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Family Sapindaceae
Parol-parolan
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn.
HEART PEA, BALLOON VINE
Tao ti ling

Scientific names Common names
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Alalayon (C. Bis.)
  Bangkolan (Tag.) 
  Kana (Bis.) 
  Layaw (Tag.)
  Lobo-lobohan (Tag.) 
  Paltu-paltukan (Pamp.) 
  Paria-aso (Ilk.)
  Parol-parolan (Tag.) 
  Paspalya (Ilk.) 
  Heart pea (Engl.) 
  Heart seed (Engl.)
  Ballon vine (Engl.) 
  Love-in-a-puff vine (Engl.) 
  Showy baloon vine (Engl.)
  Smooth leaved heart pea (Engl.)
  Tao ti ling (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Dao di ling, Feng chuan ge, Jin si ku lian teng, Ye ku gua, Bao fu cao.
FRENCH: Coeur des Indes, Pois de coeur.
INDONESIAN: Ketipes, Pari gunung, Cenet.
MALASIAN: Peria buian, Uban kayu, Bintang berahi.
THAI: Kok kra om, Pho on, Luupleep khruea.
VIETNAMESE: T[aaf]m phong, Ch[uf]m phong.

Botany
Parol-parolan is a slender, herbaceous, more or less hairy vine, 1 to 3 meters in length.
Leaves are trifoliate, and 5 to 9 centimeters long. Leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, and 1 to 5 centimeters long, with coarsely toothed or lobed margins. Flowers are small, white, and about 2.5 millimeters long. Sepals are 4, concave, the outer ones small. Petals are 4, two larger ones usually adhering to the sepals and with an emarginate scale above the base, the smaller 2 ones distant from the stamens. Stamens are 8, eccentric, filaments free or connate at the base. Ovary is 3-celled, style 3-fid, ovules solitary. Fruits are inflated, obovoid, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long, somewhat triangular and 3-keeled. Seeds are round and black, with a prominent, white, heart-shaped aril at the base.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines in thickets and waste places, etc., in the settled areas.
- Certainly introduced into the Archipelago.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
• Plant yields saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, apigenin, phytosterols, glycosides and cardiac glycosides.

Fruit of the seeds yielded an essential oil, bitter and stimulant.
Analysis of seed oil yielded the main constituents as erucic acid 43%, oleic acid 30%, eicosanic acid 12%, octanoic acid 4.5%, and n-hexa decanoic acid 4.15%.
(See studies) (11)
An ethanol extract yielded seventeen compounds, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (3), apigenin 7- O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester (4), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide ethyl ester (5), chrysoeriol (6), apigenin (7), kaempferol (8), luteolin (9), quercetin (10), methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (11), p-coumaric acid (12), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), hydroquinone (14), protocathehuic acid (15), gallic acid (16), and indole-3-carboxylic acid (17). (18)

Properties
• Mild, bitter and pungent tasting, cooling in effect.
• Considered antiphlogistic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, blood refrigerant, anti-infectious, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, stomachic, sudorific.

Uses
Nutrition / Culinary
• Leaves are edible.
• Leaves and young shoots, cooked, used as spinach.

Folkloric
• In the Philippines, decoction of roots used as diaphoretic, and used for catarrh of the bladder.
• Leaves are used internally as a beverage as an anti-rheumatic; externally applied as oil embrocations.
• Cold, fever, renal edema, urinary tract infections.
• Furuncle, carbuncle, eczema.
• Sprains and external wounds.
• Dosage: use 12 to 15 gms dried material or 15 to 30 gms fresh material in decoction. Pounded fresh material may be used as poultice, decoction of fresh material may be used as external wash.
• Elsewhere, poultice of leaves used for rheumatism, swellings, orchitis, and dropsy.
• Used as a hair wash.
• Leaf juice used for earaches or meatal discharges.
• Plant used as diuretic, stomachic, rubefacient, cholagogue, and pectoral.
• Decoction of root and leaves used for rheumatism, nervous diseases, piles, chronic bronchitis, and phthisis; also used for amenorrhea.
• In Sindh, roots used as diaphoretic, diuretic, and aperient. Decoction of roots used for piles and amenorrhea.
• Roots used as emetic and laxative.
• Fried leaves are applied to the pubis to increase menstrual flow in amenorrhea.
• Leaves boiled in castor oil applied for rheumatism, pains, swellings, tumors of various kinds.
• In the Malabar coast, leaves are used for pulmonary complaints.
• In Martinique, leaves are used as diuretic and stimulant.
• In Ayurveda, used for rheumatism, fever and earache.

Others
• Seed oii reported to be an effective insect repellent.



Studies
Antifilarial: Study of extracts of CH was done on adult worms and microfilariae of Brugia pahangi. Results showed that the aqueous extracts had mild but definite direct macrofilarial action on B pahangi. (2)
Antiparasitic: Extracts of CH tested in vitro against third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis showed immobilization (nonmotility) rates better than ivermectin and piperazine.
(3)
Antidiarrheal: Study showed the antidiarrheal activity of the extracts of C halicacabum, probably due to the presence of phytochemicals–sterols, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes. (4)
Antiinflammatory: Study showed inhibitory effects of CH leaf extract on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. CH exhibited antiinflammatory properties that justifies its use in rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study showed the ethanol extract dose-dependently inhibited mRNA expression of COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. (5)
Antihyperglycemic: Study in STZ diabetic rats show that CHE extract possesses a dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity - decreasing plasma glucose and HbA1c, increasing levels of insulin and Hb. and provides evidence for its traditional use in diabetes control. (6)
Anxiolytic: Study of mice in various anxiety models showed the alcoholic and aqueous extract of C. helicacabum possess anti-anxiety activity. The results explains the mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of C. helicacabum. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of whole plant for anti-inflammatory activity in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. Results showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity with dose-dependent inhibition of mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-alpha, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression. (9)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: An ethanolic extract of CH exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing TNF-a and NO. The mechanism might be related to the decrement of the level of MDA in the edema paw via increased activities of CAT, SOT, and GPx. Results showed a potential as natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
(10)
Essential Oil / Seeds / Anti-Inflammatory: Analysis of seed oil yielded the main constituents as erucic acid 43%, oleic acid 30%, eicosanic acid 12%, octanoic acid 4.5%, and n-hexa decanoic acid 4.15%. The constituents may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. (13)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Analysis of leaves yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and saponins. The extract exhibited marked concentration dependent antimicrobial activity. (14)
Cortisone-like Effects / Leaves: Collection of data suggests Cardiospermum halicacabum has a potential for use in many forms of skin inflammation, safe for in pediatric, adult, and elderly dermatitis conditions like atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, keratosis, lichenification, seborrheic dermatitis, cradle cap, and sun rashes, with activity that mimics cortisone without the phenomenon of photosensitization. (15)
Free Radical Scavenging / Seeds: Various extracts of seeds were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed good dose-dependent activity on all models of test doses. (16)
Anticonvulsant / Root Extract: Study evaluated an alcoholic root extract on various murine models of epilepsy. Results showed significnt anticonvulsant activity with a low motor toxicity profile. The activity was attributed to an increase in Gabardine activity. (17)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Updated September 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Cardiospermum halicacabum / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 2: 501. / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS /Cardiospermum halicacabum L. - balloon vine CAHA13 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Cardiospermum halicacabum / European Agency for Evaluation of Medicinal Products
(2)
In vitro antifilarial activity of extracts of the medicinal plant Cardiospermum halicacabum against Brugia pahangi / Khunkitt W, Fujimaki Y, Aoki Y / Journal of Helminthology (2000), 74:241-246 Cambridge University Press
(3)
In vitro antiparasitic activity of extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum against third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis / T Boonmars, W Khunkitti et al / Parasitology Research / Volume 97, Number 5 / November, 2005
(4)
Pharmacological investigation of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) in different animal models of diarrhoea / N Venkat Rao, K Chandra Prakash, SM Shanta Kumar / RESEARCH PAPER Year : 2006 | Volume : 38 | Issue : 5 | Page : 346-349
(5)
Cardiospermum halicacabum suppresses the production of TNF-alpha and Nitric oxide by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 9 (2006); 95 - 99
(6)
Antihyperglycemic effect of C halicacabum leaf extract on STZ-induced diabetic rats / Chinnadurai Veeramani, Ganesan Pushpavalli, Kodukkur Pugalendi / Journ of Appl Biomed. 6:19-26,2008
(7)
Pharmacognostic and Physico-Chemical Studies on the Leaves of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. / Patil A G, Joshi, K A, Patil, D A et al / Pharmacognosy Journal, Jan 30,2010, Volume 2, No. 5, Pp 44-49.
(8)
Anxiolytic activity of root extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum in mice / Shailesh Malaviya, K Nandakumar et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
(9)
Cardiospermum halicacabum ethanol extract inhibits LPS induced COX-2, TNF-alpha and iNOS expression, which is mediated by NF-kappaB regulation, in RAW264.7 cells / Sheeba MS, Asha VV / J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul 6;124(1):39-44. Epub 2009 Apr 23.
(10)
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum and its reference compounds ex vivo and in vivo. / Huang M H, Huang S S, Wang B S et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):743-50. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

(11)
Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(12)
Cardiospermum halicacabum / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(13)
Essential oil from the seeds of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. var. microcarpum / G.Jayanthi, T. Sathishkumar, T. Senthilkumar, M. Jegadeesan / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2012; 2(3): 177-179
(14)
Phytochemical and Anti-Microbial Studies on the Leaves Extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn / T Deepan, V Alekhya, P Saravanakumar, M D Dhanaraju / Advances in Biological Research 01/2012; 6(1):14-18. DOI:10.5829/idosi.abr.2012.6.1.56393
(15)
Cardiospermum halicacabum for the treatment of dermatitis / Cardiospermum halicacabum - Sapindaceae family: a plant with a cortison-like action as a valid alternative to traditional dermatological applications /
DANILO CARLONI / H&PC Today (Household and Personal Care Today), Vol. 7(4) October/December 2012
(16)
Free radical scavenging potential of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume seeds / G.Jayanthi, T.Sathishkumar, T.Senthilkumar and M.Jegadeesan / Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2012; 2(4): 41-48
(17)
Anticonvulsant activity of alcoholic root extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum / Daniel DhayabaranI; Jeyaseeli FloranceI; Nandakumar Krsihnadas*, II; IndumathiIII; MuralidharIII / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.3 Curitiba May/June 2012 Epub Jan 24, 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000017
(18)
Antiinflammatory and Antioxidant Flavonoids and Phenols from Cardiospermum halicacabum
/ Hui-Ling Cheng, Li-Jie Zhang, Yu-Han Liang, Ya-Wen Hsu, I-Jung Lee, Chia-Ching Liaw, Syh-Yuan Hwang, Yao-Haur Kuo / Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2013, Vol 3, No 1, pp 33-40



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