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Family Sapindaceae
Nephelium lappaceum Linn.
Shao tzu

Scientific names   Common names  
Nephelium lappaceum Linn. Rambutan (Tag.)
Scytalia ramboutan Roxb.                     Usan (Bik.)
Accepted infraspecifics (3) Usare (Sul.)
Nephelium lappaceum var. lappaceum Usau (Bis.)
Dimocarpus crinitus Lour. Hairy lychee (Engl.)
Euphorbia crinita (Lour.) Poir. Ramboutanier (Engl.)
Euphorbia glabra Blume  
Euphorbia nephelium Poir.  
Euphorbia nephelium DC.  
Euphorbia ramb-outan Labill.  
Nephelium echinatum Noronha  
Nephelium glabrum (Blume) Cambess.  
Nephelium glabrum Noronha  
Nephelium glabrum var. sufferugineum (Radlk.) Ridl.  
Nephelium lappaceum var. glabrum (Blume) Blume  
Nephelium maculatum Radlk.  
Nephelium obovatum Ridl.  
Nephelium pallens Radlk.  
Nephelium rambutan Schnizl.  
Nephelium rimosum G.Don  
Nephelium rubia Walp.  
Nephelium sufferugineum Radlk.  
Nephelium variabile Wall. ex Voigt  
Scytalia crinita (Lour.) Raeusch.  
Scytalia rimosa Roxb.  
Nephelium lappaceum var. pallens (Hiern) Leenh.  
Euphorbia chrysea (Blume) Korth. ex Miq.  
Nephelium chryseum Blume  
Nephelium mutabile var. pallens Hiern  
Nephelium lappaceum var. xanthioides (Radlk.) Leenh.  
Nephelium xanthioides Radlk.  
Nephelium lappaceum L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hong mao dan, Shao tzu.
DUTCH: Ramboetan.
FRENCH: Litchi chevelu, Ramboutan, Ramboutanier.
HINDI: Ramboostan.
ITALIAN: Nefelio.
JAPANESE: Ranbuutan
KHMER: Chle sao mao, Saaw maaw, Ser mon.
KOREAN: Ram bu t'an.
MALAY: Rambutan, Rambutan jantan, Anak sekolah.
RUSSIAN: Rambutan.
SPANISH: Rambután.
THAI: Ngoh, Phruan.
VIETNAMESE: Chôm chôm, Vai thiêù.

Gen info
• Sapindaceae family includes about 125 genera and more than 1000 species of shrubs and trees. In the Philippines, there are 33 genera and 124 species belonging to the family.
• Rambutan
is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae.
• In the 13th to 15th centuries, Arab traders introduced rambutans to Zanzibar and Pemba of East Africa, subsequently spreading to tropical Americas. In 1912, rambutans were introduced to the Philippines from Indonesia. (53)
Etymology: Rambutan is derived from the Malay word rambut meaning "hair" referring to the many hairy protuberances of the fruits. In Vietnam, they are called chom chom meaning "messy hair". (53) The genus name Nephelium derives from Greek, meaning "a little cloud", while the specific epithet lappaceum derives from Latin lappaceus, meaning burr-like, referring to the fruit appendages. (55)
• There are over 200 cultivars developed from selected clones from tropical Asia.
• Cultivars from Jakarta, Indonesia were introduced and eventually set up in commercial orchards, notably in Laguna, Davao, Oriental Mindoro, and Bukidnon. These cultivars are Seematjan, Seenjonja, and Maharlika, now grown in commercial scale in many parts of the Philippines. A 2010 report revealed a total area of 5,743.08 hectares planted to rambutan with a volume production of 12,743.16 metric tonnes. Among the 16 regions, Calabarzone and Soccksargen ranked first and second. (59)
• In the Quezon/Tagalog area, two cultivars are distinguished by their seed: Supsupin: The fruit and seed are difficult to separate, its runny juice and the pulp needing vigorous sucking  from cracked fruit; Tuklapin (Maharlika), the fruit variety with the pulp and seed easily separating from the rind, the the pulp cleanly separating from the seed. (53) RR is a recent variety of Tuklapin, said to be more delicious, also, more expensive.
• As of 2014; Thailand was the largest producer of rambutans, growing  450,000 tonnes, followed by Indonesia at 100,000 tons, and Malaysia at 60,000 tonnes. (53)

• Rambutan is an evergreen, bushy tree, growing to a height of 20 meters, with a dense, low, round and spreading crown. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 40 centimeters long, with 3 to 8 leaflets. The leaflets are elliptic, 7.5 to 20 centimeters long, and 3.5 to 8 centimeters wide. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant, very small, without petals, and borne on axillary panicles. Fruit is oblong, 4 to 5 centimeters long, red to yellow, covered with thick, coarse hairs or soft spines. Pulp is edible, white, opaque, translucent, juicy and sweet.

• Nephelium lappaceum is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 15–24 meters (49–79 ft). Leaves are alternate, 14–30 cm long, pinnate, with three to 11 leaflets, each leaflet 5–15 cm wide and 3–10 cm broad, with an entire margin. Flowers are small, 2.5–5 mm, apetalous, discoidal, and borne in erect terminal panicles 15–30 cm wide. Trees can be male (producing only staminate flowers and, hence, produce no fruit), female (producing flowers that are only functionally female), or hermaphroditic (producing flowers that are female with a small percentage of male flowers). Fruit is a round to oval single-seeded drupe, 3–6 cm (rarely to 8 cm) long and 3–4 cm broad, borne in a loose pendant cluster of 10–20 together. Skin is leathery, reddish (rarely orange or yellow) and covered with fleshy pliable spines, hence the name, which means 'hairs'. Spines (also known as "spinterns") contribute to the transpiration of the fruit, which can affect the fruit's quality. Fruit flesh, the aril, is translucent, whitish, or very pale pink, with a sweet, mildly acidic flavor reminiscent of grapes. Single seed is glossy brown, 1–1.3 cm, with a white basal scar. (53)

- Native to the Philippines. (33)
- Also published as introduced from Indonesia.
- Cultivated in most parts of the Philippines.

- Also native to Borneo, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (33)

• Seeds yield 40-48 % rambutan tallow. The insoluble fatty acids of the tallow contain about 45 percent oleic acid. The tallow contains abundant arachin, some stearin and olein.
- The seeds have traces of an alkaloid, sugar 1.25%, starch 25%, and ash 2%.
- Flesh or pulp of the fruit yields saccharose 7.8^%, dextrose 2.25%, levulose 1.25%,
- Fruit contains fat 35%, ash 2%, vitamin C 4%.
- The shoots yield saponin.
-The testa of the seed is toxic due to the presence of Nephelium saponin and tannin.
- Methanolic extract of peels isolated ellagic acid (1), corilagin (2), and geraniin (3). The compounds accounted for 69.3% of the ME, with geraniin (56.8%) as the major component. (see study below) (6)
- Seeds were abundant in fats (38.9%); protein and carbohydrates were 12.4% and 48% respectively. Seed oil showed an acid value of 0.37%; iodine value, 37.64%; and saponification value, 157.07. Major fatty acids were oleic acid (40.45%) and arachidic acid (36.36%). AOO (arachidoyl-dioleoylglycerol) was the major triacylglycerol compound of rambutan seed oil (49.84%). (24)
- Analysis for anti-nutrient components yielded saponin, alkaloid, hydrocyanic acid, phenols, oxalate, tannins, phytates on fresh and dried samples of pulp, seeds, and rind. (see study below) (25)
- Analysis showed the seeds to be abundant in fats (38.9%); protein was 12.4% and carbohydrate 48%. Seed oil analysis showed acid value (0.37%), iodine value (37.64%), and saponification value 157.07. Major fatty acids were oleic acid (40.45%) and arachidic acid (36.36%). Triacylglycerol analysis of the seed oil showed AOO (arachidoyl-dioleoylglycerol) as the major compound (49.84%). (29)
- Nutritive analysis analysis of fruit yielded 84 calories per 100 gram serving; fat, 0.1 gram per serving; protein, 0.7-0.9 grams; carbohydrates, 14-14.5 grams.
- Nutrient analysis of seed and seed oil yielded oil content 38.90 ± 0.32%, proteins 12.40 ± 0.22%, carbohydrate 48.10 ± 0.65%, ash 2.26 ± 0.42%, moisture 3.31 ± 0.43%, water activity 0.73 ± 0.001, saponification value 157.07 ± 3.70 SV, iodine value 37.64 ± 0.59, free fatty acid 0.37 ± 0.16. (36)
- Study on mineral content of seed oil in µg/gm yielded Mg 51.01 ± 1.80, Mn 1.62 ± 0.30, Ni 0.24 ± 0.001, Cu 0.83 ± 0.04, Zn 40.61 ± 0.70, Ca 160.31 ± 7.90, Fe 24.77 ± 4.10. (36)
- Fruit peel extract contents include geraniin, ellagic acid, quercetin, rutin, corilagin, ethyl gallate, gallic acid, and epigalocatechin-3-galate. Geraniin is the largest constituent compound. (60)

• Fruit is considered astringent, stomachic, vermifuge, febrifuge.
- Seeds reported as bitter and narcotic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative, biosorbent, antiadipogenesis, anti-mutagenic, antiviral, properties.

Parts utilized
Roots, leaves and bark.

- Fruits are succulent. (see nutritive analysis above) (36)
- Fruits have a short shelf-life; commonly used for making jams and jellies, or canned.
- While seeds are considered waste product of processing, they are edible, roasted or baked.

- The sarcotesta is  sweet-tasting, rich in vitamin C (22-47 mg/100g in Hawaii-grown cultivars). It is eaten fresh, canned in syrup, cooked in stew, or dehydrated as chips. (55)
- The Malays use a decoction of roots for fevers; the leaves for poulticing, and the bark as astringent for diseases of the tongue.
- Fruit decoction used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Edible pulp (aril) is used as an refrigerant in fevers.
- In China, fruit is recommended for severe dysentery, and as a warm carminative in "cold" dyspepsia.
- In Malaya, astringent bark is used as remedy for thrush. Decoction of roots taken as febrifuge. source
Oil: Seed used to extract oil.
Wood: Wood is moderately hard to very hard, strong, and tough. Generally resistant to insect attacks. Wood is easy to work with and can be finished well. (48)
Tannin or dyestuff: Young shoots produce a green color on silk that is first dyed yellow with tumeric. Leaves are used, together with mud, to produced an impermanent black dye. (48)
Wax: The seed kernel can be used for the production of tallow, a solid fat similar to cacao butter, which is used for soap and candles. (48)

Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study yielded high amounts of phenolic compounds in the peel extracts, highest in the methanolic extract, exhibiting higher antioxidant activity than the seed extracts. All peel extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria. (1)
Phytochemicals / Monoterpene Lactones: Study isolated two new diasteromeric monoterpene lactones 1 and 2. Both underwent antimicrobial testing. (2)
Antioxidant in Rinds: The normally discarded rind was found to have extremely high antioxidant activity. The study of the extract revealed high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity with cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials. (3)
Antiviral / Anti-Herpes: Tested for anti HSV-1 virus activity, N lappaceum significantly affected the development of skin lesions and reduced mortality. (4)
Cancer Chemopreventive / Waste Product / Rind: Study of NL extract showed an antiproliferative effect associated with apoptosis. The extract induced G2/M arrest of HOS indicating inhibition of cell cycle progression as one of the mechanisms. Extract was non-cytotoxic to normal cells at its inhibitory concentration. The study showed a potential for the rind, an underutilized waste product of Nephelium lappaceum.| (5)
Antioxidant in Peels / Elliagitannins: The methanolic extract of NL peels exhibited strong antioxidant properties. Study isolated ellagic acid, corilagin, and geraniin. Geraniin was the major (56.8%) was the major component, and exhibited much greater antioxidant activities than BHT in both lipid peroxidation (77-186 fold) and DPPH (42-87 fold) assays. The ellagitannins, principal components of rambutan peels present as potential for utilization in both food and medical industry. (see constituents above) (6)
Fatty Acid Synthase / Potential Cancer and Obesity Therapeutics: Natural products inhibiting fatty acid synthase are potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. Study isolated 10 compounds in NL, including flavonoids and oleane-type triterpene oligoglycosides. Compounds 8 and 9 were hederagenin derivatives. The isolates showed inhibitory activity against FAS. Results suggest the hulls of NL may be a potential source of promising FAS inhibitors. (7)
Anthocyanins / Antioxidant: Anthocyanins, known to possess high antioxidant activity, were extracted from rambutan pericarp tissue. However, the pericarp tissue is usually discarded as waste. Results suggest a potential for extraction of health-beneficial bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, with potential benefit to the rambutan industry. (8)
Seed and Seed Oil / Physiochemical and Nutritional Composition: Seeds were found abundant in fats (38.(%), protein (12.4%), carbohydrate (48%). Seed oil yielded oleic acid (40.45%) and arachidic acid (36.36%) as major fatty acid. Results showed rambutan seed is a potential source of oil or carbohydrate for the human diet and for food product application. (9)
Geraniin / Anti-Hyperglycemic: Study described rapid isolated of geraniin. In addition to high antioxidant activity and low pro-oxidant capability, geraniin showed in vitro hypoglycemic activity and aldol reductase inhibition activity, and was able to prevent the formation of advanced glycation end-products. Results support the used of a geraniin-standardized N. lappaceum extract for the management of hyperglycemia. (10)
Seed Waste as Source of Fat: Study reported that the seed kernel of rambutan, a product generally considered waste material, can be used as a sustainable source of fats. Seed kernels yield a considerable amount of fat and high arachidic acid that makes the fat highly stable to oxidation, and a potential source of industry fats. (12) (13)
Ellagitannins / Antioxidant: Study isolated ellagitanins (1) ellagic acid (2) corilagin and (3) geraniin. Geraniin was the major component, exhibiting much greater antioxidant activities than BHT in both lipid peroxidation and DPPH assay. Results suggest use of the isolated ellagitannins from the peels for both medicine and food industry.
New Hederagenin Glycoside: A new oleane-type triterpene oligoglycoside, hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-i-D-xylopyranosyl)-(13)-h- L-arabinopyranoside, together with four known compounds, was isolated from the hull of Nephelium lappaceum. (14)
Fruit Rind Safety / Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Potential: Studies have suggested the fruit rind can be considered an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agent. Study of ethanol extract showed no toxicity in doses up to 5g/kg. Results suggest rambutan rind extract should be safe for use in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. (16)
Anti-Inflammatory / Rind / Collagen-Induced Arthritis: Study evaluated the protective efficacy of an ethanol extract of N. lappaceum rind against collagen-induced arthritis in rats. N. lappaceum rind extract showed significant and dose-dependent suppression of the physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes produced during collagen-induced arthritis in rats. N. lappaceum extract supplementation may be beneficial in preventing the tissue damage and inflammatory conditions in arthritis. (17)
Thermal Properties of Monoglycerides / Natural Source of Saturated and Monosaturated Fatty Acids: Paper studied the transformations of reserve lipids of species of Nephelium lappaceum, exploring the transition from native triglycerides to pure monglycerides. Results suggest useful applications in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. (18)
Hepatoprotective / Rind: Study evaluated the protective effect of a rind extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicities in mice. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect through improvement of GSH content. (19)
Antibacterial / Rind: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of rambutan rinds and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against pathogenic bacteria. Results showed crude extracts to have a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity , with greatest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. (20)
Antidiabetic / Seed Infusion: Study evaluated the effect of rambutan seed infusion on blood sugar levels and body weight of mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and body weight of mice. The effect was comparable to glibenclamide.(21)
Antiproliferative / Breast, Cervical and Osteosarcoma Cancer Cell Lines: A methanolic yellow NLPE showed most potent cytotoxic activity against several tested cancerous cell line. The yellow NLPE may represent an experimental therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment. (22)
Biocoagulant / Seed / Turbidity Removal: Study evaluated the ability of coagulation performance of rambutan seed in comparison to alum for potential use in turbidity removal in water and wastewater treatment industry. 1 M NaCl was an effective solvent for extracting the active coagulant agent in rambutan seed, with about 99 % turbidity removal. Results suggest a potential for using rambutan biomass as biocoagulant. (23)
Seed and Seed Oil Composition: Study showed rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) seed is a potential source of oil or carbohydrate for the human diet and also for food product application. (See constituents above) (24)
Anti-Nutrient Contents / Pulp, Seeds and Rind: Study for anti-nutrient content of pulp, seeds, and rind of N. lappaceum yielded saponin, alkaloid, hydrocyanic acid, phenols, oxalate, tannins, phytates. The anti-nutrient constituents were in small insignificant amounts in all parts of the fruit. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, and phenol were significantly high in the rind while phytate and oxalate were significantly high in the seeds. (25)
Antibacterial / Seeds: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of aqueous seed extracts of Nephelium lappaceum and Litchi chinensis. Both extracts showed moderate inhibition against pathogenic bacteria viz. gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) bacteria. (26)
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies / Rind: Study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract in male Wistar rats. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality or sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. (27)
Polyphenol Oxidase / Peel: Polyphenol oxidase is a common copper containing enzyme responsible for melanization in animals and browning in plants. Among the most effective inhibitor for the enzyme with 10mM catechol as substrate was ascorbic acid. (28)
Seed and Seed Oil: Study analyzed the physiochemical and nutritional composition of seeds of Nephelium lappaceum. Results suggest rambutan seed has the potential as a source of oil or carbohydrate for the human diet and food application. (see constituents above) (29)
Inhibitory Potential on Adipogenesis / Seeds: Study evaluated the phytochemical content and inhibitory potential
of rambutan seeds extract and fractions on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), α-glucosidase, and triglyceride activities ex vivo in 3T3-L1 cell line (pre-adipocytes) for antidiabetic and antidiapogenesis agent screening. Results showed the seed extract and hexane fraction to possess inhibitory potential on G6PDH and α-glucosidase as well as TG level. (30)
Cocoa Butter Substitute / Seed Fat: Study is an overview of the compositional data of Nephelium lappaceum and rambutan seed fat for usage in chocolate product. Study suggests rambutan seed fat can be used as substitute in cocoa butter chocolate products. The extracted fat from the seed can be used for manufacturing candles, soaps, and fuels; also, as a possible source of natural edible fat. (32)
Study showed the fat composition of rambutan seeds ranges from 14 to 41 g/100g. Study has shown that rambutan has a comparatively high quantity of fat, ranging from 17 to 39% (Morton, 1987; Zee, 1993). The seed's extracted fat can be a source of organic dietary fat suitable for the industry. When temperatures are low, the seed fat has a softer consistency than cocoa butter, and when temperatures are high, it becomes harder. Also, as a softer filling fat compatible with cocoa butter, rambutan fat is useful in the production of filled chocolate. (52)
• Antioxidant from Peel Waste: Study reports on the extraction of one of its bioactive compounds, geraniin, a polyphenol compound from the rambutan peel (red or yellow). The highest total phenolic content was found in red rambutan variety at 1:15 g/mL ratio. On antioxidant evaluation, FRAP ranged from 3800.25 ± 86.49 to 4115.5 ± 88.41 (µmol Fe2+/g DW), flavonoid 6.41 ± 0.48 to 8.57 ± 0.35 (mg Quercetin/g DW) and total phenolic recovery of 297.78 ± 4.06 to 358.42 ± 4.63 (mg GAE/g DW). (34)
• Rambutan Peel Fiber: Study evaluated the potential of rambutan peel as a source of lignocellulose for technological applications. The abundant, renewable, and low-cost biomass proved to be a good source of lignocellulosic material for commercial applications, for example, in bionanocomposites. (35)
• Antioxidant / Stabilization of Sunflower Oil / Peels: Study showed the extract of peels can be used as alternative source of antioxidants for stabilization of sunflower oil. Rambutan extract showed to be a potential source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid peroxidation. (37)
• Rambutan Honey / Acute Toxicity Study / Flowers: Rambutan honey is honey obtained from rambutan flowers nectar used in traditional medicine for oral mucosal wounds. Acute oral toxicity study at various doses from 625 to 5000 mg/kg showed the honey to be safe and practically non-toxic in male and female Swiss Webster mice. (38)
• Biosorbent / Methylene Blue / Peel: Study evaluated use of rambutan skin for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water sample. Results showed rambutan skin could be an alternative low-cost biosorbent for the removal of cationic dye from textile industrial effluent. (39)
• Antidiabetic / Antihypercholesterolemic / Fruit Peels: Study evaluated the antidiabetc and antihypercholesterolemic activities of rambutan (N. lappaceum) and durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit peel extracts in high-fat diet fed and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Rambutan fruit peels showed a higher percentage of reduction in blood glucose and cholesterol values with 61.76 ± 4.26% and 60.75 ± 8.26%, respectively. (40)
• Effect on Lipid Peroxidation and Accumulation in Liver: Study evaluated the effect of rambutan peel extract on lipid peroxidation and accumulation in the liver of obese male Wistar rats through parameters of MDA expression and PPARy expression. Results showed significant decrease in MDA levels with not significant down-regulation of PPARy expression. (41)
• Antiradical Activities / Peels: Study evaluated the antiradical activities of methanolic extract and its fractions of rambutan peel from two cultivars. The ME and fractions of the two cultivars exhibited strong DPPH antiradical activities. The antiradical activities correlated with phenolics and flavonoid contents with R2 values of 0.0271 and 0,1122, respectively. (42)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / CNS-Depressant / Antidiarrheal / Seeds: Study of methanolic extract of seeds showed potent (51.27%) activity against acetic acid induced pain in mice, compared to 58.86% inhibition by indomethacin. The ME extract showed significant inhibition o(p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema. On evaluation for CNS depressant activity using hole cross and open field tests, there was maximum 88.09% and 85.94% suppression of locomotor activity. On anti-diarrheal testing, the ME exhibited significant inhibition of fecal dropping in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, 53.46% and p<0.001 compared to loperamide at 56.43% inhibition of defecation. (43)
• Invention / Cosmetic Application / Increase Firmness of Skin and Mucous Membranes: Invention relates to the use of various extracts of N. lappaceum to increase the firmness and / or elasticity of the skin and / or mucous membranes by increasing the gene expression and / or protein of type 1 collagen or fibrillin 1 in the skin and mucous membranes.(44)
• Hypoglycemic / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of Hephelium lappaceum seed extract and fractions. The seed extract and fractions showed high superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant value but low DPPH scavenging activity. The extract showed hypoglycemic effect with the NLS showing highest activity as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. (45)
• Hypoglycemic / Decrease Body Weight / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extract of N. lappaceum leaves for anti-diabetes and anti-obesity properties in obese and insulin resistant animals. Parameters measured were body weight, food index, feces index, and blood glucose levels. Results showed the rambutan leaf ethanol extract decreased body weight and blood glucose levels in rats. (46)
• Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenolic Compounds / Husk: Study reported on the ultrasound-assisted extraction and recovery of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds from the husk. The Mexican variety husk is an important source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity with potential application for the treatment and prevention of diseases related to cancer and pathogenic microorganisms. (47)
• Seed Flour Produced by Fat Extraction: Seeds are waste byproduct from fresh consumption to fruit canning industry. The seed waste contains high amounts of fat (14-41%) and carbohydrate (28-46%). This study sought to produce flour from rambutan seeds by fat extraction with SC-CO2. Defatted rambutan seed flour contained high protein and carbohydrate, similar to all purpose wheat flour. Oral toxicity study showed the flour to be safe for consumption. Results suggest the defatted rambutan seed flour could potentially be used as a food ingredients in development of confectionery products. (49)
• Antibacterial to MRSA / Peel: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common bacteria causing nosocomial infections with high levels of resistance to available antibiotics. Study evaluated the antibacterial activity, MIC and MBC using agar diffusion method. The activity strength of tetracycline against the extract was 1:50. Results suggest rambutan Binjai peel extract had great potency as antibacterial agent to MRSA. (50)
• Increase Shelf Life of Food Products / Peel: One of the main causes of quality loss in edible oil is oxidative rancidity. Oils are supplemented with various artificial antioxidants to extend shelf life and to maintain flavor. In the study, peel ethanolic extract and safflower oil was added in place of butylated-hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tocopherols. The extract greatly increased the oil's oxidative stability compared to control, outperformed tocopherol, and just as effective as BHA (Mei et al., 2014) (52)
• Anti-Mutagenic / Flavonoid Extract / Leaves: Mutagens such as radiation or chemical substances can cause genetic mutations in the body, and DNA changes caused by mutagens may harm cells and results in cancer. Study evaluated leaves containing flavonoids and tested for anti-mutagenicity via Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100. The N. lappaceum flavonoid extract showed anti-mutagenic effects. Concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 mg of plant extract were comparable with 0.5 mg gallic acid, a potent anti-mutagenic agent. Results suggest potential for a more natural and cost-efficient treatment regiment for the management of cancer. (54)
• Formulation of Syrup Preparation from Leaf Extract / Propylene Glycol: Flavonoids are compounds that can reduce glucose levels. Rambutan leaves contain flavanoids. Study evaluated the production or syrup for diabetes treatment using propylene glycol as cosolvent with concentrations of 0, 11, 12, and 13%, using measures viz. organoleptic, homogeneity, BJ, pH, viscosity, displaced volume, and acceptability. Results showed the addition of propylene glycol provide a positive sweet taste-effect. The concentration of propylene glycol of 115 produced a leaf extract preparation with best physical stability. (56)
• Comparative Antibacterial Effect / Rambutan Leaf Extract and Tin Leaf Extract (Ficus carica) to Strep. mutans: Streptococcus mutans is a microorganism with a role in the formation of dental caries. Study compared the antibacterial effects of rambutan and tin leaves on bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Results showed concentration dependent effect. The rambutan leaf extract exhibited more optimal antibacterial effect than the tin leaf extract. (57)
• Hair Dye Colors / Leaves: Rambutan leaves can be used as a natural hair dye. Leaves contain tannins and saponins, and tannins can produce yellow, brown, to golden colors. Study evaluated the formulation of the simplex powder or rambutan leaves with various concentrations as a hair blackener with additional ingredients of pyrogallol and copper (II) sulfate. Formula F2 5% showed the resulting colors were stable at 1, 5, 10, and 15 washings, stable against sun exposure, and did not cause irritation of the skin. Results suggest Rambutan leaf powder with the addition of pyrogallol and copper (II) sulfate can be formulated into hair dye preparations to provide a black color at concentration of 5% rambutan leaf powder (formula F2). (61)
• Analgesic / Seeds: Rambutan seeds contain compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, and saponins, which are known to have analgesic activity. Study evaluated a 70% ethanol extract of seed for analgesic activity on male white mice using doses of 37.5, 75, and 150 mg/20g BW. Negative control groups were given 1% N-CMC suspension, and positive control give paracetamol 1.3 mg/20g BW. Stretching of the mice was observed for up to 60 minutes, and the average stretch was obtained and analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. The effective dose was75 mg/20g BW. (62)
• Antibacterial Efficacy of Nanoparticles Compared to Microparticles / Peels: Study compared the efficacy of rambutan peel extracts (RPEs) in microparticles with nanoparticles against oral bacteria i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activities were tested by disc diffusion method. GC-MS results showed both microparticles and nanoparticle RPEs contained oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and decanoic acid, with a higher percentage of oleic acid in RPEs nanoparticles. Tukey HSD test showed significant differences in effectiveness of RPEs in nanoparticles groups compared to microparticles, 62.5 mg/ml against S. mutans (p<0.05) and S. aureus (p<0.05). Rpes were more effective in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus than Streptococcus mutans. (63)
• Antibacterial Liquid Soap against Staphylococcus aureus / Peels: Study evaluated the utilization of rambutan peel waste into a liquid soap preparation and antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Testing by well diffusion method with liquid soap concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% positive control evaluated parameters of organoleptic characteristic, homogeneity, pH, and foam height. The rambutan peel extract showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. Results showed best concentration of 60%, which had antibacterial activity against S. aureus. (64)

- Wildcrafted.
- Cultivated.

Updated February 2024 / November 2019 / May 2017 / July 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Nephelium lappaceum L. extracts / Nont Thitilertdecha et al / Food Science and Technology, 2008; 41(10): pp 2029-2035 / DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.017 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.017
Monoterpene lactones from the seeds of Nephelium lappaceum / Consolacion Ragasa et al / Journal of natural products / 2005; 68(9): pp1394-1396 / DOI: 10.1021/np0580053
Rind of the rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum, a potential source of natural antioxidants / Uma Palanisamy et al / Food Chemistry • Volume 109, Issue 1, 1 July 2008, Pages 54-63 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.018
Inhibitory effects of indonesian medicinal plants on the infection of herpes simplex virus type 1
PTR. Phytotherapy research ISSN 0951-418X / 1999, vol. 13, no1, pp. 37-41
Promising Effect of Nephelium lappaceum Rind Extract as Cancer Chemopreventive Agent Through Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest Mechanisms on Human Osteosarcoma Cells / W S Wan Nur Hidayati, A W Roidhwan, S Azman / UMTAS 2011
Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities / Nont Thitilertdecha, Aphiwat Teerawutguirag et al / Molecules, 2010; 15(3): pp 1453-14645 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules15031453

Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L. / Zhao Y X, Liang W J, Fan H J et al / Carbohydr Res. 2011 Aug 16;346(11):1302-6. Epub 2011 Apr 28.
/ Jian Sun, Hongxiang Peng, Weiqiang Su et al / Journal of Food Biochemistry, Vol 35, No 5, Pp 1461–1467, October 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00467.x
Physicochemical and Nutritional Composition of Rambutan Anak Sekolah (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Seed and Seed Oil / Serida Nauli Harahap, Nazaruddin Ramli, Nazanin Vafaei and Mamot Said / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10 (x): xx-xx, 2011
Rapid isolation of geraniin from Nepheliumlappaceum rind waste and its anti-hyperglycemic activity
/ Uma D Palanisamy, Lai Teng Ling et al / Food Chemistry, Volume 127, Issue 1, 1 July 2011, Pages 21–27
Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities / sNont Thitilertdecha, Aphiwat Teerawutgulrag, Jeremy D. Kilburn and Nuansri Rakariyatham / Molecules 2010, 15, 1453-1465; doi:10.3390/molecules15031453
Seed waste may be source of new fats: Study / Food Navigator
Response surface optimization and characteristics of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) kernel fat by hexane extraction / Wanrada Sirisompong, Wannee Jirapakkul, Utai Klinkesorn / LWT - Food Science and Technology, Volume 44, Issue 9, November 2011, Pages 1946–1951
A NEW HEDERAGENIN GLYCOSIDE FROM Nephelium lappaceum / Wen-Juan Liang, Qing-Yun Ma, He-Zhong Jiang, Jun Zhou, Jie Pang, and You-Xing Zhao / Chemistry of Natural Compounds, Vol. 47, No. 6, January, 2012
Sorting Nephelium names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Acute toxicity study of the crude extract of the fruit rind of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in male Wistar rats / A Thinkratok, R Srisawat / Planta Med 2010; 76 - P630 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1264928
Protective effects of Nephelium lappaceum rind extract against collagen-induced arthritis in Dark Agouti rats / Kumar, Shashi, Chakravarthi, Srikumar, Gan Seng, Chiew, Subramaniam, Thavamanithevi, Palanisamy, Umadevi, Radhakrishnan, Ammu, and Haleagrahara, Nagaraja (2012)Journal of Biological Sciences, 12 (7). pp. 385-392 / DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2012.385.392
Thermal Properties of Monoglycerides from Nephelium Lappaceum L. Oil, as a Natural Source of Saturated and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids / Valentin Romain, Adolphe Christian Ngakegni-Limbili, , Zéphirin Mouloungui *, and Jean-Maurille Ouamba / Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., August 25, 2013 / DOI: 10.1021/ie401875v
Analysis of antibacterial activity and total phenolics content of rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum Linn.) rinds / Melfei E. Bungihan / Saint Mary's University Research Center
The Effect of Rambutan Seed (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Infusion on Blood Glucose and Pancreas Histology of Mice Induced with Alloxan / LESTARI RAHAYU*, LATIF ZAKIR, SESILIA ANDRIANI KEBAN / JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, April 2013, hlm. 28-35
Preliminary Study on Anti-proliferative Activity of Methanolic Extract of Nephelium lappaceum Peels towards Breast (MDA-MB-231), Cervical (HeLa) and Osteosarcoma (MG-63) Cancer Cell Lines / Khaizil Emylia Z, Nik Aina SNZ, Mohd Dasuki S / Health and the Environment Journal, 2013, Vol 4, No. 2: pp 66-79 /
Preliminary Study of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed as Potential Biocoagulant for Turbidity Removal / Abidin Zainal Zurina et al / 2014, Advanced Materials Research, 917, 96
Physicochemical and Nutritional Composition of Rambutan Anak Sekolah (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Seed and Seed Oil / Harahap, Serida Nauli; Ramli, Nazaruddin; Vafaei, Nazanin; Said, Mamot / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; Jun 2012, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p1073
Comparative anti-nutrients assessment of pulp, seed and rind of rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum) / Fila W. O., Johnson J. T., Edem P. N., Odey M. O., Ekam V. S., Ujong U. P. and 1Eteng O.E. / Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3 (11):5151-5156
Antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains / Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Sooad Al-daihan/ / Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 26, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 79–82
Safety Assessment of Hydroethanolic Rambutan Rind Extract: Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies / Aree Thinkratok, Parin Suwannaprapha & Rungrudee Srisawat / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 52, Oct 2014, pp 989-995.
Biochemical Studies on the Characters of Polyphenol Oxidase from Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Peel / A.M.T. Emdadul Haque, S. Al-Jassabi, Ali Saad and Satyakeerthy / Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 21 (4): 623-627, 2014 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.21.04.82430
Physicochemical and Nutritional Composition of Rambutan Anak Sekolah (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Seed and Seed Oil / Harahap, Serida Nauli; Ramli, Nazaruddin; Vafaei, Nazanin; Said, Mamot / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Jun2012, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p1073
Inhibitory potential of rambutan seeds extract and fractions on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line / Sylvia Soeng, Endang Evacuasiany, Wahyu Widowati, Nurul Fauziah, Visi Tinta Manik, Maesaroh Maesaroh. / J Exp Integr Med. 2015; 5(1): 55-60 / doi: 10.5455/jeim.200115.or.120
Thermal Properties of Monoglycerides from Nephelium Lappaceum L. Oil, as a Natural Source of Saturated and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids / Valentin Romain, Adolphe Christian Ngakegni-Limbili, Zéphirin Mouloungui, and Jean-Maurille Ouamba / nd. Eng. Chem. Res., 2013, 52 (39), pp 14089–14098 /
DOI: 10.1021/ie401875v
Rambutan seed fat as a potential source of cocoa butter substitute in confectionary product / Issara, U., Zzaman, W. and *Yang, T.A. / International Food Research Journal 21(1): 25-31 (2014)
Nephelium lappaceum / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Characterization of the Rambutan Peel Fiber (Nephelium lappaceum) as a Lignocellulosic Material for Technological Applications / Emanoel I. S. Oliveira*, Jean B. Santos, Ana Paula B. Gonçalves, Silvana Mattedi, Nadia M. José / CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS , Vol 50, 2016 / DOI: 10.3303/CET1650066
Physicochemical and Nutritional Composition of Rambutan Anak Sekolah (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Seed and Seed Oil / Serida Nauli Harahap, Nazaruddin Ramli, Nazanin Vafaei and Mamot Said / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10 (x): xx-xx, 2011
The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions / Winne Sia Chiaw Mei, Amin Ismail, Norhaizan Mohd. Esa, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Ho Chun Wai and Yim Hip Seng / Antioxidants, June 2014, 3(2): pp 371-386 / doi:10.3390/antiox3020371 / PMID: 26784877 / PMCID: PMC4665487
Effect of Rambutan Honey (Nephelium lappaceum) Acute Administration on Mortality, Body Weight, Toxicity Symptoms and Relative Organ Weight of Swiss Websters Mice / Euis Reni Yuslianti, Boy M. Bachtiar, Dewi F. Suniarti and Afifah B. Sutjiatmo / Research Journal of Toxins, 2016, Vol 8, Issue 1, pp 1-7 / DOI: 10.3923/rjt.2016.1.7
Parametric and Adsorption Kinetic Studies of Methylene Blue Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Bornean Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Skin / D. Krishnaiah, C. G. Joseph, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, S. M. Anisuzzaman and C. F. Chin / Malaysian Journal of Chemistry Vol. 16, 2014
Antidiabetic and Antihypercholesterolemia Activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Fruit Peel Extracts / M. Muhtadi, H. Haryoto, Tanti Azizah Sujono, Andi Suhendi / J App Pharm Sci. 2016; 6(4): 190-194 / doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2016.60427
THE EFFECT OF RAMBUTAN (Nephelium lappaceum L.) PEEL EXTRACT ON LIPID PEROXIDATION IN LIVER OF OBESE RATS / Setyawati Arie, Dewi Arifia Kusuma, Fitri Atho’illah Mochammad, Lestari Umie, and Lestari Sri Rahayu / DOI: 10.18502/kls.v2i1.167
Antiradical Activities of Rambutan Peel: Study from Two Cultivars / Abdul Rohman, Sugeng Riyanto, Mistriyani Shuhaira and Agung Endro Nugroho / Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 2017; 11(1): pp 42-47 / DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2017.42.47
EVALUATION OF PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NEPHELIUM LAPPACEUM L. SEEDS / Mahmud Tareq Ibn Morshed, Pritesh Ranjan Dash, Farhana Alam Ripa, Tahira Foyzun  and Mohammad Shawkat Ali  / International Joournal of Pharmacognosy, 2015 / DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP
Use of a nephelium lappaceum extract to increase the firm of skin and / or mucous membranes / FR3065876A1 / France
Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of extract and fractions of Rambutan seeds (Nephelium lappaceum L.) / Sylvia Soeng, Endang Evacuasiany, Wahyu Widowati, Nurul Fauziah / Jurnal Internasional Biomedical Engineering, 2014; 1(1)
THE INFLUENCE OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF RAMBUTAN LEAVES (NEPHELIUM LAPPACEUM L.) AGAINST OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN RATS /  E. Susilawati, I. K. Sukmawati, Noranisa, N. S. Hayati and W. Aligita / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2018 / 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(8).3684-90
Ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican variety) husk / Adriana Mendez Flores, Averim Hernandez Almanza et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2018; 11(12): pp 676-681 / DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.248339
Nephelium lappaceum / WorldAgroForestry
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour Prepared by Fat Extraction of Rambutan Seeds with SC-CO2 / Jirawat Eiamwat, Sorada Wanlapa, Tuanta Sematong, Sareeya Reungpatthanapong, Wimolsri Phanthanapatet, Nantaprecha Hankhuntod, Sukit Kampruengdet / The International Conference on Herbal and Traditional Medicine (HTM 2015) / Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015; 19(10)
In vitro Activity of Rambutan Binjai (Nephelium lappaceum) Peel Extract from Indonesia to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) / Tina Rostinawati, Ami Tjitraresmi, Myra Vania Wisnuputri / Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2018; 17(2) / DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3329/dujps.v17i2.39176
Rambutan Fruit Smoothie / The Spruce Eats
Nutritional, pharmaceutical, and functional aspects of rambutan in industrial perspective: An updated review / Muhammad Afzaal, Farhan Saeed, Maryam Bibi, Afaf Ejaz, Mohd Asif Shah et al / Food Sci Nutr., 2023; 11(7): pp 3675-3685 / PMID: 37457167 / DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.3379
Rambutan / Wikipedia
Anti-mutagenic potential of Nephelium lappaceum (Rambutan) flavonoid extract using Salmonella typhimurium assay / Lovely Francia L. Gunay, Cecilia Isabel S. Dimaunahan, Jennifer Ann H Estrada, Mikkaella Denise A Hallado, Raff Ivan Justine P Zara, Lee Marvin C de Villa, Oliver Shane R Dumaoal / The Steth, 2019; Vol 13
Nephelium lappaceum var. lappaceum / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
The Formulation of Rambutan Leaf (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract on Syrup Preparation
/ Derry Evianna Pratiwi, Iwan Setiawan / Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine, 2020; 3(1): pp 1-9
Comparison of Antibacterial Effectiveness of Rambutan Leaf Extract (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and Tin Leaf Extract (Ficus carica L.) to Streptococcus mutans / Member Reni Purba, Dian Soraya Tanjung, Rona Angelin Purba / Bioscientia Medicina: Journal of Biomedicine & Translational Research /
eISSN: 2598-0589 / DOI: 10.37275/bsm.v6i18.744
Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum l.) Fruit peel extract in rats / Anggun Mahirotun, Muhtadi, Haryoto and Andi Suhendi / 2nd Paris Van Java International Seminar on Health, Economics, and Social Science and Humanities, KnE Social Sciences: pp 746-754 /
DOI: 10.18502/kss.v8i4.12969
Rambutan Production Guide / R A Galindo and M P Loquias
Study of Pharmacological Activities and Chemical Content of Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Fruit Peel Extract: A Systematic Review / Anggun Mahirotun Nur Sholikhah, Muhtadi / AHCPS, 2023; 3: pp 251-260 / DOI: 10.2991/978-94-6463-050-3_21
Using rambutan leaves (nephelium lappaceum l.) as hair done in hair dye preparations / Dill Sastia Mara, Doni Saputra Pasaribu / Science Midwifery, 2022; 10(4): pp 3548-3551 /
DOI: 10.35335/midwifery.v10i4.997
Analgesic Activity of Rambutan Seeds Extract (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) in White Male Mice / Nitya Nurul Fadilah, Ali Nofiryaldi, Elsa Nur Fatwa / Health Information, 2021 / DOI: 10.36990/hijp.v13i2.382
Antibacterial Efficacy of Nanoparticles of Rambutan Peel Extracts (Nephelium lappaceum L.) compared to Microparticles against Oral Bacteria / Florenly, Cindy D Wijaya, Nguyen P G Bao, Pham C T Dung / eGiGi, 2022; 10(1): pp 95-102 / eISSN: 2338-199X / DOI: 10.35790/eg.v10i1.39001
Antibacterial Test of Liquid Soap Preparations Rambutan Peel Extract (Nephelium lappaceum Linn) the Growth of Staphylococcus Aureus / Juvita Herdianty, Luluk Aniqoh Meliana Putri, Arif Wijayanto / SJP: Strada Journal of Pharmacy, 2022; 4(2): pp 51-55 / pISSN: 2776-3544 / eISS: 2797-9180

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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