HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Pandanaceae
Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

Qi ye lan

Scientific names Common names
Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Pandan-mabango (Tag.)
Pandanus haskarlii Merr. Dwarf screw-pine (Engl.)
Pandanus latifolius Hassk. [Illegitimate] Fragrant screw pine (Engl.)
Pandanus odorus Ridley  
Quisumbing's compilation lists Pandan mabañgo as fragrant screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus).
Padanus odorus Ridl. is a synonyms of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. The Plant List
Padanus amaryllifolius Roxb. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qi ye lan (Taiwan).
DANISH: Pandan, Schroefpalm.
ESTONIAN: Lõhnav Pandan
FINNISH: Kairapalmu
FRENCH: Pandanus.
GERMAN: Schraubenbaum, Schraubenpalme.
HEBREW: Ha-pandanus.
HINDI: Ambemohor Pat, Kenr, Rampe
HUNGARIAN: Csavarpálma Levél, Pandanusz Levél, Panpung Levél
INDONESIAN: Daun Pandan, Pandan Rampeh, Pandan Wangi.
ITALIAN: Pandano.
JAPANESE: Ni-O-I-Ta-Ko-No-Ki, Nioi Tako No Ki, Nioi-Takonoki,
KHMER: Taey.
KOREAN: Pan-Da-Nu-Seu, Pandanusu.
LAO: Tey ban, Tey hom.
LITHUANIAN: Amarilinis Pandanas.
MALAY: Pandan bau, Pandan jelingkeh, Pandan Rampeh, Pandan Wangi
NORWEGIAN: Skrupalme.
SPANISH: Pandan, Pandano.
SWEDISH: Skruvpalm
THAI: Bai toey, Bai toey hom, Panae-wo-nging, Toeihom, Toey, Toey-Hom.

General info
Pandanus is a genus of monocots of about 600 known species, varying in size from small shrubs less than a meter to medium-sized trees of about 20 meters.

In the Philippines there are 48 species of Pandanus, many of them are endemic, growing in various habitats, from sandy beaches, mangroves and primary forests.
The fruit of some species are edible, eaten by bats, rats, crabs, elephants and lizards. The majority of species are dispersed primarily by water.

Pandan-mabango is small, leafy herb, less than 1 meter tall. Stems are cylindrical, sending numerous roots at its nodes where it touches the ground. Leaves form a rosette, and are long and narrow, acute, glossy green and with smooth margins.

Note: Quisumbing's botanical description for pandan mabango (P. odoratissimus) is that of a small plant that does not grow over a meter. It has not been known to flower or fruit in the Philippines.

- Introduced in the Philippines.
- Common along sandy beaches.
- Now, cultivated as an ornamental.
- Also occurs in India, Persia, and Arabia; and cultivated in Malaya.

- Contains an essential oil, bitter and aromatic.
- Perfumed oil, called Kevda oil, is extracted from floral bracts.
- Phytochemical study yielded phenols, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids and flavanoids.
- Study of essential oil showed the major components to be: 2-phenyl ethyl methyl ether (37.7%), terpinen-4-ol (18.6%), α-terpineol (8.3%) and 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol (7.5%). (11)
- Study of air-dried alcoholic extract of dried leaves yielded alkaloids: Pandamarilactone- 1 (2), Pandamarilactam-3x, -3y (5-6), Pandamarilactonine-A, -B, -C (7-9), and 6Z-Pandanamine (13). (9)
Study of crude base of P. amaryllifolius leaves yielded alkaloids, pandamarilactone-1 (1), pandamarilactone-32 (2), pandamarilactonine-A (3) and pandamarilactonine-B (4). (see study below)   (23)
- GC-MS study of leaf essential oil yielded 128 peaks and identified 98 compounds. Main components were phytol (42.16%), squalene (16.81%), pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) among others. (28)

- Oil is considered a stimulant, antispasmodic and antiseptic.
- Roots are diuretic, tonic and depurative.
- Considered cardiotonic, cephalic and aphrodisiac.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, hypoglycemic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, anthers, tops, seeds.

- In the Philippines, leaves are popularly used in the cooking of rice, imparting a pleasant fragrance and flavor.
- Leaves are also used to flavor ice cream and sherbets
- Used in cooking bread for its nutty flavor. .
- In Malaysia, used for coloring and flavoring; also as appetizer.
- Powder made from interior of anthers, smoked for sore throat.
- Roots, brayed in milk, used internally for sterility and threatened abortion.
- Used for small pox and leprosy.
- Ashes of wood used for wound healing.
- Seed concoctions used to strengthen the heart and liver.
- Oil used as stimulant and antispasmodic; used for headaches and rheumatism.
- In India, oil is used as remedy for earache and meatal suppuration.
- In northern India, used for jaundice.
- In Malaysia, said to be a cure for measles, gonorrhea, syphilis, dengue, and anemia.
- Powder made from anthers and tops of bracts used for epilepsy.
Perfumery / Cosmetics: Oil is valued as perfumery and cosmetic ingredient.
Kevda oil, a perfumed oil, is extracted from floral bracts.
- Repellent: Essential oil used as repellent against ordinary cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Powdered leaves used as repellent against Callosobruchus chinensis infestation of mung bean seeds. (26)
- Crafts: Leaves used for making sleeping mats, baskets, and containers.

Antioxidant: Study of methanol and aqueous extracts of P. odoratissimus roots showed higher antioxidant potential in the DPPH scavenging assay and reducing capacity. A positive correlation was found between phenolic and flavonoid content. (1)
Hepatocurative: Study of Ketaki (P. odoratissimus) root decoction on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in albino rats showed it to be hepatocurative but not hepatoprotective. (2)
Antibacterial: (1) Study showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and a potential source for new classes of antibiotics. (2) Study evaluated the in vitro activity of pandan leaves crude extract against bacterial isolates such as S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa.(10)
Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of the methanolic effect of P. odoratissimus against free radical damage showed 87.52% reduction of DPPH and 73.55% inhibition of nitric acid.

Hypoglycemic / 4-hydroxybenzoic acid: Study of root extract of P. odorus showed significant lowering of plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. No significant alteration of plasma glucose was noted in healthy rats. Study isolated a known compound, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, that produced a hypoglycemic effect through increases peripheral glucose consumption. (6)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated a crude extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves for effect on blood glucose level and hypoglycemic mechanisms. Results showed reduction of postprandial blood glucose, stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cell line and inhibition of alpha glucosidase enzyme activity. Study suggests a potential natural source of antihyperglycemic agent. (13)
Effect on Growth of E. Coli and S. aureus / Food Safety Concerns / Leaves: Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves are used in food preparation in Asian countries as flavoring agent. Study evaluated the effect of leaf extracts on the growth of two important microorganisms i.e. E. coli and M. aureus from the point of view of food safety. Study showed the leaf extracts in water and ethanol stimulates the growth of these microorganisms--an alarming signal as both these organisms are capable of producing potent endotoxin and exotoxin. M. aureus produces heat stable exotoxins in rice preparations, which may be due to the reducing sugar content of 17% (glucose) in eaves, extracted during cooking. (14)
Potential as Food Preservative / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of pandan leaves extract in lowering the total count and number of mold on traditional food. Results showed pandan leaves extract contained bioactive compounds like tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and polyphenols. There was no colonization found in Putu Ayu with 15% pandan leaves extract. Results showed pandan leaves extract in concentration of 15% was able to decrease Total Plate Count and number of mold in traditional food. (15)
Effect on Fructose Induced Metabolic Syndrome / Leaves: Study evaluated the ability of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf water extract to reverse the cluster of diseases in a metabolic syndrome rat model induced by fructose in drinking water. Administration of P. amaryllifolius attenuated most of the metabolic syndrome symptoms as well as improved obesity. Results suggest PA which is rich in total flavonoids and total phenolic acids may be suggested as useful dietary supplement to improve metabolic syndrome components induced by fructose. (16)
Effect on Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of P. amaryllifolius leaf extract on insulin resistant state in mice fed on high fat diet. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose level as well as improvement in insulin resistance. There was increased liver glycogen storage and serum adiponectine and decreased serum leptin levels, along with reduced lipid droplet in liver tissue and adipocyte size in epididymal fat tissues. Results showed decrease in several parameters of impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. (17)
Anticancer / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effect of ethanol leaf extracts of P. amaryllifolius. Results showed antimicrobial activities against tested oral bacteria with MICs in range of 32 to 125 µg/ml. Extract exhibited cytotoxicity effect against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HNSCC cell line: HN31) . Antioxidant activity showed reduction of free radical DPPH by about 50%. (18)
Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies / Roots: Study for acute toxicity in male and female rats showed no significant toxicity at oral dose of 5000 mg/kbw. On chronic toxicity testing, at doses of 1, 2, 4, and 8 g/kbw for 180 days. Both oral and acute toxicity studies showed no toxicity in measures of body weight and organ weight, histology and gross examination, hematologic and biochemical parameters. (19)
Insecticidal Against Diamondback Moth / Leaves: Study evaluated the insecticidal effects of chloroform extract of leaves against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. At 72 hours post-exposure at 8 mg/ml concentration there was 86.67% mortality. Larvae mortality and duration of exposure were directly related to the concentration o the leaf extract and inversely related to fecundity. (
Antihyperuricemic / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of P. amarylliflius leaf extracts in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats.. The leaf water extract showed highest total phenols while a petroleum ether extract showed highest total flavonoids. The water extract showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH, metal chelating and H2O2 assays. Treatment with the water extract showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in serum uric acid level by 85% and XO activity by 64%. Results suggest a potential therapeutic option in hyperuricemia treatment. (
Hypolipidemic Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effete of ethanolic extract of P. amaryllifolius leaves on triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic in mice. Oral administration of PA extract significantly reduced total cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels. The extract also inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity with 32% reduction, comparable to positive control, atorvastatin. (
Antimicrobial Alkaloids / Leaves: Study of crude base of P. amaryllifolius leaves yielded alkaloids, pandamarilactone-1 (1), pandamarilactone-32 (2), pandamarilactonine-A (3) and pandamarilactonine-B (4). Compound 3 was most active among the four isolates with MIC of 15.6 µg/mL and MBC of 31.25 µg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (
Extraction of Aroma Compound / Enhancement of Rice Flavor / Leaves: Study reported on the extraction of 2-AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) from pandan leaves. The work reports on phenomena that occur during cooking and storage, in particular, changes to 2-AP absorption when cooking rice grains with pandan leaves. Parameters measured were cooking method of excess and optimal water conditions. Grinding and freeze-drying method revealed the best pre-treatments for supercritical extraction. Study quantified the potential of leaves to enhance the flavor of cooked rice under excess water conditions. Storages for 15 min at 24.0 ± 1.0º C is considered optimum time for obtaining cooked rice with a high quality of flavor. (
Extraction of 2AP in Pandan Leaves: Study showed ethanol was the best solvent to extract 2AP from pandan leaves compared to methanol. Ethanol provided a higher 2AP peak on the chromatogram. No 2AP was detected with propanol. Results suggest polarity of the solvent plays an important role in 2AP extraction. (25)
Prolonged Sleeping Time / Reduced Locomotor Activity / Root: Study evaluated the hypnotic and locomotor effect of root decoction of P. amaryllifolius in mice. Results showed significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in a dose dependent manner 10 minutes after feeding and significantly suppressed locomotor activity in amphetamine-treated mice. The extract also prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. (27)
Anticholinergic / Antihistaminergic: Study evaluated the interaction of ethanolic extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius with cholinergic and histaminergic receptors in the guinea pig ileum. Results showed competitive reversible antagonistic effects on actions of histamine or acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum.    (29)
Effect on Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensorial Quality of Ice Cream / Leaves: Study showed increase in pandan juice concentrations did not significantly affect (p<0.05) the sensorial attributes of tested ice cream samples. However, it significantly (p>0.05) increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant property of pandan ice creams. (
• Potential Treatment for Cholera / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial property of P. amaryllifolius against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. A methanol extract was shown to inhibit the growth of Vibrio cholera and C. freundii. Further studies were suggested to find out the anti-cholerae compound of the methanol extract. (

Small scale commercial production.

Updated January 2020 / January 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Datei:Pandan (screwpine) leaves.JPG / Pandanus amaryllifolius, Pandanaceae / Dekoelie / 24-12-04 / Creative Commons / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: File:Kewda / (Pandanus odoratissimus).jpeg / Razib Mustafiz / 2 March 2009 / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / (Pandanus odoratissimus).jpeg / Dreamstime / Click on image to go to source page / Dreamstime

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant Activity and HPTLC Analysis of Pandanus odoratissimus L. Root
/ J. M. Sasikumar, U Jinu and R Shamna / European Journal of Biological Sciences 1 (2): 17-22, 2009
Hepatoprotective and hepatocurative activity of the traditional medicine ketaki (Pandanus odoratissimus
Roxb.) - An experimental evaluation
/ Ilanchezhian R, Roshy Joseph. C / asianjtm
Antimicrobial Effects And Phytochemical Studies Of Various Extracts Of Pandanus Odoratissimus Linn. /
Ramesh L. Londonkar, Abhaykumar Kamble / Trade Science Inc., Short Communication, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2009
Essential oil composition of ‘kewda’ (Pandanus odoratissimus) from India / V K Raina, Ajai Kumar et al /
Flavour Fragr. J. 2004; 19: 434–436
Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Pandanus odoratissimus. / Londonkar, R.; Kamble, A. /
International Journal of Pharmacology 2009 Vol. 5 No. 6 pp. 377-380
Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity - A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000) / Mohamed Bnouham, Abderrahim Ziyyat et al / Int J Diabetes & Metabolism (2006) 14: 1-25
Pandan Wangi / GLOBinMED
Pandanus amaryllifolius / Common Names / ZipcodeZoo
Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius Collected from Marikina, Philippines / Daisy C. Lopez* and Maribel G. Nonato / Philippine Journal of Science, June 2005; 134 (1): pp 39-44
In Vitro Activity of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Leaves Crude Extract Against Selected Bacterial Isolates
/ Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal, Ladylyn B. Alaras, Karen G. Dahilan, Sarah, Andrea A. Depadua, Christine Joy G. Pulmones / JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal, 2010; Vol 4, No 1 / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7719/jpair.v4i1.103

Extraction of Pandanus Amaryllifolius essential oil from pandan leaves / Nur Syazwani, Ghazali (2011) / Open Access Repository of UMP Research and Publication
Pandanus amaryllifolius / The Plant List
Antihyperglycemic effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract / Anchalee Chiabchalard and Nattakarn Nooron / Pharmacognosy Magazine
Effect of Leaf Extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Roxb.) on growth of Escherichia coli and Micrococcus (Staphylococcus) aureus. / Faras A F, Waadkar S S, Jai Ghosh / International Food Research Journal, Jan 2014; 21(1): pp 421-423
Pandan leaves extract (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb) as a food preservative / Resmi Aini, Ana Mardiyaningsih / Indonesian Jounal of Medicine and Health, 2016; 7(4): pp 166-173 / DOI: 10.20885/JKKI.Vol7.Iss4.art8
The effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Roxb.) leaf water extracts on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rat model / Nur Hidayah Reshidan, Suhaila Abd Muid, and Norshalizah Mamikutty / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019; 19, Article no 232 / PMID: 31462242 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2627-0
Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extract increases insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice / Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Jarinyaporn Naowaboot, Nuntiya Somarn / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Oct 2016; 6(10): pp 866-871 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.010
Antioxidant Anti-Cancer and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract (In Vitro) - A potential medical application / Suttipalin Suwannakul, Plykaeow Chaibenjawong, Suttasinee Suwannakul / Journal of International Dental and Medical Researh, 2018; 11(2): pp 383-389
Acute and Chronic Toxicities of Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb. Water Extract from the Roots in Rats / Seewaboon Sireeratawong, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Nirush Lertprasertsuke, Kanjana Jaijoy / SOJ Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016; 3(2): pp 1-7 / / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/2374-6866/3/2/00140
Toxicity of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. chloroform extract against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella(Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) / Imthithal I J, Wan Aida Wan Mustapha, and Idris A B / AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018; 1940, 020034 /  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5027949
In vitro antioxidant and in vivo xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Pandanus amaryllifolius in potassium oxonate‐induced hyperuricemic rats / Nur Afira Ahmad Shukor, Abdulwali Ablat Nur Airina Muhamad, Jamaludin Mohamad / International Journal of Food Science & Technlogy, 2018; 53(6) / https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13728
Hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves on triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice / Ngoc Trinh HuynhMs., Duong Ngoc Thoi Nguyen, Manh Hung Tran / Intternational Journal o Pharmacological Research, 2018; 8(12)
Antimicrobial alkaloids from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius / Hanna Mae C. Laluces, Atsushi Nakayama, Maribel G. Nonato, Thomas Edison dela Cruz, Mario A. Tan / J App Pharm. Sci., 2015; 5(10); pp 151-153 / doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.501026
Extraction of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline (2AP) in Pandan Leaves (Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb.) Via Solvent Extraction Method: Effect of Solvent / Norzita Ngadi, Noor Yahida Yahya / UTM, Jurnal Teknologi, 67(2)
Pandanus amaryllifolius / Ke Fern / Useful Tropical Plants
Pandanus amaryllifolius Root Extract Prolongs Sleeping Time and Reduces Locomotor Activity in Mice / P. Peungvicha, Y. Wongkrajang, B. Kongsaktrakoon, R. Temsiririrkul2 and H. Watanabe / Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 41(3): pp 6-12
Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves / Chenk XK et al / Zhong Yao Cai, 2014; 37(4): pp 616-620 / PubMed ID 25345137
Pandanus Amaryllifolius Extract has Anticholinergic and Antihistaminergic Effects in the Guinea Pig Ileum / Peng Nam Yeoh, Kah Yen Koh, Jo Ann Lee, Yu Sui Chen, Mohd Azlan Nafiah / The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2013; 4 04 / DOI: 10.2174/2210289201304010065]
Effect of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Juice Concentrations on Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity and Sensorial Quality of Cocoa Butter-Based Ice Cream / Chin Hui Han / 20th World Congress on Nutrition & Food Sciences, July 9-10, 2018, Sydney, Australia

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT