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Family Thymelaeaceae
Palisan
Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne.

Scientific names  Common names
Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne Alahan (Tag.) 
Gyrinopsis decemcostata Hall. f. Bago (Mbo.)
Aquilaria cumingiana (Decne) Hallier f. Binukat (Ak., Bis.)
  Butlo (Neg.)
  Dalakit (S. L. Bis.)
  Maga-an (Tag.)
  Palisan (Tag.)
  Pamaluian (Bag.)

Botany
Palisan is a shrub or small tree, growing to a height of 5 meters. Bark is ashy gray, mottled, and smooth. Leaves are alternate, smooth, elliptically oblong, about 15 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide at the largest, with pointed tip and a blunt or rounded base. Flowers are yellowish, about 1.5 centimeters long, borne in fairly small, rounded clusters. Fruit is pendant and orange-red, containing a single seed and two locules across which it splits upon opening, slightly obovoid or broadly ellipsoid and about 1.5 centimeters long. Seeds are ovoidly compressed, about 7.5 millimeters long.

Distribution
- Found in primary forests at low and medium altitudes in Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, and Albay Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes, Samar, Sibuyan, Leyte, Panay, Mindanao, and Jolo.
- Also occurs in Indonesia.

Constituents
- The species is considered a source of agarwood.
- The production of resinous compounds is associated with wounding by insects that probably assist fungal invasion. (3)

Properties
- Hemostatic.
- Agarwood considered carminative, heart stimulant, and tonic.


Parts used
Bark, wood, fruit

Uses
Folkloric
• Bark and roots used for stopping the flow of blood from wounds.
• Bark, wood and fruit used as substitute for quinine.

• In Malaysia, agarwood used to treat jaundice and body pains. Also used as tonic during pregnancy and after childbirth.

Info on Agarwood
Agarwood / Agar / Oleoresin:
Agarwood is a dark resinous heartwood that forms in Aquilaria and Gyrinops trees in the family Thymelaeaceae. There are 17 species of Aquilaria known to produce agarwood. The best known among them are A. agollocha, a. malaccensis, and A. crassna. Agarwood-producing Aquilaria species found in the Philippines are A. apicultina (Mindanao), A. acuminata, A. cumingiana, and A. filarial. A dark aromatic resin is produced in response to induction/infection. The yield of agar, an oleoresin, is dependent on the plant species and the infection/induction involved. Phaeoacremonium parasitica, a dermatiaceous fungus has been identified as one of the known fungi associated with agarwood formation.
(2) (3)
Used of Agarwood:
Agarwood is highly valued by luxury perfume, fragrance, and soap manufacturers. Agarwood fragrances are used in soaps and shampoos. It is also used in traditional medicine to relieve pain, asthma, and nausea. In Malaysia, agarwood is mixed with coconut oil as liniment, and used as decoction for rheumatism and other body pains. Pure agarwood is used as incense. (2)

Studies
No studies found.
Search yielded no reports on Philippine cultivation of Aquilaria species for agarwood.

Availability
Wild-crafted. 


Last Updated October 2013


IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Image of Thymelaeaceae Aquilaria / Fruiting twig / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL27026] / Non-Commercial Use / click on photo to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing /Image ID: 402626 / Gyrinopsis Cumingiana / (1840-1864) / NYPL Digital Gallery / NYPL
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne / The Plant List
(2)
AGARWOOD PRODUCTION- A MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD TO BE EXPLORED IN BANGLADESH / Selina Akter*, Md. Tanvir Islam, Mohd Zulkefeli, Sirajul Islam Khan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 1: January 2013
(3)
OVERVIEW OF THE AGARWOOD OIL INDUSTRY / Dr. Pakamas Chetpattananondh / Paper presented at the IFEAT International Conference in Singapore, 4 - 8 November 2012 'Essential Asia' Pages 131-138 in the printed Conference Proceedings

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