated by coleus plants through allocation plasticity, activation of antioxidant systems, and improvements in particle size and mineralogical effects. C. blumei can be useful in phytoremediation of aquatic systems contaminated with Pb, especially with addition of low concentrations of selenium. (15)
• Anti-Malarial: Study investigated the in-vivo antiplasmodial activity of a combination of Piper betle fruit, Plectranthus scutellarioides, honey and egg yolk inoculated into Swiss albino mice infected intraperitoneally. Results showed inhibition of Plasmodium berghei parasitemia, suggesting a possible therapeutic value in human malaria, and suggesting further investigation in different experimental models. (16)
/ Leaves: Study for larvicidal activity of leaf extract against 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti showed high mortality with 96.11 ± 1.389% and LC50 of5.85 ± 0.4719 ppm. Potential as insecticide against A. aegypti was attributed to phytol and other essential oils such as sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. (see constituents above) (19)
• Wound Healing / Leaf Ointment: Study evaluated ointment formulation from air dried leaves for wound healing activity on inflicted wounds on albino rats. Results showed significant wound healing activity with a significant decrease in wound length and size. Phytochemical screening yielded polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, and quinones. (20)
• Inhibition of COX Enzymes: Study evaluated the pharmacologic activity of P. scutellarioides leaf extracts on cyclooxygenases (COX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzymes. Results showed COX-1 inhibition of 40.43% and COX-2 at 97.04%. All the leaf extracts showed inhibitory activity on XO enzyme, possibly attributed to the presence of benzopyran ring in the flavonoids. Results suggest potential as XO and nonselective COX inhibitors. (21)
• Fungistatic / Effect on Expression of mRNA IL-37 in Mice Infected with Candida albicans / Leaves: Study analyzed IL-37 expression following administration of miana leaf extract (MLE) in an animal model of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results suggest a component within the MLE may mediate its anti-inflammatory characteristics as indicated by an increase in mRNA IL-37 expression in mice inoculated with C. albicans. The fungistatic effect of MLE is not less than ketoconazole and may act as an anti-inflammatory through its antioxidant effect. Study suggests an alternative treatment for patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. (23)
• Effect of Tissues on Romarinic Production: Rosmarinic acid is one of the main components of C. blumei which is known to have numerous health benefits. Study evaluated the ability of different tissues to accumulate rosmarinic acid and sustainability in production over long cultivation. Hairy root lines showed the highest mean growth rate and consistency in rosmarinic production. Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (DAA) significantly reduced tumor growth and rosmarinic production. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid strongly stimulate hair root growth while abscisic acid strongly enhanced rosmarinic production. Hairy roots cultured in an airlift bioreactor showed the highest potential for mass production of rosmarinic acid. (24)
- Ornamental cultivation for its colorful leaves.