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Family Amaranthaceae
Celosia cristata Linn.

Ji xing zi

Scientific name Common names 
Amaranthus cristatus Noronha Daling-manok (Sul.) 
Amaranthus huttonii H.J.Veitch Pandong-pandongan (Bis.) 
Amaranthus purpureus Nieuwi Palong-manok (Tag.) 
Amaranthus pyramidalis Noronha Palong-palungan (Bik., Tag.) 
Celosia argentea L. Papaknongon-manok (Bik.)
Celosia aurea T. Moore Taptapiñgar (Ilk.) 
Celosia castrensis Linn. Crested cockscomb (Engl.)
Celosia coccinea L. Red cockscomb (Engl.) 
Celosia comosa Retz.  
Celosia cristata Linn.  
Celosia debilis S. Moore  
Celosia marylandica Retz.  
Celosia pyramidalis Burm.f.  
Chamissoa margaritacea (L.) Schouw  
Celosia cristata L. is a synonym of Celosia argentea L. The Plant List
Note: Quisumbing's compilation of medicinal plants in the Philippines list Celosia argentea (Kindayohan) and Celosia cristata (Palang-manok) as separate species. Other compilations list Celosia argentea as an accepted name, with C. coccinea and C. cristata as synonyms. Until the conflict is resolved, I will continue to keep Kindayohan and Palong-manok as separate entrees.
Also see: Kindayohan

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ji guan hua, Qing xiang zi, Ji xing zi.
INDIA: Mayurshikha.

Palong-manok is an annual, erect, branching, smooth herb, 1 meter or more in height. Leaves are variable in shape, usually ovate-lanceolate, up to 23 centimeters in length, 8 centimeters wide, sometimes cordate-ovate. Flowers are in panicles or spikes, of varied colors, from white to yellow, purple and different shades of red. Seeds are minute, black, shining, and lens-shaped.

- Ornamental cultivation; rarely spontaneous.
- Certainly introduced.
- Occurs in all warm countries.

- Seeds contain a fatty oil.
- Ethanol extract of seeds yielded 6 compounds viz. 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol, kaempferol, quercetin, β-sitosterol, 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, stigmasterol. (6)
- Phytochemical screening of stem, leaf, and roots yielded starch, protein, tannin, saponin, fat, sugar. Total ash in root, stem, and leaf is 16.2%, 16%, and 12.6% while acid insoluble ash content is 6.3%, 6.5%, and 5.6%. Protein was higher in the leaf than root and stem, while carbohydrate was more in the root than leaf and stem. (11)
- Proximate and amino acid analysis of leaves yielded crude fat 1.10, fiber 3.53, protein 5.17%, and ash content of 22.43%. Study yielded high contents of essential amino acids. Mineral composition (mg/100g) showed calcium 178.08±0.05, chromium 1.98±0.01, copper 3.75±0.30, iron 15.25±0.23, lead 0.83±0.01, magnesium 39.64±0.08, manganese 1.73±0.04, nickel 1.03±0.04, phosphorus 38.41±0.42, potassium 62.34±0.38, sodium 35.25±0.30, zinc 7.25±0.25. (16)

- Considered antibacterial, anthelmintic, astringent, demulcent, haemostatic, hypotensive, ophthalmic.
- Seeds considered demulcent, hypotensive, and ophthalmic.
- Flowers and seeds considered astringent, hemostatic, ophthalmic, parasiticide.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, flowers.

- Tender leaves and young shoots occasionally eaten as vegetable.
- No reported medicinal folkloric use in the Philippines.
- Malays used the plant internally and externally. Decoction used roots used for cough and dysentery..
- Kroo people mix the ashes of burnt plant with water to smear on the body for craw-craw, scabies, etc.
- Seeds used for emollient lotions for eye problems.
- Flowers and seeds used for bloody stools, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and diarrhea.
- In the Cameroons, plant used in prescriptions for rheumatism and dysentery.
- Flowers used for menorrhagia.
- Seeds are used for dysuria, coughs, dysentery, hypertension.
- In India, seeds are used for dysuria and flowers for diarrhea.
- Madugga tribes of
South India use the flowers and seeds crushed in water for cough and diarrhea. Plant also useful for asthma and bronchitis. (9)
- In Indian folk medicine, used for treatment of diabetes mellitus.
- In C
hinese medicine, used to arrest bleeding leukorrhea and diarrhea. Used for hematemesis, abnormal uterine bleeding, hemorrhoidal bleeding, chronic dysentery with persistent diarrhea.
- In Mexico, considered antiscorbutic and antiblennorrhagic.
- Ornamental: Flowers in popular use for the making of wreaths for All Saint's Day.

Betaxanthins / Colorant Property: Study isolated three betaxanthins. The yellow inflorescences exhibited bright yellow color with high color purity. The three betaxanthins had higher pigment retention than amaranthine / isomaranthine. (2)
Anti-Diabetic: Study of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds showed anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (3)
Hepatoprotective Saponin / Cristatain: Study of seeds yielded a new saponin, cristatain, together with four other saponins, celosin A, B, C, and D. Cristatain exhibited hepatoprotective effect on CCl4- and DMF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice with decreases in ALT, AST and ALP. together with histopath evidence. (4)
Lead / Phytoremediation: In a study of three ornamental plants for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soil, only Celosia cristata pyramidalis could be identified as a Pb-accumulator. (7)
Antioxidant / Phytoremediation: Study of antioxidant compounds of a methanolic extract and solvent fractions of flowers showed the total polyphenol, flavonoids, and tannins contents were 6.80, 2.34, and 6.23 mg/g extract residue, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays showed notable antioxidant activity. (8)
Corrosion Inhibitor / Phytoremediation: Celosia argentea showed to be an efficient, eco-friendly and low cost corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in industrial water medium. (10)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of C. argentea leaves by carrageenan paw edema volume method in albino rats. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in methanolic extracts. (12)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the healing efficacy of a 10% leaf ointment formulation using a rat burn wound model. Results showed a salutary action of the extract on wound healing which may be due to mitogenic and motogenic promotion of dermal fibroblasts. (13)
Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal effect of alcoholic leaf extract on castor oil-induced diarrhea, charcoal meal test and PGE2-induced diarrhea. Results showed dose related anti-diarrheal effect via a central effect and PGE2 inhibition. (14)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of different plant parts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis and Celosia argentea extracted with different solvents. Of all the extracts Phyllanthus shoot (methanol) and Celosia inflorescence (ethanol) exhibited the maximum antimicrobial activity. (15)

Seeds in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update September 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Celosia cristata Blanco1.64-original.png/ Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Celosia argentea cristata / Plants For A Future
Chemical Stability and Colorant Properties of Betaxanthin Pigments from Celosia argentea / Yizhong Cai et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49 (9), pp 4429–4435 • DOI: 10.1021/jf0104735
Anti-diabetic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Celosia argentea LINN. Seeds in Rats / Thangarasu Vetrichelvan et al / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin • Vol 25 (2002)
, 526-528 / doi:10.1248/bpb.25.526
A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L. / Yan Wang, Ziyang Lou, Qing-Bin Wu, Meil-Li guo /
Fitoterapia, Vol 81, Issue 8, December 2010, Pages 1246-1252 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.08.011
Celosia cristata L. (accepted name) / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
Study on Chemical Constituents of Celosia cristat Seed / Journal of Jilin Agricultutal University 2010, 32(6) 657-660 / DOI: ISSN: 1000-5684 CN: 22-1100/S
EVALUATION OF THREE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PB-CONTAMINED SOIL / Cui, Shuang; Zhang, Tingan; Zhao, Shanlin; Li, Ping; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Qianru; Han, Qing / International Journal of Phytoremediation, Volume 15, Number 4, 1 April 2013 , pp. 299-306(8)
Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic Extracts from Cockscome (Celosia cristata L.) Flowers / K Woo, J Ko, S Song, J Lee, J Kang, M Seo, D Kwak, B Oh, M Nam, H Jeong / Planta Med 2011; 77 - PM78 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1282836
Celosia argentea L.
/ Synonyms / The Plant List
Phytochemical screening and corrosion inhibitive behavior of Pterolobium hexapetalum and Celosia argentea plant extracts on mild steel in industrial water medium / C.B. Pradeep Kumar, K.N. Mohana / Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, Volume 23, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 201–211
Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigations of Celosia argentea Linn. / Rajni B. Ranjan and Deokule S S / Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013, 4(6).
ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CELOSIA ARGENTEA LEAVES / S. H. Kadam*, S.A. Dombe, P. N. Naikwadi, S. J.Patil, V. Y. Lokhande. / International Journal of Drug Formulation & Research Jan-Feb. 2011, Vol. 2 (1)
Celosia argentea Linn. leaf extract improves wound healing in a rat burn wound model.
/ Priya KS, Arumugam G, Rathinam B, Wells A, Babu M. / Wound Repair Regen. 2004 Nov-Dec;12(6):618-25.
ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF CELOSIA ARGENTEA IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIARRHOEA IN RATS / Praveen Sharma,* Gali Vidyasagar, Sunder Singh, Santosh Ghule, and Bimlesh Kumar / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jan-Mar; 1(1): 41–48.
Antimicrobial Studies of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis And Celosia argentea / S. Swarupa Rani, R.R.Venkata Raju / The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES), Vol 3, Issue 3, Pp 35-38,| 2014
Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves / *J.T. Ayodele and O,S.Olajide / Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (2011), 19 (1): 162-165

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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