Family Fabaceae
Phaseolus aureus Roxb.
Lu dou

Scientific names  Common names  
Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Balatong (Tag., Ibn., If., Ilk.)
Phaseolus mungo Blanco  Mongo (Tag.)
Phaseolus radiatus Merr. Mungo (Tag., Bis.)
Vigna aureus (Roxb.) Hepper. Mungos (Tag.)
Vigna aureus Piper. Mongo bean (Engl.) 
Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata Mung bean (Engl.)
  Golden gram (Engl.)
  Green gram (Engl.)
  Lu dou (Chin.)
Balatong is a shared common name for (1) Mungo, Phaseolus aureus, mongo bean, green gram (2) Soya, utau, Glycine max, soybean.

Other vernacular names
BURMESE : Pe-di, Pe-di-sein, Pè di sien, Pe-nauk, To-pi-si.
CHINESE: Qing xiao dou, Xiao dou, Xi dou.
CZECH : Vigna zlatá.
DANISH : Jerusalembønne.
FINNISH : Mungopapu.
FRENCH : Ambérique, Ambérique jaune, Haricot doré, Haricot mung à grain doré, Haricot velu de la basse Nubie.
GERMAN : Jerusalem-Bohne, Jerusalembohne, Mungbohne, Mungobohne.
ITALIAN : Fagiolino verde, Fagiolo aureo, Fagiolo mungo, Fagiolo semi-verdi.
JAPANESE: Bundou, Fundou, Yaenari, Ryokutou.
KHMER : Sândaèk ba:y.
LAOTIAN : Thwàx khiêw, Thwàx ngo:k, Thwàx sadê:k.
MALAY : Arta ijo (Indonesia), Kacang djong (Indonesia), Kacang hijau (Malaysia).
POLISH : Fasola złota.
PORTUGUESE : Feijão-mungo-verde.
RUSSIAN: Mash, Fasol' vidov, Fasol' zolotistaya, Vigna luchistaia.
SINHALESE : Bu me, Mun, Mun eta.
SPANISH : Frijol de oro, Frijol mungo (Latin America), Frijolito chino (Peru), Loctao (Peru).
SWAHILI : Mchooko, Mchoroko.
TAMIL : Chiruppataru, Chiruppayaru , Pani-payir, Pasi payaru.
THAI: Thuaa khiaao, Thua khieo, Thua thong.

Mungo is an erect, annual herb branching at the base, more or less clothed with spreading, brownish hairs. Leaves are long-petioled, compound, with three leaflets which are ovate and entire, broad based with pointed tips, 8 to 15 centimeters long, the lateral ones being inequilateral. Flowers are yellow, about 1 centimeter long, arranged near the end of the short stalks. Pods are linear, hairy, spreading, 6 to 8 centimeters long, about 6 millimeters wide, and covered with scattered, long, brownish hairs. Seeds are 4 to 6 millimeters in length.

- Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
- Not a native of the Archipelago.
- Scarcely naturalized.
- Also occurs in India to China and Malaya, in cultivation.

- Seeds are high in carbohydrate (>45%) and protein (>21%); fair source of calcium, iron, vitamins A and B. deficient in vitamin C.
- Sprouts are a good source of vitamin B.

- Raw green gram contains trypsin inhibitor which is destroyed by cooking.
- Study of protein
isolate from green gram yielded protein 64.04%, total lipids 1.8%, total carbohydrate 27.64%, crude fiber 1.68%, and ash 4.84%. Water absorption was 2.26 g/g, oil absorption 1.24g/g, emulsion capacity 31.4g/g, and nitrogen solubility index 6.8 g/g. (11)
- Study isolated eight phytoalexins from Phaseolus aureus (mung bean) seedlings after treatment with aqueous CuCl2, viz., three isoflavones (genistein, 2′-hydroxygenistein and 2,3-dehydrokievitone), four isoflavanones (dalbergioidin, kievitone, cyclokievitone and 5-deoxykievitone) and the pterocarpan phaseollidin. (see study below) (12)

Seeds are considered tonic and aperient.

- Extensively used in Philippine cuisine, in salads or boiled, in soups or stews.
- In Chinese cooking, bean sprouts is considered a yin or cooling food.
- Decoction of seeds used as diuretic in cases of beriberi.
- The seeds, boiled or raw, used in maturative poultices.
- Extracts used for its protective and curative properties in polyneuritis galinarum.
- Roots considered narcotic, used for bone pains.
- In India, seeds are used, internally and externally, for paralysis, rheumatism and a variety of nervous system ailments.
- Used for fevers.
- The seeds are used for coughs, hemorrhoids and liver afflictions.
- Powdered beans used to promote suppuration.
- Seeds used in anorexia.

- Poultice used for checking secretions of milk and reducing distention of the mammary glands.
- Powdered beans rubbed into scarifications over tumors and abscesses to promote suppuration.
- In Indo-China, seeds considered antiscorbutic and diuretic.
- In Chinese traditional medicine, mung bean soaked overnight with cold water is consumed as decoction or used with goat blood as antidote for arsenic poisoning.

Hypotensive: The study showed all the extracts were hypotensive and contained bioactive proteinaceous substances and stimulated urine flow. Combinations of the extracts showed subtractive or additive effects. (1)
Cardiovascular Effects: Previous studies have shown the hypotensive effect of green beans, common rue and kelp. In this study, green beans and kelp showed negative chronotropic effects, while rue showed positive chronotropic and inotropic effects. A combination of all three showed subtractive effects on the decrease of atrial rate. The three plants interacted to modify their various cardiovascular effects. (3)
Hypolipidemic / Antiatherogenic: Changes in serum lipids in normal and diabetic guinea pigs on feeding Phaseolus aureus (Green gram): Study showed green gram feeding showed lowering of both free and esterified fractions of cholesterol, significant lowering of triglycerides and decreased the total cholesterol / phospholipid ration indicating its antiatherogenic nature. (4)
Hypolipidemic: Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with Isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin) from three pulses, including P mungo, and p-coumaric acid showed hypolipidemic activity.
Anti-Irritation Effects / Cosmetics / Vitexin / Isovitexin: Ethanolic extract isolated vitexin and isovitexin, previously suspected of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Study confirmed anti-irritation effects and suggests that the mung bean extract could be applied to cosmetic products.
Germination and Antioxidant Capacity: The study evaluated the effect of germination of raw mung beans and sprouts on antioxidant capacity and content of antioxidant compounds. Results showed germination of mung beans and soybean seeds is a good process for obtaining functional flours with greater antioxidant capacity and more antioxidant compounds than the raw legumes. (9)
Antifungal / Phytoalexins: Study isolated eight phytoalexins. Study evaluated antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum. (see constituents above) (12)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activities in sprouts of mung beans (Vigna radiata).
Screening results revealed potential antibacterial and antifungal activities of mung bean extracts against 11 of 12 bacteria and a out of 10 fungi including antimicrobial activity against highly infectious MDR bugs. (13)

Wild and cultivated.

Last Update May 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Seeds / Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek mung bean//Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The hypotensive effects of green bean (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens) and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats / K. W. Chiu, A. Y. L. Fung
The cardiovascular effects of green beans (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens), and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats
/ K W Chiu and A Y L Fung /General Pharmacology: The Vascular System Volume 29, Issue 5, November 1997, Pages 859-862 / doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(97)00001-3
Changes in serum lipids in normal and diabetic guinea pigs on feeding Phaseolus aureus (Green gram)
/ Anurag Srivastav , L. D. Joshi, and S. P. Singh / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry • Volume 4, Number 1 / January, 1989 / DOI 10.1007/BF02867652
Clinical studies on the anti-irritation effects of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) extract in cosmetics / Jo B K, Ahn G W et al / SÖFW-journal, 2006, vol. 132, no1-2, [Note(s): 8-16

Studies on protein quality of green gram (Phaseolus aureus) / Khader, V (V); Rao, S V (SV) / Plant foods for human nutrition / 1996-Feb; vol 49 (issue 2) : pp 127-32

Isoflavones and hypercholesterolemia in rats / 10.1007/BF02533528 /
Sorting Vigna names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Kinetic study of the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity during germination of Vigna radiata cv. emmerald, Glycinemax cv. jutro and Glycine max cv. merit / Rebeca Fernandez-Orozcoa, Juana Friasa, Henryk Zielinskib, Mariusz K. Piskulab, Halina Kozlowskab, Concepción Vidal-Valverdea /
Food Chemistry
Volume 111, Issue 3, 1 December 2008, Pages 622–630
Effect of dietary green gram trypsin inhibitor and raw green gram meal (Phaseolus aureus roxb) on the pancreatic activity in rats / V. Sathyamoorthy, V. Kamalakannan, D. B. Motlag / Research in Experimental Medicine, 1982, Volume 180, Issue 2, pp 169-178
Studies on green gram (Phaseolus aureus) protein concentrate and flour / A. S. Mesallam, M. A. Hamza / Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 1987, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 17-27
Antifungal Phytoalexins in Phaseolus aureus Roxb
/ Melanie J. O'Neill, Saburi A. Adesanya, Margaret F. Roberts / Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. Volume 38, Issue 9-10, Pages 693–697 / DOI: 10.1515/znc-1983-9-1004, June 2014
Novel in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek against highly resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens / Rand Riadh Hafidh, Abdulamir A. S., Law Se Vern, Fatimah Abu Bakar*, Faridah Abas, Fatemeh Jahanshiri and Zamberi Sekawi / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(16), pp. 3606-3618, 18 August, 2011
Arsenic in Cancer Therapy / Joe Hing Kwok Chu / Complementary and Alternative Healing University

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