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Family Arecaceae
Borassus flabellifer L.

Shan ye zi

Scientific names Common names
Borassus flabellifer L.  Palmira (Tag.)
Borassus flabelliformis L. Doub palm (Engl.)
Borassus flabelliformis Roxb. Fan palm (Engl.)
Borassus sundaicus Becc. Palmyra palm (Engl.)
Borassus tunicatus Lour. Tala palm (Engl.)
Lontarus domestica Gaertn.              [Illegitimate] Toddy palm (Engl.)
Pholidocarpus tunicatus (Lour.) H. Wendl. Wine palm (Engl.)
Thrinax tunicata (Lour.) Rollisson  
Borassus flabellifer L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Dom, Tal, Shag el muql.
BURMESE: Tadgola.
CHINESE: Shan ye shu tou lu, Shan ye shou tou zong, Shan ye tang zong, Shan ye zi.
DANISH: Palmyrapalme.
DUTCH: Lontar, Lontarpalm, Palmyrapalm.
FINNISH: Palmyrapalmu.
FRENCH: Borasse, Palmier de Palmyre, Rondier, Ronier.
GERMAN: Borassuspalme, Lontaro, Palmyrapalme, Weinpalme.
HIINDI: Taad, Tad mar, Tala.
INDONESIAN: Lontar, Siwalan.
ITALIAN: Palma de ferro, Palma de Sagu, Palma di Palmira.
JAPANESE: Parumira yashi, Ougi yashi.
KHMER: Dom Thuout, Tnaot, Th'not.
MALAY: Lontar, Arrak.
MARATHI: Taad, Tadh.
NEPALESE: Taadii, Taal.
PORTUGUESE: Broção, Palmira, Palmeira de leque, Palmeira de palmira.
RUSSIAN: Lontarovaia pal'ma, Pal'mira, Pal'mirova pal'ma
SPANISH: Boraso, Palma palmira.
SWEDISH: Palmyrapalm.
TAMIL: Karimbana, Pannei.
TELUGU: Karatalamu, Tatichettu.
THAI: Maktan, Tan, Taan tanot, Taan yai.
URDU: Taad.
VIETNAMESE: Thõt nõt, Thõt lõt.

Palmira is a robust palm that can live up to 100 years, growing to a height of 20 to 30 meters, growing slowly at the beginning and accelerating as it ages. Trunk is large and straight, ringed with leaf scars. Canopy of green-bluish leaves has several dozen fronds spreading 3 meters across. Fruit measures 4 to 7 inches in diameter, has a black husk, and borne in clusters. When cut, the top part of the fruit reveal three sweet, translucent, pale-white jelly seed sockets containing water fluid inside.

- Native to South and Southeast Asia.

- Plant considered a rich source of phytoconstituents: gums, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, albuminoids, fats, vitamins A, B, and C.
- Male inflorescence yields spirostane-type steroid saponins (Borassosides and dioscin).
- Yielded flabelliferrins, a bitter compound of steroidal saponins. Spirosterol is a dominant aglycone in odiyal flour and palmyra inflorescence.
- Ungerminated seed embryos was found to be a good source of carbohydrates, fiber, fat, amino acids, protein.
- Various extracts of seed coat of B. flabellifer yielded tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, and terpenoids. (see study below) (14)
- Proximate composition and mineral profile of seed embryo (g/100 g) yielded 1,398 kJ energy, 65.6 moisture, 12.5 protein, 1.9 fat, 71.5 carbohydrate, 4.3 fiber, sodium 52 mg/100 g, potassium 68, calcium 48, magnesium 23, iron 0.5. (12)
- Amino acid profile of seed embryo (g/100 g) yielded histidine 5.8, lysine 1.2, leucine 8.7, isoleucine 5.8, methionine+cysteine 1.2, phenylalanine+tyrosine 8.6, threonine 6.2, tryptophan 1.8, valine 8.2. (see study below) (12)
- Inflorescence extracts yielded the presence of tannins, carbohydrate, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids, and alkaloids. (see study below) (20)
- Nutritional analysis of roots yielded 8.54% protein content, 23.53% carbohydrates, 7.29% crude fiber and negligible fat content. Edible roots also contain small amounts of iron (1.38 ppm) and traces of aluminum, arsenic, strontium, lead, manganese, copper, and zinc. Total phenolic content of hexane, chloroform, and methanol extracts were 222.7, 275.25 and 98.48 µg catechin equivalents per 100 g of extract, respectively. (26)
- Phytochemical analysis of fruits yielded saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, amino acids, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (27)
- Phytochemical screening of various solvent extracts of roots yielded alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and saponins. (see study below) (32)

- Roots are high in carbohydrates.
- Restorative, anthelminthic, and diuretic.

- Studies have suggested analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, and flowering stalks.

• Ripened fibrous outer layer of the palm fruit can be eaten raw, boiled, or roasted.
• The fruit's yellow viscous fluid is made into various sweet dishes, jams, and cordials.
• Roots are edible.
• Decoction used for gonorrhea and respiratory ailments.
• Leaf juice used for hiccups, gastric ailments.
• Bloom on base of leaves used as styptic for external wounds.
• Juice from flowering stalks used for diabetes.
• Used with rice as a poultice, fermented, and used for gangrenous and indolent ulcers and abscesses.
• In Indonesia, the sap is taken as laxative.
• In India, juice from flowering stalks used for diabetes. (32)
Arrack: Toddy, the sugary sap is obtained from young inflorescences which can be fermented to make an arrack beverage or a concentrated crude sugar called jaggery.
Thatching / Basketry: Leaves are used for thatching, for making mats, baskets, fans, hats and umbrellas.
Paper: In Indonesia, leaves used in the ancient culture of paper making, known as "lontar."
Rope / Fences: In Indonesia, stems of leaves nailed together to make fences, and the skin of stems peeled off and used as rope. Stalks
also used for making fences and cordage.
Wood: Black timber is hard and highly valued for construction.

Anti-Inflammatory / Flowers:
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer L. male flowers (inflorescences) in experimental animals: Extract showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity and supports it folkloric use as an anti-inflammatory agent. (1)
Saponins / Antidiabetogenic:
Study of methanolic extract yielded 6 new steroid saponins: borassosides A-F. Results showed inhibition of increase of serum glucose in sucrose-loaded rats. (2)
Neurotoxic Effect / Detoxification:
A previous study reported on the neurotoxic effect of shoot flour on Wistar rats. This study showed feeds containing 100% and 70% palmyrah flour resulted in very little feed or no consumption, suggesting the reported deaths may have been due to starvation. A mixture of 50% palmyrah flour and 50% standard feed results in neurotoxic symptoms (spasms, hind limb immobility, etc). The neurotoxic effect of palmyrah shoot flour on Wistar rats showed a neurotoxic effect that appears to be a tissue non-specific damage reflected at a subclinical level. Neurotoxic effect was eliminated by heating detoxification. The nutritional status of the diet influenced the manifestation of the toxic effect. (4)
Aerobiologic / Aeroallergen:
Study investigated the aerobiologic and allergenic significance of the pollen of palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer). Pollen grains were found present in the air from February to May and June, comprising 7% of total airborne pollen of the study area. The pollen is a dominant aeroallergen that can cause respiratory problems. The pollen extract isolated a 90-kD component, one of the major allergens. (8)
Antioxidant: Study showed the leaves and roots to possess antioxidant activity. The antioxidant potential of leaves to be greater than the roots. The activity was attributed to flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds in the leaf.
Cytotoxic / Flabelliferin:
Palmyrah flour (Odiyal) is known to yield a number of toxins with mutagenic, clastogenic, immunosuppressive, and mosquito larvicidal effects. A pressure liquid chromatography separation for dengue mosquito larvicide yielded a white amorphous solid. Study on a melanoma cell line showed cytotoxic activity on differentiating cancer lines. (9)
Antibacterial / Seed Coat:
Study of antibacterial activity of a methanol extract of seed coat against Gram-positive bacteria (Staph aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia marcescens) showed consistent inhibitory activity on different bacterial species tested. (10)
Anticancer / Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer Ht-29 Cells / Inflorescence:
An apolar extract from male inflorescence was studied on colon cancer HT29 cells. Phytochemical analysis yielded sterols triterpenes, and saponosids. The extract significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell population in G0/G1 phase. Results indicated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. (11)
Antioxidant / Nutrients / Potential Food Source:
Study showed the plant seed embryo to possess micro/macro nutrients and antioxidant properties with neutraceutical potential for the treatment of malnutrition. (see constituents above) (12)
Antimicrobial / Seed Coat:
Study evaluated various extracts of seed coat of B. flabellifer for antimicrobial activity. Results showed high rate of growth inhibition against some human pathogens. Among all tested organisms, Aspergillus brasiliensis and Bacillus subtilis showed a higher rate of inhibition with ethanolic and methanolic extracts. (14)
Anti-Tumor / HeLa Cell Line / Seed Coat:
Study evaluated the anticancer activity of seed coat of Borassus flabellifer on the HeLa cell line. Results showed significant cytotoxicity in concentration range between 32 µg/ml to 750 µg/ml by MTT assay. Preliminary studies showed even low concentration of the plant extract showed significant antiproliferative activity. (15)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Seed Coat:
Study of a methanolic seed coat extract showed significant antibacterial activity against human pathogenic organisms and free radical scavenging activity by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assay. (16)
Dried Fruit Pulp as Antidiabetic Food Component:
The fruit pulp of palmyrah has been shown to inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in mice, via inhibition of intestinal ATPase by flabelliferin-II, a steroidal saponin. This study investigated whether dried fruit pulp (pinattu), which has been consumed in NE Sri Lanka for centuries, could reduce serum glucose levels of mild type 2 diabetics. Results suggest pinattu could be used as an anti-hyperglycemic agent. (17)
Mucilage / Excipient / Gelling Agent:
Study evaluated the gelling potential of natural mucilage obtained from the endosperm of Borassus Flabellifer fruit. Results showed BF mucilage can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in gel formulations, with the potential to replace some synthetic gelling polymers. (18) Study evaluated the use of BF mucilage as a natural plant based excipient for pharmaceutical formulations. The mucilage exhibited better disintegrating property at lower concentration viz., 1% w/w, and can be used as a superdisintegrant in tablet formulations. (35)
Palm Jaggery:
Jaggery is a sugar rich product obtained by evaporation of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice, or sap obtained from Palmyrah palm (B. flabellifer), date palm (P. dactylifera) or coconut palm (C. nucifera). It contains 65-85% sucrose, 5-5% reducing sugars, consumed directly of used in the making of sweet confectionaries and ayurvedic/traditional medicines. Study reports provides information on the production of jaggery, the need of developing standard process and greater mechanisation of climbing devices, tapping systems, and improved efficiency in the collection process, decreased contamination and improving of shelf life. (19)
Hypoglycemic / Inflorescence:
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of inflorescence of B. flabellifer extract in STZ-induced diabetic male wistar rats. Treatment caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in blood glucose levels when compared with control. Results suggest the inflorescence extracts possess an antidiabetic effect. (see constituents above) (20)
Antioxidant / Leaves and Roots:
Study of antioxidant activity of BF leaves and roots by FRAP and Reducing Power Assay methods suggest the plant materials are a viable source of natural antioxidants. Activity may be due to the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic compounds. (21)
Biosorption of Methylene Blue: Study evaluated the biosorbent capacity of palm tree flower (male) for removal of MB. Results showed PTMF, a plant waste material, can be a potential biosorbent for removal of MB from aqueous solution. PTMF is an inexpensive and abundantly available material, an alternative to costly adsorbents used for dye removal in waste water treatment. (22)
Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory / 5-LOX Inhibitory Activity / Apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 Pancreatic Cancer Cells / Seed Coat:
Study of seed coat extract of Borassus flabellifer found substantial 5-LOX inhibitory activity. Dammarane triterpenoid 1 (Dammara-20,23-diene-3,25-diol) was isolated. It inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and TNF-a secretion levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 human monocytes. Anticancer activity study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of dammarane triterpenoid 1 on various cancer cell lines and showed good antiproliferative activity on MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line with IC50 of 12.36±0.33 µM. (23)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / inflorescence:
Study evaluated Borassus flabellifer inflorescence extracts against STZ-induced diabetic male wistar rats. An ethanolic extract exhibited reduction of blood sugar. There was significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and improvement in HDL cholesterol of the diabetic rats. (24)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of flowers for antidiabetic and antioxidant effects. Results showed 20% blood glucose lowering on acute study and 35% in sub-acute study. The extract exerted significant DPPH radical scavenging effect. The activity may be attributed to active constituents like flavonoids and triterpenoids. (25)
Phytochemicals / Antioxidant Activity / Dried Fruits:
Phytochemical screening of various extracts of dried roots showed 1.61% alkaloids and 0.63% saponins and GC/MS screening of extracts yielded fatty acids, alkanes, alkenes, ketones, aldehydes, diterpenes, phytols, and sterols. A methanol extract of dried roots showed an antioxidant potential of ABTS (IC50=2 mg/ml) by FRAP assay. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the chloroform extract (129.6 µg BHT/100 mg extract). (see constituents above) (26)
Antiulcer Activity / Fruits:
Study evaluated various extracts of fruits of Borassus flabellifer for antiulcer activity using aspirin Pylorus ligation and ethanol induced models using albino rats. Aqueous extracts of fruits showed significant antiulcer activity compared to other extracts. Results were comparable to standard drug Ranitidine. (see constituents above) (27)
Alternative Excipient:
Study showed B. flabellifer starch was comparable with maize starch and can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient in tablet preparations. (28)
Anthelmintic / Leaves:
Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Borassus flabellifer leaves against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed the methanolic extract with significant concentration dependent anthelmintic activity. A 50 mg/ml extract concentration showed better activity with paralysis time and death time when compared to standard albendazole. (29)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study evaluated a methanol extract and fractions from powdered leaves for antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. The methanol extract showed dose dependent radical scavenging activity evidenced by IC50 of 40.19 µg/ml for DPPH and 30.92 µg/ml for H2O2 radicals. The methanol extract and acetone fraction showed potent antibacterial and antifungal activities. (30)
• Antioxidant / Leaves and Roots:
Study of ethanolic extracts of Borassus flabellifer leaves and roots showed antioxidant activity by FRAP and Reducing Power Assay methods. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, and saponins. Results suggest leaves and roots of B. flabeliffer have potential as "nutraceuticals" in the preparation of function foods. (31)
• Antibacterial / Roots:
Study evaluated various solvent extracts of roots for antibacterial activity against five pathogenic microorganisms viz., E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. The methanolic extract of palm root showed consistent significant inhibitory activity against bacterial species tested. (see constituents above) (32)
• Bioactive Compounds / Roots:
Study investigated the potential bioactive compounds present in B. flaberllifer roots. GC-MS analysis yielded 28 compounds. Many of the compounds have been associated with with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-cancer activities i.e., resorcinol, phenol, pentanoic acid, glycerin, 10-undecenyl ester, octadecanoic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid. (33)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antiarthritis / Flowers:
Study of ethanolic extract of male flowers (inflorescences) of B. flabellifer showed anti-inflammatory activity using Nystatin-induced rat paw edema model and antiarthritis activity using Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) induced polyarthritis. (34)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Dried Leaves:
Study evaluated crude extracts of dried leaves for anti-inflammatory activity male BALB/C mice in formalin induced paw edema. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity and a potential alternative to synthetic drugs. (36)
• Anticonvulsant / Leaves:
Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of various leaf extracts of Borassus flabellifer in Wistar albino rats using Maximo Electro Shock Seizure (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) testing. A 400 mg alcoholic extract of B. flabellifer showed more potent anticonvulsant activity than other extracts. (38)
• Acute Toxicity Testing / Leaves:
Acute toxicity study of leaf extract using OECD guidelines showed no adverse effects or mortality up to 4000 mg/kg p.o. (38)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Roots:
Study evaluated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects of alcoholic extract of B. flabellifer roots in rodents. The extract showed mild antinociceptive activity in hot plate test and good effect in acetic acid-induced writhing model. Extract inhibited carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration in the peritoneal cavity. There was good antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay, and good cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay with LC50 of 2.41 µg/ml. (39)
• Diuretic:
Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of seedling of Borassus flabellifer for diuretic activity in albino rats. Results showed a diuretic effect with significantly increased urinary levels of Na+, K+, and Cl- by both seedling extracts. Lower doses showed significantly elevated Na+ and K+ levels but not the Cl- levels. The diuretic effect at 200 mg/kg was significantly less than standard drug furosemide. (40)
• Antifungal / Sap:
Study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of sap of Borassus flabellifer against fungal strains C. albicans and A. niger. Sap volumes of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 ml were used. Results showed significant antifungal activity with 14 to 26 mm zone of inhibition after 36 hours. (41)
• Wound Healing / Steroidal Saponin / Flabelliferin:
A pilot study evaluated a steroidal saponin, Flabelliferin B, isolated from palmyrah (B. flabellifer) for wound healing activity on male Wistar rats and allergenic reactions by topical application on healthy human skin. Toxic and other adverse effects were no observed on test animals and allergic reactions were not observed on normal healthy human skin by patch test. Wound healing effects were observed in human volunteers with wounds and ulcers with no subcutaneous involvement. (42)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated Jne 2018 / April 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Borassus flabellifer silhouette / L. Shyamal / 2006 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fruits of Borassus flabellifera /File:Fruits of Borassus flabellifer.jpg / DXLINH at the Vietnamese Wikipedia project. / 22 Feb 2008 / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fruits of Borassus flabellifera /File:Borassus flabellifer fruit on the tree.JPG / Gak / / 3 August 2008 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer L. male flowers (inflorescences) in experimental animals / Mahesh S Paschapur et al /Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 3(2), pp. 049-054, February, 2009
Medicinal flowers. XII.(1)) New Spirostane-Type Steroid Saponins with Antidiabetogenic Activity
from Borassus flabellifer
/ Masayuki Yoshikawa et al / Chem Pharm Bull / VOL.55;NO.2;PAGE.308-316 (2007)

The neurotoxic effect of palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer) flour re-visited / KA Vindika Sumudunie et al / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Volume 55, Issue 8 December 2004 , pages 607 - 614 / DOI:10.1080/09637480412331350164

Borassus flabellifer L. / Chinese names and synonyms / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Borassus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Sorting Passiflora names
/ Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Aerobiologic and immunochemical studies on Borassus flabellifer pollen: evidence for a 90-kD allergen /
Chakraborty P, Chowdhury I, Gupta-Bhattacharya S, Roy I, Chatterjee S, Chanda S. / Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998 Apr;80(4):311-7.
A new cytotoxic flabelliferin from palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer l.) flour / A.A.P. Keerthi, S. Ekanayake and G.A.S. Premakumara / J.Natn.Sci.Foundation Sri Lanka 2009 37 (4):269-271
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC SEED COAT EXTRACT OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER L./ Govinda Rao Duddukuri, Y. Nagendra Sastry, D.S.V.G.K. Kaladhar, K. Kamalakara Rao, K. Krishna Chaitanya / International journal pharmaceutical sciences and research 01/2011; volume 2:748-751.
Dichloromethane-methanol Extract from Borassus aethiopum Mart. (Arecaceae) Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer Ht-29 Cells / J. Sakande, P. Rouet-benzineb, H. Devaud, J.B. Nikiema, M. Lompo, O.G. Nacoulma, I.P. Guissou and A. Bado /
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14: 578-583. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2011.578.583
Nutritional analysis and antioxidant activity of palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) seed embryo for potential use as food source / Karuppusamy Arunachalam, Shanmugam Saravanan, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan / Food Science and Biotechnology, February 2011, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 143-149
Borassus flabellifer / Synonyms / The Plant List
In vitro studies on phytochemical evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Borassus flabellifer Linn against some human pathogens. / Alamelumangai M, Dhanalakshmi J, Mathumitha M, Renganayaki RS, Muthukumaran P, Saraswathy N / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014 Sep;7S1:S182-5. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60228-5.
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON IN VITRO ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY OF TENDER SEED COAT EXTRACT OF Borassus flabellifer L. ON HELA CELL LINE / Govinda Rao Duddukuri*, Y. Nagendra Sastry, D.S.V.G.K. Kaladhar, P. Ajay Babu, K. Kamalakara Rao and K. Krishna Chaitanya / International Journal of Current Research 01/2011; 3(7):75-77.
A pilot study on palmyrah pinattu (dried fruit pulp) as an anti-diabetic food component
/ Inoka ULUWADUGE, Antoinette PERERA, Errol JANSZ and Ira THABREW / Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 1(3): 250-254, 2007
Exploitation of Borassus flabellifer fruit mucilage as novel natural gelling agent / Ravi Kumar* , Rajarajeshwari N , Narayana Swamy VB / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (4):1202-1213
Jaggery from Palmyrah palm (Borassus flabellifer L)- Present Status and Scope / Vengaiah PC et al / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 12 (4), October 2013, pp 714-717
Hypoglycemic Activity of Inflorescence of Borassus flabellifer Extracts on Blood Glucose Levels of Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / PRADEEP GOYAL, M. PHARM, NILESH JAIN, G. K. SINGH, B. P. NAGORI / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, IJPT 13: 30-34, 2014
Anti oxidant activity of methanolic extracts of female Borassus Flabellifer leaves and roots
/ Sudhakar Kommu* , Vijaya laxmi Chiluka , Gowri Shankar N. L, Matsyagiri L, Shankar. M and Sandhya . S / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (3): 193-199
Studies on Biosorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Powdered Palm Tree Flower (Borassus flabellifer) / M. Srinivas Kini, M. B. Saidutta, and V. Ramachandra Murty / International Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/306519
5-Lipoxygenase and Cyclooxygenase Inhibitory Dammarane Triterpenoid 1 from Borassus flabellifer Seed Coat Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Secretion in LPSInduced THP-1 Human Monocytes and Induces Apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 Pancreatic Cancer Cells / Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Rajaram Azad, Mahaboob Basha, Abdul Rajack, D. S. V. G. K. Kaladhar, Bharat Kumar Allam, Rajeswara Rao. Pragada, Krishna Nand Singh, Sunanda Kumari K, Reddanna Pallu, Umadevi Parimi, Anupam Bishayee and Govinda Rao Duddukuri. / Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 15(8): 1066-1077.
Screening of Ethanolic Extract of Borassus flabellifer Flowers for its Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential
/ Satish A. Kavatagimath, Sunil S. Jalalpure*, Ravindra D. Hiremath / Journal of Natural Remedies, Volume 16, Issue 1, January 2016 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18311/jnr/2016/654
Screening of Nutritional, Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of the roots of Borassus flabellifer (Asian Palmyra Palm). / Chayanika Sahni, Najam A. Shakil, Vidyanath Jha, Rajinder Kumar Gupta / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3(4): 58-68
Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of Borassus flabellifer (Linn.) Fruits. / Mohite M.*, Pramod H. J, Yadav A.V., Raje V. N, Wadkar G. H. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012,5(7),3782-3786
In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Borassus flabellifer Linn. (Palmae) against Pheretima posthuma / Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande*, Vikas Annarao Suryawanshi, Amruta Sureshrao Wattamwar, Sonal Ramrao Barde / Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014; 4(Suppl 1): S199-S203 / doi: 10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60439-4
Biological activities of leaves of ethnomedicinal plant, Borassus flabellifer Linn. (Palmyra palm): An antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant evaluation / Prasad G Jamkhande, Vikas A Suryawanshi, Tukaram M Kaylankar, Shailesh L Patwekar / Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, June 2016; Vol 54, Issue 1: pp 59-66 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bfopcu.2016.01.002
Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of female Borassus Flabellifer leaves and roots / Sudhakar Kommu*, Vijaya laxmi Chiluka, Gowri Shankar N L, Matsyagiri L, Shankar. M and Sandhya S / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (3): 193-199
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PALMYRA PALM (BORASSUS FLABELLIFER) ROOT EXTRACT / Saravanan C Priya B, Asir Bradley S, and Uma Sundaram / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM Borassus flabellifer Linn ROOT / S.Subashini, V.Rameshkannan and P.Mani* / European Journal of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 2015; 2(3): pp 148-152.
Influence of ethanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer L. male flowers (inflorescences) on chemically induced acute nflammation and poly arthritis in rats / Mahesh S Paschapur*, M B Patil, Ravi Kumar, Sachin R Patil / International Journal of PharmTech Research, July-Sept 2009; Vol.1, No.3: pp 551-556
Studies on borassus flabellifer fruit mucilage as versatile excipient for pharmaceutical formulations
/ Ravikumar / Thesis: 2013 / Shodh: Reservoir of Indian Theses
IN-VITRO ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DRIED LEAVES OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER / Ch. Krishna Mohan*, V. Soundarya, R. Vasanth Kumar, L. Kiran Kumar, K. Vamshi Sharathnath, B. Narender / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016; 3(8): pp 809-813
Optimizing process conditions for palm (Borassus flabelliffer) wine fermentation using Response Surface Methodology / Ghosh, S., Chakraborty, R. and *Raychaudhuri, U. / International Food Research Journal (2012); 19(4): pp 1633-1639
ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER LEAF EXTRACTS / Saravanan Kaliyaperumal*, Pushpesh Kumar Mishra and Girendra Kumar Gautam / European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical R AND MEDICAL RESEARCH, 2016; 3(11): pp 440-444
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential of the ethanolic extract from Borassus flabellifer L. (Root). / Md. Jahir Alam / Dissertation: May 2012 / Department of Pharmacy: Gono Bishwabidyalay
Diuretic Effect of the Ethanolic and Aqueous Extract of Seedling of Borassus flabellifer / P A Chinnaswamy, K V B Nima, and K C Selvam / Asian Jour of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sc., 2009; 11(2): pp 313-317
Evaluation and Determination of Antifungal Potentials of Sap of Borassus Flabellifer / Tribhuvan Singh*, Akhilesh Kumar Verma, Syed Imran Ul Haq, N. Mounika / J Pharm Sci Bioscientific Res. 2017; 7(1): pp 111-113
A pilot study on wound healing using an antibacterial steroidal saponin / K Attanayaka, S Mendis, E Jansz, S Ekanayake, A Perera / International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2008); 2(3) / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v2i3.39757

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