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Family Amaranthaceae
Palong-manok
Celosia cristata Linn.
RED COCKSCOMB

Ji xing zi

Scientific name Common names 
Celosia cristata Linn. Daling-manok (Sul.) 
Celosia coccinea Linn. Pandong-pandongan (Bis.) 
Celosia argentea cristata (L.) Kuntze Palong-manok (Tag.) 
  Palong-palungan (Bik., Tag.) 
  Papaknongon-manok (Bik.)
  Taptapiñgar (Ilk.) 
  Crested cockscomb (Engl.)
  Red cockscomb (Engl.) 
  Ji xing zi (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ji guan hua, Qing xiang zi.
INDIA: Mayurshikha.


Botany
Palong-manok is an annual, erect, branching, smooth herb, 1 meter or more in height. Leaves are variable in shape, usually ovate-lanceolate, up to 23 centimeters in length, 8 centimeters wide, sometimes cordate-ovate. Flowers are in panicles or spikes, of varied colors, from white to yellow, purple and different shades of red. Seeds are minute, black, shining, and lens-shaped.

Distribution
- Ornamental cultivation; rarely spontaneous.
- Certainly introduced.
- Occurs in all warm countries.

Constituents
- Seeds contain a fatty oil.
- Ethanol extract of seeds yielded 6 compounds viz. 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol, kaempferol, quercetin, β-sitosterol, 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, stigmasterol. (6)

Properties
- Considered antibacterial, anthelmintic, astringent, demulcent, haemostatic, hypotensive, ophthalmic.
- Seeds considered demulcent, hypotensive, and ophthalmic.
- Flowers and seeds considered astringent, hemostatic, ophthalmic, parasiticide.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, flowers.

Uses
Edibility
- Tender leaves and young shoots occasionally eaten as vegetable.
Folkloric
- No reported medicinal folkloric use in the Philippines.
- Malays used the plant internally and externally. Decoction used roots used for cough and dysentery..
- Kroo people mix the ashes of burnt plant with water to smear on the body for craw-craw, scabies, etc.
- Seeds used for emollient lotions for eye problems.
- Flowers and seeds used for bloody stools, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and diarrhea.
- In the Cameroons, plant used in prescriptions for rheumatism and dysentery.
- Flowers used for menorrhagia.
- Seeds are used for dysuria, coughs, dysentery, hypertension.
- In India, seeds are used for dysuria and flowers for diarrhea.
- Madugga tribes of
South India use the flowers and seeds crushed in water for cough and diarrhea. Plant also useful for asthma and bronchitis. (9)
- In Indian folk medicine, used for treatment of diabetes mellitus.
- In C
hinese medicine, used to arrest bleeding leukorrhea and diarrhea. Used for hematemesis, abnormal uterine bleeding, hemorrhoidal bleeding, chronic dysentery with persistent diarrhea.
- In Mexico, considered antiscorbutic and antiblennorrhagic.
Others
- Ornamental: Flowers in popular use for the making of wreaths for All Saint's Day.

Studies
Betaxanthins / Colorant Property: Study isolated three betaxanthins. The yellow inflorescences exhibited bright yellow color with high color purity. The three betaxanthins had higher pigment retention than amaranthine / isomaranthine. (2)
Anti-Diabetic: Study of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds showed anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (3)
Hepatoprotective Saponin / Cristatain: Study of seeds yielded a new saponin, cristatain, together with four other saponins, celosin A, B, C, and D. Cristatain exhibited hepatoprotective effect on CCl4- and DMF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice with decreases in ALT, AST and ALP. together with histopath evidence. (4)
Lead / Phytoremediation: In a study of three ornamental plants for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soil, only Celosia cristata pyramidalis could be identified as a Pb-accumulator. (7)
Antioxidant / Phytoremediation: Study of antioxidant compounds of a methanolic extract and solvent fractions of flowers showed the total polyphenol, flavonoids, and tannins contents were 6.80, 2.34, and 6.23 mg/g extract residue, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays showed notable antioxidant activity. (8)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Seeds in the cybermarkets.

Last Update June 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Celosia cristata Blanco1.64-original.png/ Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Celosia argentea cristata / Plants For A Future
(2)
Chemical Stability and Colorant Properties of Betaxanthin Pigments from Celosia argentea / Yizhong Cai et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49 (9), pp 4429–4435 • DOI: 10.1021/jf0104735
(3)
Anti-diabetic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Celosia argentea LINN. Seeds in Rats / Thangarasu Vetrichelvan et al / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin • Vol 25 (2002)
, 526-528 / doi:10.1248/bpb.25.526
(4)
A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L. / Yan Wang, Ziyang Lou, Qing-Bin Wu, Meil-Li guo /
Fitoterapia, Vol 81, Issue 8, December 2010, Pages 1246-1252 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.08.011
(5)
Celosia cristata L. (accepted name) / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
Study on Chemical Constituents of Celosia cristat Seed / Journal of Jilin Agricultutal University 2010, 32(6) 657-660 / DOI: ISSN: 1000-5684 CN: 22-1100/S
(7)
EVALUATION OF THREE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PB-CONTAMINED SOIL / Cui, Shuang; Zhang, Tingan; Zhao, Shanlin; Li, Ping; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Qianru; Han, Qing / International Journal of Phytoremediation, Volume 15, Number 4, 1 April 2013 , pp. 299-306(8)
(8)
Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic Extracts from Cockscome (Celosia cristata L.) Flowers / K Woo, J Ko, S Song, J Lee, J Kang, M Seo, D Kwak, B Oh, M Nam, H Jeong / Planta Med 2011; 77 - PM78 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1282836


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