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Family Compositae
Sambong
Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC.
BLUMEA CAMPHOR
Da feng ai

Scientific names  Common names
Baccharis balsamifera Stokes Alibum (P. Bis.) 
Baccharis gratissima Blume ex DC. Alimon (P. Bis.)
Baccharis sativa Lour. Alyabon (Pamp.)
Blumea appendiculata DC. Ayoban (Bis.)
Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC. Bukadkad (S. L. Bis.)
Blumea balsamifera var. balsamifera Bukodkud (Bis.)
Blumea grandis DC. Dalapot (C. Bis.)
Blumea zollingeriana (Turcz./Sch. Bip.) C.B.Clarke Gabuen (Bis.)
Conyza appendiculata Blume Gintin-gintin (Bis.)
Conyza balsamifera L. Hamlibon (Bis.)
Conyza saxatilis Zoll. ex C.B.Clarke Kaliban (Tagb.)
Pulchea appendiculata (DC.) Zoll. & Mor. Kalibura (Tagb.)
Pulchea balsamifera (L.) Less. Kambibon (Bis.)
  Labulan (Sub.)
  Lakad-bulan (Bis., Sul.)
  Lalakdan (Bis.) 
  Lakdanbulan (Bis.)  
  Sambun (Sul.)  
  Sambong (Tag.) 
  Sob-sob (Ilk.)`
  Subusub (Ilk.) 
  Subsob (Ilk.) 
  Sobosob (Ig.)  
  Takamain (Bag.)  
  Blumea camphor (Engl.) 
  Buffalo-ear (Engl.)
  Ngai camphor (Engl.) 
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Poung-ma-theing
CAMBODIA: Bai mat
CHINESE: Da feng ai, Ai na xiang.
FRENCH: Camphrier
INDIA: Buarthau.
INDONESIAN: Capa, sembung utan
LAO: Phi ma 'sen
MALAY: Chapor
THAI: Naat yai
VIETNAMESE: C[aa]y t[uwf]bi-

Botany
Sambong is a half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, densely and softly hairy, 1 to 4 meters high. Stems grow up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptic- to oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 20 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed or blunt at the tip, narrowing to a short petiole which are often auricled or appendaged. Flowering heads are stalked, yellow and numerous, 6 to 7 millimeters long, and borne on branches of a terminal, spreading or pyramidal leafy panicle. Discoid flowers are of two types: peripheral ones tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla; central flowers few, large with campanulate corolla. Involucral bracts are green, narrow and hairy. Anther cells tailed at base. Fruits are achenes, dry, 1-seeded, 10-ribbed, hairy at top.

Distribution
- Common in open fields, grasslands and waste areas at low and medium altitudes.
- Flowering from February to April.
- Propagation by cuttings and layering.

- Also occurs in China, Hainan, Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam.

Constituents
- Volatile oil, 0.1 - 0.4% - l-borneol, 25%, l-camphor, 75%, limonene, saponins, sesquiterpene and limonene, tannins, sesquiterpene alcohol; palmitin; myristic acid.
- Yields flavonoids, terpenes (borneol, limonene, camphor, a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, triterpenes, and cryptomeridiol), lactones (blumealactone A, B, C).
- Fractionation of ethylacetate extract of leaves isolated nine flavonoids.
- Main essential oil components are 1,8-cineole (20.98%), borneol (11.99%), β-caryophyllene (10.38%), camphor (8.06%), 4-terpineol (6.49%), α-terpineol (5.91%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%).
- Study yielded two new sesquiterpenoid esters and nine known flavonoids. (see study below) (2)
- Studies have isolated more than 100 volatile or non-volatile constituents, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, flavonoids, organic acids, esters, alcohols, dihydroflavone, and sterols. (23)
- Study of volatile oil of B. balsamifera yielded 42 kinds of compounds. The volatile oil contains mainly sesquiterpenoids. (see study below) (24)
- Study of powdered dried leaves for quercetin collected from three different places in the Philippines yielded 0.2337 mg, 0.1350 mg, and 0.2940 mg per gram. (30)
- Study has yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins with the absence of terpenoids and phlobotaninaas. (32)
- Study of aerial parts yielded twelve compounds identified as 3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (1), 3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (2), chrysoeriol(3),3',4',5-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (4), diosmetin (5), 3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (6), 3,5-dihydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone (7), chrysosplenol C (8), 3,3',5-trihydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavanone (9), blumeatin (10), 3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (11), and 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (12). (35)
- Study of ethanol extract of aerial parts isolated ten new sesquiterpenoid esters, blumeaenes A-J. with 13 known flavonoids. (see study below) (40)

Properties
- Considered anthelmintic, antidiarrheal, antigastralgic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, stomachic, and vulnerary.

Parts utilized
- Leaves (fresh or dried) and young roots before flowering.
- Mature, healthy, fully expanded leaves are harvested while senescent leaves are discarded. Air-dry until they crumble when crushed with the fingers. Store in amber colored bottles in a cool, dry place.

Uses
Edibility
- Leaves used a flavoring ingredient.
Folkloric
- Leaves as poultice for abscesses.
- Decoction of roots and leaves for fevers, kidney stones, and cystitis.
- Decoction of leaves used to induced diuresis for purpose of treating kidney stones.
- Sitz-bath of boiled leaves, 500 gms to a gallon of water, for rheumatic pains of waist and back.
- Used in upper and lower respiratory tract affections like sinusitis, asthmatic bronchitis, influenza.
- Applied while hot over the sinuses. Used for wounds and cuts.
Fresh juice of leaves to wounds and cuts.
- Poultice of leaves applied to the forehead for relief of headaches.
- Tea is used for colds and as an expectorant; likewise, has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal benefits.
Postpartum baths.
- Tea leaves use as emmenagogue, for treatment of menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea. As such, folklore advise against use during pregnancy or for women who want to get pregnant.
- In Vietnam, decoction of fresh leaves used for cough and influenza or as inhalation of vapour from boiling of leaves. Poultices of pounded leaves applied to hemorrhoids; an alcoholic maceration used as liniment for rheumatism.
- 3% ethanol solution used to soothe itching.
- In Thailand, dried leaves are chopped, made into cigarettes and smoked for treating sinusitis.
- For fever, leaves boiled and when lukewarm used as sponge bath.
- Decoction of roots used for fever.
- Decoction of leaves, 50 gms to a pint of boiling water, 4 glasses daily, for stomach pains.
- In SE Asia widely used for various women problems. Postpartum, leaves are used in hot fomentation over the uterus to induce rapid involution. Also used for menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding and leucorrhea.
- Roots used for menorrhagia.
- Decoction of roots and leaves used for rheumatism and arthritis; also used for treatment of postpartum joint pains.
- Poultice of fresh leaves applied to affected joint.
- In Chinese and Thai medicine, leaves used for treatment of septic wounds and other infections.
- A sitz-bath of boiled leaves used in the treatment of lumbago and sciatica.
- In Chinese medicine, used as carminative, stimulant, vermifuge, expectorant, and sudorific.
- In Mizoram, India, decoction or infusion of leaves and bark taken orally as expectorant. (32)
- Dayak people in Central Kalimantan use the plant for antifertility effect. (39)
Others
- Pesticide: Roots and leaves used as natural pesticides against storage pests and leaf hoppers in rice.
- Repellent: Used by Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga as repellent against hemtophagous insects. Dry or fresh leaves and stems are burned or hung inside the house. (41)

Preparations
Fever: decoction of roots; boil 2 - 4 handfuls of the leaves. Use the lukewarm decoction as a sponge bath.
Headaches: apply pounded leaves on the forehead and temples. Hold in place with a clean piece of cloth.
Gas distention: boil 2 tsp of the chopped leaves in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes. Drink the decoction while warm. Also used for upset stomach.
• 
Postpartum, for mothers' bath after childbirth.
Boils: Apply pounded leaves as poultice daily.
Diuretic: Boil 2 tbsp chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes. Take 1/2 of the decoction after every meal, 3 times a day.

Camphor cultivation
• Can be cultivated as a source of camphor. Experiments in China produced 50,000 kilos of leaves per hectare, with a possible borneol yield of 50-200 kilos per hectare. L-borneol is easily oxidized to camphor. source

New applications
As a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones.
- As a diuretic in hypertension and fluid retention. Also used for dissolution of kidney stones. Some clinical studies, including double blind/placebo randomized studies, have shown encouraging results for Sambong to be both safe and effective in the treatment of kidney stones and hypertension. The National Kidney and Transplant Institute has promoted the use of this herbal medicine for many renal patients to avert or delay the need for dialysis or organ transplantation.
- Being promoted by the Department of Health (DOH) as a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones. One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and Drugs as medicines.
Other benefits
- Possible benefits in use patients with elevated cholesterol and as an analgesic for postoperative dental pain.

Studies
Sesquiterpenoids and Plasmin-Inhibitory Flavonoids:
Study yielded two new sesquiterpenoid esters 1 and 2. Compound 2 showed to be weakly cytotoxic against Jurkat human T-cell leukemia cells. Nine known flavonoids were also isolated, two of which showed plasmin-inhibitory activity. (2)
Anticancer / Hepatoma: Study of methanolic extract of Blumea balsamifera induced growth inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular cells without cytoxicity in rat hepatocytes used as cell model. suggest a possible therapeutic potential in hepatoma cancer patients and the depletion of cellular APRIL (proliferation related ligand) may be an important mechanism in the growth inhibitory effect of the extract. (1)
Anticancer / Growth Inhibitory Effect / Hepatoma: Study of B balsamifera extract induced growth-inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells without cytotoxicity. Findings suggest a possible therapeutic role for the B balsamifera methanol extract in treatment of hepatoma cancer patients. (6)
Chemolytic Effect / Urolithiasis / Calcium Stones: In vitro study shows sambong to be a promising chemolytic agent for calcium stones. Results showed statistically significant stone dissolution of a 1 cm stone sample. A 40 mg/day dose showed maximum therapeutic effects. (3)
Antispasmodic / Cryptomeridiol: Study isolated cryptomeridiol from the dried leaves. Results showed antispasmodic activity from various plant parts.
Antifungal / Antibacterial: Phytochemical study of leaves yielded icthyothereol acetate, cyptomeridiol, lutein and ß-carotene. Antimicrobial tests showed activity against A niger, T mentagrophytes and C albicans. Results also showed activity against P aeruginosa, S aureus, B subtilis and E coli. (7)
Dihydroflavonol / Abrogation of TRAIL Resistance in Leukemia Cells: Study shows combined treatment with a dihydroflavonol extracted from Blumea balsamifera exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and suggests a new strategy for cancer therapy. (8)
Antibacterial: Study of 12 crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from 5 medicinal plants, including B balsamifera, showed potential antibacterial effect against S aureus.
Radical Scavenging: Study of Blumea balsamifera extracts and flavonoids showed the methanol extract exhibiting higher radical scavenging activity than the chloroform extract.

Leaf Volatile Oil Components: Analysis of leaf essential oil revealed 50 components contributing to 99.07 % of the oil: borneol (33.22%), caryophyllene (8.24%), ledol (7.12%), tetracyclo[6,3,2,0,(2.5).0(1,8) tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl (5.18%), with phytol(4.63%), caryophyllene oxide(4.07%), guaiol (3.44%), thujopsene-13 (4.42%), dimethoxydurene (3.59%) and γ-eudesmol (3.18%). (11)
Antiplasmodial Activity: Study of roots and stem showed significant antiplasmodial activity.
Hepatoprotective Activity: Study isolated blumeatin (Blu, 5,3,5'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-dihydro-flavone and showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide. It also shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time in CCl4-intoxicated mice.
Antimicrobial Activity / Essential Oil: In a study of various extracts and essential oil for antibacterial and antifungal activities, results showed the essential oil to be most potent. The oil showed significant activity against B. cereus, S. aureus and C. albicans; a hexane extract, against E. cloacae and S aureus. Results showed B. balsamifera extracts have activity against various infections and toxin-producing microorganisms. (13)
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts yielded a new dihydroflavonol, (2R,3S)-(−)-4′-O-methyldihydroquercetin, together with seven known compounds. Most of the compounds showed significant concentration-dependent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 8 showed more potent inhibitory activity than control allopurinol. (14)
Urinary Stone Dissolution: Sambong used in-vitro showed dissolution of urinary stones, with a faster activity on uric acid stones. No significant effect was noted with struvite and calcium stones. (15)
Anti-Tyrosinase / Anti-Cancer Activities: An ethylacetate extract of leaves yielded nine flavonoids. The anti-tyrosinase activity of dihydroflavonols (1,2) and flavonols (5,6,7) were stronger than arbutin. In cytotoxicity evaluation, compounds 2,4 and 9 were active against KB cells. Compound 9 showed strong cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines and moderate toxicity against oral cavity (KB) cancer cell lines. (18)
Fumigant Compounds / Essential Oil: Essential oil was found to have fumigant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Essential oil components 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults, more toxic than camphor. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults. (19)
Apigenin / Aldose Reductase (AR) Inhibitory Agent: Study evaluated fractions of Blumea balsamifera for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase activity in rat lenses. Apigenin, identified from the active EtOAc fraction, exhibited high AR inhibitory activity. Results suggest a useful natural source for a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic complications. (
20)
Insect-Repellent Potential: Study evaluated 54 species of plants from 49 genera and 26 families for insect-repellent activity. Blumea balsamifera (UV=0.09) was one of 7 species with insect repellency based on their UVs (useful value). The leaves and stems, dried and burned, is said to drive insects away. (
21)
Hepatoprotective / Blumeatin: Study showed oral blumeatin (5,3',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxydihydro-flavone)
exhibited significant protective activity against liver injury cause by paracetamol and prednisolone. (Xu, S.B.; Hu, Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Yang, Z.B. Study on protection of blumeatin against experimental liver injury and aggregation of platelet. Suppl. J. Sun Yatsen Univer. 1994, 48–53) (23)
Volatile Oil / Biologic Activities: Study of volatile oil from dried leaf powder yielded 42 kinds of compounds. Screening for biologic activity showed relatively strong antitumor activity and anti-plant pathogenic fungi and some antioxidation activity. (24)
External Application of Volatile Oil / Safety Study: Study of volatile oil yielded 41 components. Damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver was assessed. Results confirm the safety of short term BB oil consumption, although high oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and the response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. (25)
Anti-Arthritic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the effect of an ethyl acetate fraction of BB residue on rats with adjuvant arthritis immunized through Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Results showed high dose BBE could significantly ameliorate joint swelling and arthritis index, effectively inhibit synovial hyperplasia, down-regulate the levels of MDA, NO, OH, ALP, AST, ALT, NAG, SA, IL-1, IL-6, TNFa and up-regulate serum levels of SOD and GSH. (26)
Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant property of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of B. balsamifera in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose. There was also significant alteration in elevated lipid profile along with serum marker enzymes. Antioxidant potential was evidenced by significant increase in GSH and CAT measurements. (27)
• Wound Healing / Volatile Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the effectiveness of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera leaves on wound healing in mice. Results showed promotion of capillary regeneration, blood circulation, collagen deposition, granular tissue formation, epithelial deposition and wound contraction. Wound healing mechanism may be related to the induction of SP (neuropeptide substance P) secretion and the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. (28)
• Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization: Study showed B. balsamifera extract increased the crystallization rate of calcium. The increased crystallization rate would favor the formation of smaller crystals that are easily eliminated from the urinary system. (29)
• Quercetin: Quantitation study of powdered dried leaves for quercetin collected from three different places (Cotobato, Nueva Ecija, and Leyte) in the Philippines yielded 0.2337 mg, 0.1350 mg, and 0.2940 mg per gram. The variations may be due to various factors such as cultivation conditions (soil, temperature, moisture and agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and pesticides). (30)
• Sambong Tea as Therapeutic Drink / Calcium Oxalate Stones: Sambong tea is believed to aid in the treatment of kidney stones. Study evaluated the effect of Blumea balsamifera tea in the nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals. Results showed decrease in induction time associated with increase nucleation rate with the formation of large number of smaller stones that are easier to eliminate by urination. (31)
• ACE Inhibition Activity of Dried Sambong Tea: ACE inhibition has been proven to be an effective strategy in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Study evaluated the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity of sambong tea in a rabbit lung ACE-induced hydrolysis of FAPGG. Results showed sambong tea possess inhibitory activity on rabbit lung ACE. Activity was attributed to flavonoids and terpenoids. (34)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of B. balsamifera leaf decoction on wound healing in an experimental deep-wound mice model. Results showed wound healing ability. Betadine was used as positive control. The effect of sambong leaf decoction and betadine in the number of days, redness and swelling in mice was statistically insignificant. (36)
• Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition / Leaves: Xanthine oxidase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to form uric acid. Study of a methanol extract of leaves showed total flavonoid content of 72.7 mg/g dw, promising inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity with IC50 of 27.6 µg/mL, with a significant decrease in serum urate and reduced xanthine oxidase in the liver. (37)
• Extraction of (-)-Borneol, Camphor, and Isoborneol / Leaves: Study reports on an ultrasonic and microwave assisted GC-FID extraction of three target compounds (-) -borneol, camphor and isoborneol in leaves samples from 14 different harvest periods. Results showed (-)-borneol content was higher from mid-October to January. Study suggests a potential tool for quality assessment of leaves. (38)
• Antifertility Effect: Study evaluated extracts of B. balsamifera, C. tiglium, M. sagu, and F. racemosa for antifertility effects on Swiss Webster mice at dose of 0.26 mg/kbw for 8 days and mated with male SW mice. Results showed inhibition in estrous cycle, especially estrus and metestrus phases. Decrease in corpus luteum and fetuses suggests inhibition of foliculogenesis. Of the four extracts tested, B. balsamifera showed more potential antifertility activity. (39)
• Blumeaenes / Inhibitory Effect Against LPS-Induced NO Production: Study of ethanol extract of aerial parts isolated ten new sesquiterpenoid esters, blumeaenes A-J. with 13 known flavonoids. All sesquiterpenoid esters were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed slight inhibitory effect on NO production with IC50 values of 40.06, 46.35, and 57.80 µg/mL, respectively. (40)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Tablets and extracts in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated August 2017 / February 2016


Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Blumea balsamifera Blanco2.403.jpg / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Modifications by Carol Spears / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Anticancer activities and mechanisms of Blumea balsamifera extract in hepatocellular carcinoma cells / Norikuraa T, Kojima-Yuasa A, Shimizu M, Huang X, Xu S, Kametani S, Rho SN, Kennedy DO, Matsui-Yuasa I / Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(2):411-24. /
DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X08005862
(2)
Sesquiterpenoids and Plasmin-Inhibitory Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera / OSAKI Naoto; KOYANO Takashi; KOWITHAYAKORN Thaworn; HAYASHI Masahiko; KOMIYAMA Kanki; ISHIBASHI Masami / Journal of natural products / 2005, vol. 68, no3, pp. 447-449
(3)
SAMBONG (BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA): ITS EFFECT ON CALCIUM STONES /
Fernando Rico, M.D. / Philippine Journal of Urology, Han-June 1992
(4)
Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan / International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering . 2005. 3, 3: 195-202 /
(5)
Camphor
/ Chest of Books
(6)
Mechanism of Growth Inhibitory Effect of Blumea balsamifera Extract in Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Toshio Norikura et al / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry • Vol. 72 (2008) , No. 5 pp.1183-1189 /
(7)
Antifungal metabolites from Blumea balsamifera / Consolacion Ragasa et al / Natural Product Research, Volume 19, Issue 3 April 2005 , pages 231 - 237 / DOI: 10.1080/14786410410001709773
(8)
Dihydroflavonol BB-1, an extract of natural plant Blumea balsamifera, abrogates TRAIL resistance in leukemia cells / Hiroo Hasegawa et al / BLOOD, 15 JANUARY 2006  VOLUME 107, NUMBER 2
(9)
ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF CRUDE ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI
/ Metta Ongsakul et al / J Health Res 2009, 23(3):153-156
(10)
Superoxide Radical Scavenging Properties of Extracts and Flavonoids Isolated from the Leaves of Blumea balsamifera / N Fazilatun et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • 2005, Vol. 43, No. 1, Pages 15-20

(11)
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS IN VOLATILE OIL FROM BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC / Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan et al / Bangladesh J. Bot. 38(1): 107-109, 2009 (June)
(12)
Blumea balsamifera / GLOBinMED
(13)
Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil
/ Sakee U, Maneerat S, Cushnie TP, De-Eknamkul W. / Nat Prod Res. 2011 Nov;25(19):1849-56. Epub 2011 Jul 11.
(14)
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors from Vietnamese Blumea balsamifera L. / Mai Thanh Thi Nguyen*, Nhan Trung Nguyen / Phytotherapy Research / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3710
(15)
The use of Blumea balsamifera (Sambong) in the dissolution of urinary stone: An in-vitro study / Sunga, Paul Anthony L / Philippine Journal of Urology, 16(1), pp 6-10
(16)
Blumea balsamifera / Catalogue of Life, China .
(17)
Blumea balsamifera / AgroForestryTree Database
(18)
Anti-tyrosinase and anti-cancer activities of flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera DC / N. Saewan, S. Koysomboon and K. Chantrapromma / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(6), pp. 1018-1025, 18 March, 2011
(19)
Fumigant Compounds from the Essential Oil of Chinese Blumea balsamifera Leaves against the Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) / Sha Sha Chu,1 Shu Shan Du,2 and Zhi Long Liu / Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 289874, 7 pages / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/289874
(20)
Analysis of apigenin in Blumea balsamifera Linn DC. and its inhibitory activity against aldose reductase in rat lens / Dong Gu Lee, So-Youn Mok, Changsun Choi, Eun Ju Cho, Hyun Young Kim, Sanghyun Lee* / Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Vol.1, No.1, 28-33, 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2012.11005
(21)
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014
(22)
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(23)
Blumea balsamifera—A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review / Yuxin Pang*, Dan Wang, Zuowang Fan, Xiaolu Chen, Fulai Yu, Xuan Hu, Kai Wang and Lei Yuan / Molecules 2014, 19, 9453-9477 / doi:10.3390/molecules19079453
(24)
Phytochemical compositions of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera and their biological activities / Zhi-long Jiang, Yan Zhou, Wei-chen Ge, Ke Yuan / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2014, Vol 10, Issue 39, pp 346-352
(25)
External application of the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera may be safe for liver--a study on its chemical composition and hepatotoxicity. / Pang YX, Fan ZW, Wang D, Yabg Q, Wang K, Chen XL, Hu X, Yu FL, Chen ZX / Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 19:11 2014 pg 18479-92
(26)
Anti-arthritic and anti-oxidative effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Blumea balsamlfera residues in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. / Yan Xia, Jian Zuo, Xiang Li, Jian-Wei Chen / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Oct ;39(19):3819-23
(27)
In vivo Assessment of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Blumea balsamifera in Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats / Kalyan Roy, Shubhankar Saha, Subhasis Biswas, Wasif Ahmed and G. Mariappan / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 2013, Vol 7, Issue 1, Pp 48-57 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2013.48.57
(28)
Effect of volatile oil from Blumea Balsamifera (L.) DC. leaves on wound healing in mice / Yuxin Pang, Dan Wang, Xuan Hu, Hui Wang, Wanjin Fu, Zuowang Fan, Xiaolu Chen, Fulai Yu / Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Volume 34, Issue 6, 15 December 2014, Pages 716-724
(29)
Effect of Blumea Balsamifera Extract in the Kinetics of Calcium Oxalate Crystallisation / Charlimagne M. Montealegre*, Allieson C. Ilao, Raphael Victor T. Mendoza, Ray Paulo M. Carpio, Rizalinda L. de Leon / CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 56, 2017 / DOI: 10.3303/CET1756273
(30)
RP-HPLC Analysis of Quercetin in the Extract of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera (L) DC) Leaves / Joanna V Toralba, Noel S Quiming, Jocelyn S B Palacpac / SCIENCE DILIMAN (JANUARY-JUNE) 27:1, 48-63
(31)
Blumea Balsamifera (Sambong) Tea as a Therapeutic Drink for Calcium Oxalate Stones / Charlimagne M. Montealegre, Rizalinda L. De Leon / MATEC Web of Conferences 62, 02002 (2016) / DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20166202002
(32)
Ethnomedicinal Use and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Medicinal Plants of Mizoram, India
/ Lalrinzuali K Vabeiryureilai M and Ganesh Chandra J / Trends in Green Chemistry
(33)
Sambong for Menstruation / Health Watch
(34)
ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) Inhibition Activity of Oven–Dried and Air–Dried Sambong Blumea balsamifera L.(dc.) Tea / See, Gerard Lee Lo*, Arce, Florencio Villester Jr., Deliman, Yolanda Chua / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2016; 8(7); 1132-1136
(35)
Study on Flavonoids Constituents of Blumea balsamifera / YAN Qi-xin,TAN Dao-peng, KANG Hui, FENG Han-lin, ZENG Wei-zhen / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae,  2012-05
(36)
THE EFFECT OF VARYING CONCENTRATIONS OF SAMBONG LEAVES (Blumea balsamifera) DECOCTION ON WOUND HEALING / Krishna Deo Das, Satyam Prakash* and Khushbu Yadav / WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, 1099-1116
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INHIBITOR XANTHINE OXIDASE OF EXTRACT BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA L.(DC) LEAVES (ASTERACEAE) / Le Nguyen Tu Linh, Bui Dinh Thach, Tran Thi Linh Giang, Vũ Quang Dao, Trịnh Thi Ben, Nguyen Pham Ai Uyen, Diep Trung Cang, Nguyen Thanh Hu2, Ngo Ke Suong / European Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2017
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Determination of (-)-Borneol, Camphor and Isoborneol in Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. Leaves by Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Microwave Assisted Extraction and Gas Chromatography / Y. WANG, A. WANG, H. TIAN, H. WANG,* and C. ZOU / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 26, No. 4 (2014), 997-1001
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Anti-fertility Effect of Various Plants at Dayak Tribe to Swiss Webster Mice / Agus Haryono*, Yohanes Edy Gunawan, Suatma, Surisman Sumitro, Mohammad Rahmadur / THE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL LIFE SCIENCE, Vol 3, No 2, pp. 108–112, May 2013
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Blumeaenes A–J, Sesquiterpenoid Esters from Blumea balsamiferawith NO Inhibitory Activity / Ming  Chen, Jiang-Jiang Qin, Jian-Jun Fu, Xiao-Jia Hu, Xiao-Hua Liu, Wei-Dong Zhang, Hui-Zi Jin / Planta Med 2010; 76(9): 897-902 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1240800
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A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, Vol 7, No 1 (2014)

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