HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Euphorbiaceae
Shanghai beauty
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.

Qin ye ying

Scientific names Common names
Adenoropium hastatum (Jacq.) Britton & P.Wilson Shanghai beauty (Engl.)
Adenoropium integerrinum (Jacq.) Pohl Fiddlehead jatropha (Engl.)
Adenoropium pandurifolium (Andr.) Pohl Fiddle-leaf spurge (Engl.)
Jatropha acuminata Desr. Fire-cracker (Engl.)
Jatropha coccinea Link Peregrina (Engl.)
Jatropha diversifolia A.Rich Rose-flowered jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha hastata Jacq. Spicy jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.  
Jatropha pandurifolia Andr.  
Jatropha pauciflora C.Wright ex Griseb..  
Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews is a synonym of Jatropha integerrima Jacq. The Plant List
Jatropha integerrima Jacq. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qin ye ying (Taiwan).
JAPANESE: Yatorofa integerima.
RUSSIAN: atrofa tsel'nokrainiaia, Korallovyi tsvetok.
SPANISH: Alelí, Alhelí, Peregrina.
THAI: Pattawia.

Gen info
- The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, sub-shrubs, and herbs in the seasonably dry tropics of the Old and New World. (18)

Jatropha integerrima is a medium-sized branching shrub, growing up to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate to oblong, up to 10 centimeters long and 7 centimeters wide, fiddle-shaped or with 3 sharply pointed lobes. Blade is dark green above and light green below, with petioles up to 5 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are red, showy, emerging as clusters on terminal cymes and borne by a peduncle up to 12 centimeters long. Fruit is an oval 60loobed capsule containing 3 smooth and spotted seeds.

- Introduced to the Philippines in the 50s, now widely spread.
- Native to the West Indies.

- Diterpene constituents consist of macrocyclic diterpenes jatrophone, jatrophatrione, jatropholone A-B, riolozatrione, curcusones A-D, rhamnofolane, lathyrane.
- Extracts of leaves and stems yielded tannin, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins.
- Seed oil of J. pandurifolia yielded 38.40% oil content. Methyl ester analysis showed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in varying proportions along with hydroxy fatty acid up to 8.6%. (11)
- Methanolic extract of stem bark of J. pandurifolia isolated seven compounds viz. 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), jatropholone A (2), jatropholone B (3), 2α-hydroxyjatropholone (4), 2β-hydroxyljatropholone (5), scopoletin (6) and aleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxycinnamate (7). (12)
- Phytochemical screening using two solvent crude extracts (ethyl acetate and methanol) yielded alkaloids (EA,M), flavanoids (EA,M), steroids (EA,M), tannins (EA), and phenols (EA). Total phenol content was 408.00±34.00 µg GAE/g. Total flavanoid content for ethyl extract of leaves was 10.14±0.59 µg QE/g. (14)
- Study of essential oil of leaves yielded pentadecanal (32.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%) and ß-ionone (10.8%) as major components. Seeds oil yielded mainly alipathic hydrocarbons viz. pentacosane (13.6%), hexacosane (13.3%), octacosane (12.3%) and heptacosane (10.1%). (see study below) (15)
- Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). (see study below) (16)
- Study of roots yielded five new compounds, 2a-hydroxyjatropholone (1), 2ß-hydroxyjatropholone (2), 1,5-dioxo-2,3-dihydroxyrhamnofola=4)10),6,11(18),15-tetraene (3), 2-keto-5-hydroxyguai-3,11-diene (4), and a sesquiterpene-coumarin conjugate, jatrophadioxan (5), along with nine known compounds. The six diterpenes were evaluated for antiplasmodial, antituberculosis, and cytotoxic activities. (19)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of latex of J. integerrima yielded a new cycloheptapeptide, integerrimide C (1). (see study below) (20)

- Considered purgative, styptic, emetic.
- Latex considered toxic.
- Leaves, when accidentally chewed. can cause stomachalgia and can be purgative.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiproliferative properties.

Toxicity concerns
- Caution: Seed capsules which follow the flowers hold several smooth, speckled and toxic seeds, a fact that advises the plant should be place out of the reach of children. (17)
- Plant sap can cause contact dermatitis with skin irritation, itching, and rashes.
- Monkolvisut et al (2006) reported the latex to be toxic and the leaves can cause stomachache and purgative effects.
Levine et al (2000) reports of toxicity on two boys who developed who developed intractable vomiting, colicky abdominal pains and water diarrhea one hour after ingestion of ten seeds each. (18)


- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, used in the treatment of warts, tumors, rheumatism, herpes, pruritus, toothaches, scabies, eczema and ringworm.
- Dye: Flowers yield a natural dye. (21)

Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic:
Study on the n-hexane extract of the plant showed significant inhibitory activity against tested microorganisms. It also showed significant cytotoxicity when subjected to brine shrimp lethality assay. (1)
Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Five indigenous plants, including J pandurifolia, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. All the extractives were shown to possess significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Significant antioxidant activity was noticed by the chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of J pandurifolia, and moderate antioxidant activity from the methanolic extract of the leaves of JP. (2)
Integerrimene / Roots: Study isolated integerrimene, a possible biogenetic precursor of the rhamnofolane diterpenes and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide 2-epicaniojane from the roots of J. integerrima. (3)
Cyclic Peptides / Cytotoxic Activity / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclopeptides: integerrima cyclopeptide 4 and integerrima cyclopeptide B from fractionation of ethyl acetate extract of latex. The two cyclopeptides showed significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against KB tumor cells with IC values of 0.46 ±0.04 and 0.66 ±0.08, respectively. (6)
Cyclic Heptapeptides / Antiproliferative / Melanoma Cells / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclic heptapeptides, integerrimides A and B, from the latex of Jatropha integerrima. Both peptides significantly inhibited neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell culture. They also partially inhibited proliferation of human IPC-298 melanoma cells as well as migration of human Capan II pancreatic carcinoma cells. (7)
Enantiomeric Neolignans and Sesquineolignans / Inhibition of NO Production: Study of trunk of JI isolated two pairs of new sesquineolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignans A and B (1a/1b and 2a/2b), one pair of new neolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignan D (4a/4b), and two new neolignans, (+)-jatrointelignan C (3a), and (+)-schisphenlignan I (5a) together with seven known analogues. Compounds 5a, 6a, and 4b exhibited pronounced inhibition on NO production. (8)
Antimicrobial / Roots: In a study of successive extracts of roots of three jatropha species viz. J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, and J. integerrima for antibacterial activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. luteus, E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans, all the extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 mg/ml extract. (9)
Catalase Activity / Monitoring of Environmental Pollution: Study assessed the activity of detoxifying peroxide enzymes as indicators of local air pollution. Results showed that catalase activity is more effective in stress conditions in J. integerrima and C. surattensis and could be a way to estimate atmospheric pollution in tropical countries. (10)
• Anthocyanins / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the anthocyanin content, antioxidant and toxicity activity of four red flowers (Bougainvillea glabra, Jatropha integerrima, Melastoma malabathricum and Mussaenda philippica) by DPPH and Brine Shrimp Lethality method. Jatropha integerrima showed the strongest antioxidant activity (11.67 ppm), the richest anthocyanin content (15.83 mg CGE/100 g DW) and was not toxic. Results suggest a potential pigment source for food and natural product applications. (13)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the chemical composition of essential oils of leaves and seeds by GC and GC-MS. The oils showed weak antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (15)
• Natural Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitors / Trunks: Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a potential target for cancer chemotherapy with redox balance and antioxidant functions. Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). Compounds 1,3,6,7 and 15-21 showed stronger activity than positive control curcumin (IC50=25.0 µM). Compounds 17 and 19 showed highest activity with IC50 of 9.4 and 6.8 µM, respectively. (16)
• Cytotoxicity / Cycloheptapeptide / Latex: Study of ethyl acetate extract of latex isolated a new cycloheptapeptide, integerride C, which exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against tumor kB cells with IC50 1.7µM.(20)
• Larvicidal / Antifeedant / Leaves: Study evaluated the larvicidal and antifeedant activities of ethyl acetate crude extracts of Jatropha integerrima leaves against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Maximum antifeedant activity was74.33% and 70.11% at 5% concentration and maximum larvicidal activity of chloroform extracts of 76.84% and 73.12% at 5% concentration against S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. Results indicate J. integerrima has potential as alternative botanical pesticide against S. litura and H. armigera. (22)
• Wound Healing / Roots: Invention reports on the use of J. integerrima root extracts for wound healing, using an ointment formulation of methanolic and/or aqueous extracts of roots. The ointments containing the extracts were evaluated for wound healing activity using three in vivo models viz. excision model in mice, incision model in rats and excision model in diabetic rats. Results showed the J. integerrima root extracts, particularly methanol and aqueous extracts have significant wound healing property as evidenced by significant reduction of epithelization and elevation of hydroxyproline content. (23)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

Updated December 2020 /September 2017 / December 2016
July 2010

                                                           PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Preliminary Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of n-Hexane Extract of Jatropha pandurifolia / Afsana Akhter et al / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 27 (6): 918-21 (2008)
Free radical scavenging activities of some indigenous plants of Bangladesh / Shah M Adib et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 13, No 1, Jan 2010
A novel 8,9-seco-rhamnofolane and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide from Jatropha integerrima roots / Somyote Sutthivalyakit et al /
Tetrahedron Letters, April 2003; Volume 44, Issue 18: pp 3637-3640 /
Jatropha integerrima / Synonyms / The Plant List
Sorting Jatropha names / Common names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Cytotoxic activity of two cyclic peptides from the latex of Jatropha integerrima Euphorbiaceae
/ Welé A, Baraguèye C, Ndiaye W, Fall D, Ndoye I, Diop Y, Dubosq L, Bodo B. / Dakar Med. 2007;52(3):209-15.
Integerrimides A and B, Cyclic Heptapeptides from the Latex of Jatropha integerrima / Wantana Mongkolvisut, Somyote Sutthivaiyakit, Heiko Leutbecher, Sabine Mika, Iris Klaiber, Wolfgang Möller, Harald Rösner, Uwe Beifuss, and Jürgen Conrad / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (10), pp 1435–1441 / DOI: 10.1021/np0602012
Enantiomeric neolignans and sesquineolignans from Jatropha integerrima and their absolute configurations /
Jian-Yong Zhu, Bao Cheng, Yin-Jia Zheng, Zhen Dong, Shu-Ling Lin, Gui-Hua Tang, Qiong Gua and Sheng Yin* / RSC Adv., 2015,5, 12202-12208 / DOI: 10.1039/C4RA15966G
IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF SOME JATROPHA SPECIES (FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE) / Surendra K Sharma, Harneet Singh / 30-Jun-2013 Research Article July - September 2013
DETOXIFYING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN TWO PLANT SPECIES EXPOSED TO AIR POLLUTION IN ABIDJAN CITY (CÔTE D'IVOIRE). / Koffi N'guessan Achille, Angaman Djédoux Maxime*, Barima Yao Sadaiou Sabas, Dongui Bini Kouamé / IJPAES, Volume-5, Issue-1, Jan-Mar-2015
Characterization of an Oxygenated Fatty Acid in Jatropha pandurifolia Seed oil for Hydroxy Fatty Acids / Swatika Sharma*, Seema Parveen, Abdul Malik and MRK. Sherwani / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 2(4), Oct-Dec 2013
Isolation of Terpenes and Coumarin from the Stem Bark of Jatropha pandurifolia (Andr.) / F.T. ZOHORA, P. SARKAR, F.S. TAREQ, F. ISLAM, C.M. HASAN,* and M. AHSAN / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 25, No. 5 (2013), 2853-2856
Antioxidant and toxicity properties of anthocyanin extracted from red flower of four tropical shrubs / HARLINDA KUSPRADINI , ANINDYA MARSABELLA ROSIARTO, AGMI SINTA PUTRI, IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA / NUSANTARA BIOSCIENCE, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 135-140 November 2016 / DOI: 10.13057/nusbiosci/n080201
A comparison of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and insecticidal properties of Jatropha species and wild Ricinus communis L. found in Mauritius / Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa*, Vijayanti Mala Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya / Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014; 7(Suppl 1): S384-S390 / doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60263-7
Chemical composition and antimicrobial studies of the essential oils of Jatropha integerrima Jacq (Leaf and Seeds) / Adeolu O. Eshilokun, Kasali Adeleke, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande, William N. Setzer / Natural Product Communications, 2007; 2(8): pp 853-855 /
Natural thioredoxin reductase inhibitors from Jatropha integerrima / Jian-Yong Zhu, Lan-Lan Lou, Yan-Qiong Guo, Weil Li, Yan-Hong Guo, Jing-Mei Bao, Gui-Hua Tang, Xian-Zhang Bu, and Sheng Yin / RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 47235-47243  / DOI:10.1039/C5RA07274C
Jatropha integririma: Peregrina / Edward F Gilman, Dennis G Watson, Ryan W Klein, Andrew K Koeser, Deborah R Hilbert, and Drew C McLean / UF:IFAS Extension: University of Florida
Medicinal property, phytochemistry and pharmacology of several Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae): A review / Carla W Sabandar, Norizan Ahmat, Faridahanim Mohd Jaafar, I Sahidin / Phytochemistry, 2013; 85: pp 7-29
Diterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and a Sesquiterpene-Coumarin Conjugate from Jatropha integerrima / Somyote Sutthivaiyakit, Wantana Mongkolvisut, Samran Prabpai, and Palangpon Kongsaeree / J Nat Prod, 2009; 72(11): pp 2024-2027 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np900342b
Novel Cytotoxic Cycloheptapeptide from the Latex of Jatropha integerrima / Ndoye Idrissa, Diedhiou Adama, Balde Mamadou, Sylla Gueye Rokhaya, Tine Yoro, Wele Alassane and Fall Djibril / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 8(11): pp 135-139 / ISSN: 0975-7384
Dyeing of silk with natural dyes (English) / Ekta Grover, Anshu Sharma, Bhawana Rawat, Susan Paul, Jahan Shannaz / International Dyer, 2005; 190(10): pp 9-16 / ISSN: --20-658X
Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of ethyl acetate extract or Jatropha integerrima against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera / T Chinnamani / International Journal of Zoologyy Studies, May 2018; 3(3): pp 10-14 / ISSN: 2455-7269
Compostion Comprising Herbal Extract of Jatropha integerrima Jacq and Uses Thereof / Prof. Surendra Kumar Sharma, Harneet Singh / Traditional Knowledge Biotechnologu / Application ID 2398/DEL/2013

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT