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Family Rubiaceae
Rosal
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
GARDENIA
Chih-tzu

Scientific names  Common names 
Gardenia augusta (Linn.) Merr.  Rosal (Sp., Tag.) 
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Gardenia (Engl.) 
Gardenia florida Linn. Chih-tzu (Chin.)

Botany
Rosal is a smooth, unarmed shrub 1 to 2 meters high. Leaves are opposite, elliptic-ovate, 2 to 6 centimeters long, narrowed and pointed at both ends, shining and short petioled, and stipulate. Flowers are large and very fragrant, occurring singly in the upper axil of the leaves. Calyx is green, with funnel-shaped tube and about 1.5 centimeters long, 5-angled, or winged and divided into linear lobes about as long as the tube. Corolla is usually double, white but soon turning yellowish, and 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Stamens are as many as the corolla lobes. Anthers are linear, sessile. Ovary is 1-celled, style stout, clavate, fusiform, or 2-cleft, ovules numerous on parietal placentae. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid, 2.5 to 4.5 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, yellow, with 5 to 9 longitudinal ridges.

Distribution
- Cultivated for ornamental purposes.
- A common garden plant.
- Nowhere spontaneous.
- Only the double-flowered variety occurs in the Philippines.

- Native of southern China.
- Now pantropic in cultivation.

Properties
• Antiophthalmic, emollient, emetic, stimulant, diuretic, antiperiodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, alterative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, sedative, analgesic, hypotensive, febrifuge.

Constituents
Study of chemical constituents in fruits isolated nine compounds: imperatorin, isoimperatorin, crocetin, 5-hydroxy-7,3',4',5'-tetrainethoxyflavone, 2-methyl-3,5-dihydroxychromone, sudan III, geniposide, crocin and crocin-3.
• Fruit contains a coloring matter, gardenin, identical to crocin.
• Resinous exudation of the fruit yield two resins: gardenin, a crystalline resin of golden-yellow color, and another resin that is soft and of greenish color that acts as antiperiodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, alterative, and antispasmodic.
• Flower yields styrolyl-acetate and linalol, and other substances. The scent is attributed more to styrolyl-acetate than to the other fragrant components.

Parts utilized
· Roots, leaves, fruits.
· Collect fruits during August to October.
· Roots: rinse, section into pieces, sun-dry.
· Fruits: sun-dry after stemming.

Uses
Edibility
· In China, flowers are used to perfume tea.
Folkloric
· Roots used for fever with delirium.
· Decoction of roots used for flatulence, dyspepsia, and nervous disorders due to dentition.
· Decoction of leaves and flowers used for dyspepsia, flatulences, nervous disorders and abdominal pains.
· Decoction of bark used for menorrhagia and uterine problems.
· Decoction of flowers used as wash for inflamed eyes.
· Poultice of leaves for swollen breasts; may be mixed with violeta and other herbs.
· Decoction of bark of stems and branches used for intermittent fevers, dysentery, and abdominal pains. Also used as tonic.
· Jaundice, hepatitis
· Fruit is antiseptic; used for toothaches, foul sores.
· Used for cough, fever. bacillary dysentery, nephritic edema, epistaxis, painful outgrowth at the tongue, mastitis, furuncle, and lymph node tuberculosis
· Fruits are pulverized and applied to regions with furuncle, sprains, lymph node tuberculosis with water or alcohol.
· Resin or paste made from the resin exudate of the fruit is applied to aching teeth, foul sores, and callous ulcers; also, to keep flies from the sores. Internally, used to expel worms. Resin also given for corpulence and to reduce the spleen.
· Powdered fruit used as febrifuge.
· In China, extract used traditionally to treat diabetes.
Also used for inflamed eyes, tumors, painful urination and hematuria. Infusion of lowers used as emollient and as an antiophthalmic. Fruit reportedly used as emetic, stimulant, and diuretic. Smaller fruit used for fever, fluxes, dropsies, lung disease, and jaundice; externally, for vulneraries. Pulp of larger fruit used as poultice applied to swellings and injuries, and to various ailments like wine-nose, dog-bite, slight burns and scalds.
· Malays consider it cooling. Poultice of leaves used for swollen breasts and headaches.
· In Oriental medicine, fruit has been used for inflammation, jaundice, headache, fever, liver disorders and hypertension.
Folkloric
- Decorative: In the Philippines, used in making wreaths, bouquets, etc. In the U.S., used for making corsages, only second to Cattleya.
- Perfumery: In China, used to perfume tea and cosmetic preparations
- Dye: Dye obtained from the yellow fruit.
Dye is identical to the dye of madder (Rubia) and chay root (Oldenlandia), and in part, with the crocin characteristic of the Saffron Crocus. Dye used in Thailand for coloring cloth. In China, the dye is used as food coloring.

Studies
Antioxidant: Crocin is a water soluble carotenoid found in the fruits of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) and seems to possess moderately strong antioxidant activity
Diabetes / Genipin: Study discovered "genipin" from the Gardenia extract. Genipin blocks the the UCP2 enzyme (uncoupling protein 2) that inhibits pancreatic insulin secretion. It suggests a potential for genipin-related compounds.

Antiangiogenic Activity: The n-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of gardenia fruit was found to be most effective in the antiangiogenic assay.
Anti- Cerulein Pancreatitis Protective Activity: Study showed Gardenia jasminoides pretreatment ameliorated the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.
Alzheimer's Disease / Amyloid Beta Peptide: The brains of Alzheimer's disease patients have large deposits of amyloid beta peptide known to increase free radical production in nerve cells leading to cell death. The study of extract of G jasminoides suggest it can reduce the cytotoxicity of amyloid beta peptide in PC 12 cells, possibly by reducing oxidative stress.

Immunosuppressive Iridoids: Study yielded a new iridoid, gardaloside and a new safranal-type monoterpene, jasminoside G, with 10 other known compounds from the fruits of G jasminoides. Four of the compounds showed significant inhibition of IL-2 secretion and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody co-stimulated activation of human peripheral blood T cells.
Geniposide: Study showed geniposide, an extract from Gardenia jasminoides, to be the its main choleretic principle. It also markedly decreased the content of cholesterol and elevate HCO3 concentration in bile without affecting the bilirubin and bile acid levels.
Crocetin / Sleep Benefits: Crocetin is a pharmacologically active carotenoid compound of Gardenia jasminoides. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 21 healthy adult men with mild sleep complaints, study results showed that crocetin may contribute to improving the quality of sleep.
Treatment Benefits / Acute Pancreatitis: Empirical studies on the use of extract of G jasminoides in treating acute pancreatitis showed that GJ remarkably reduces the serum amylase and myeloperoxidase levels of both serum and pancreatic tissue as well as TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 while also reducing injury by oxygen-free radicals, NO and endoxins. GJ extract has been found to lower vasopermeability and inflammation, improve pancreatic hemodynamics and inhibit the release of pancreatic enzymes and other biotic active factors.
Antifungal: Study showed the methanol extracts to show the highest level of antifungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus, a wood-rotting fungus, compared to five other methanol extracts (T orientalis, D innoxia, L japonicum, J chinensis, M Japonica).
Anti-Inflammatory / Vascular-Inflammatory Inhibition: Study of extract of GJ showed inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial interaction, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of EGJ, which may be useful in preventing vascular disease, such as atherosclerosis.
Gastroprotective / Antioxidant / Anti-H pylori / Cytotoxicity: Study investigated the effects of GJ extract and its constituents, ursolic acid and genipin on gastritis in rats and the growth of human gastric cancer cells. Results showed acid-neutralizing capacities, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on H. pyloric growth. Also, there was cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer cells.
Fruit / Chemical Constituents: From the fruits, study yielded a new lignan glucoside, (+)-(7S,8R,8'R)-lyoniresinol 9-O-β-D-(6″-O-trans-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside, and a new iridoid glucoside, 10-O-trans-sinapoylgeniposide, together with eight known compounds, Some of the compounds were studied for short-term memory enhancement.
Geniposide / Protective Against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury: Pretreatment of mice with genoside resulted in marked reduction in inflammatory cells and total protein in the BAL fluid of mice. There was significant alteration of inflammatory mediators, Results showed geniposide may provide protective effects against LPS-induced acute lung injury through mitigation of inflammatory responses.
Sandostatin and Gardenia Combo / Pancreatitis: Study showed a combination of sandostatin and Gardenia jasminoides can protect pancreatic mitochondria injury in severe acute pancreatitis.
Genipin / Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer: Study showed that genipin induces apoptosis and inhibits invasive/migratory abilities of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Results suggest a potential application of genipin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate metastatic breast cancer.
Glycoprotein / Natural Antioxidant / Apoptotic: Study evaluated the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of a glycoprotein isolated from the fruit. The glycoprotein showed dose-dependent scavenging activity and dose-dependent blocking activities against induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Results suggest the GJE glycoprotein is a natural antioxidant and a modulator of apoptotic signal pathways in NIH/3T3 cells.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Common garden plant.
Cultivated for ornamental use.


Last Update August 2012


Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Gardenia jasminoides Blanco1.154-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidant Properties of Crocin from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Study of the Reactions of Crocin with Linoleic Acid and Crocin with Oxygen / Thanh Quan Pham et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48 (5), pp 1455–1461 / DOI: 10.1021/jf991263j
(2)
Antioxidant potential of crocins and ethanol extracts of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS and Crocus sativus L.: A relationship investigation between antioxidant activity and crocin contents / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.080
(3)
Gardenia fruit compound starting point for diabetes therapy
(4)
Genipin inhibits UCP2-mediated proton leak and acutely reverses obesity- and high glucose-induced b cell dysfunction in isolated pancreatic islets. / Cell Metabolism 3, 417–427, June 2006 DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2006.04.010 www.cellmetabolism.org
(5)
Antiangiogenic activity of Gardenia jasminoides fruit / Eun-Hee Park et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 17 Issue 8, Pages 961 - 962/ DOI 10.1002/ptr.1259
(6)
Gardenia jasminoides protects against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis / Wok-Seok Jung et al
/ World J Gastroenterol 2008 October 28; 14(40): 6188-6194 / doi:10.3748/wjg.14.6188
(7)
Ameliorating Effect of Gardenia jasminoides Extract on Amyloid Beta Peptide-induced Neuronal Cell Deficit / Soo Jung Choi et al / Mol. Cells, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 113-118 /
(8)
Studies on chemical constituents in fruit of Gardenia jasminoides / Chen H et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Jun;32(11):1041-3
(9)
Immunosuppressive Iridoids from the Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides / Wen-Liang Chang et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (11), pp 1683–1685 / DOI: 10.1021/np0580816/

(10)
Studies of Geniposide and Crocins from Cape Jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides) on the Binary Secretion in Rat / Zhu Zhenjia, Qian Zhiyu et al / Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009) / DOI - CNKI:SUN:ZCYO.0.1999-11-017
(11)
Effect of crocetin from Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis on sleep: A pilot study
/ Kuratsune H, Umigai N et al / Phytomedicine 2010 May 26.
(12)
Progress in the Study of Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Extracts in Treating Severe Acute Pancreatitis / Xi-Ping Zhang, Yan Shi and Ling Zhang / JOP. J Pancreas (Online) 2007; 8(6):704-714.
(13)
Isolation of Antifungal Compounds from Gardenia jasminoides / R A A Lelono, S RTachibana and K Itoh / Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 12: 949-956. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2009.949.956
(14)
Gardenia jasminoides inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells / Su Mi Hwang, Yun Jung Lee et al / Phytotherapy research, Vol 24, Suppl 2, 2010 Jun
(15)
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis ethanol extract and its constituents reduce the risks of gastritis and reverse gastric lesions in rats / Je-Hyuk Lee, Dong-Ung Lee, Choon-Sik Jeong / Food and Chemical Toxicology 47 (2009) 1127–1131
(16)
Chemical constituents from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. / Yu Y, Feng XL, Gao H, Xie ZL, Dai Y, Huang XJ, Kurihara H, Ye WC, Zhong Y, Yao XS. / Fitoterapia. 2012 Apr;83(3):563-7. Epub 2012 Jan 8.
(17)
Geniposide, an iridoid glucoside derived from Gardenia jasminoides, protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. / Xiaofeng Y, Qinren C, Jingping H, Xiao C, Miaomiao W, Xiangru F, Xianxing X, Meixia H, Jing L, Jingyuan W, Xinxin C, Hongyu L, Yanhong D, Lanxiang J, Xuming D. / Planta Med. 2012 Apr;78(6):557-64. Epub 2012 Feb 21.
(18)
Effects of the combination of sandostatin and gardenia jasminoides ellis on pancreatic mitochondria injury in severe acute pancreatitis rats / Wang YL, Liu JY, Jing YL, Zhang YB, Sun-Na, Wang XJ. / Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011 Jan;42(1):37-40.
(19)
Genipin, a constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. / Kim ES, Jeong CS, Moon A. / Oncol Rep. 2012 Feb;27(2):567-72 / doi: 10.3892/or.2011.1508. Epub 2011 Oct 20.
(20)
Glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis has a scavenging activity against oxygen radicals and inhibits the oxygen radical-induced protein kinase C alpha and nuclear factor-kappa B in NIH/3T3 cells.
/ Lee SJ, Oh PS, Ko JH, Lim K, Lim KT. / Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;21(1):8-21. Epub 2005 Jun 29.


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