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Family Moraceae
Ficus annulata Blume
Huan wen rong

Scientific names Common names
Ficus annulata Blume            Sininsing (Tagalog)
Ficus annulata var. biverrucella (Miq.) Miq.            Ringed fig (Engl.)
Ficus annulata var. elliptica Miq.             
Ficus annulata var. flavescens (Blume) King            
Ficus annulata var. valida (Blume) King            
Ficus balabacensis Quisumb.             
Ficus flavescens Blume             
Ficus valida Blume             
Urostigma annulatum Miq.             
Urostigma biverrucellum Miq.             
Urostigma conocarpus Miq.             
Urostigma depressum Miq.             
Urostigma flavescens Miq.             
Urostigma validum Miq.             
Ficus annulata Blume is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINA: Huan wen rong.
INDONESIA: Bulu emprit (Javanese), Kiara koneng (Sundanese), Nunu-lewui (Manado, Sulawesi), Krasak, Kiara bodas, Kiara oreng, Bulu, Ara susu, Buntut, Kuap.
MALAYSIA: Ara bungkus, Ara kebangan, Ara kubong.
MYANMAR: Nyaung-thapan.
OTHERS:  Nizhangde.

Gen info
- Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes, and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae. The are collectively known as fig trees or figs.
- The species epithet annulata derives from Latin, meaning "circular ring", probably referring to the socket where the thick stalk (peduncle) slots into the top of the fig. Alternatively, it may refer to the conspicuously ringed stout twigs.

Trees, large, epiphytic when young and semi-climbing. Stipules caducous, lanceolate-linear, 2.5-6 cm, pubescent. Petiole 3-4 cm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 13-28 × 5-8 cm, ± leathery, abaxially pale green and glabrous or sparsely pubescent, adaxially dark green and glabrous, base cuneate to rarely ± rounded, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate; basal lateral veins 2, short, secondary veins 12-17 on each side of midvein, abaxially conspicuous. Figs axillary on leafy branchlets, paired, reddish orange with scattered white spots when mature, ovoid to cylindric, 2-2.5 × 1.5-2 cm, tuberculate, apical pore navel-like; peduncle robust, 1-1.5 cm; involucral bracts caducous, ovate, apex acute, scar conspicuous. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: scattered, pedicellate; stamen 1. Gall flowers: many; sepals connate, apex 3-lobed; ovary ovoid, smooth; stigma flat. Female flowers: few; calyx 4-lobed; style long; stigma clavate. Achenes tuberculate. (Flora of China)

• Frequently confused with F. depressa and F. globosa, the only other large section Conosycea lianas in which the figs ripen green/yellow and are dispersed by bats. The three species are obviously closely related and hybrids might occur.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In Balabac, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Surigao, Palawan. In lowland streamside forests. (2)
- Also native to
Andaman Is., Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, Jawa, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam (1)

- Study of leaves of Ficus annulata isolated a new sterol, ficusterol. (see study below) (4)

- Study suggested immunomodulatory, xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties.

Parts used


- Leaves are edible; cooked and eaten as vegetable.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Latex: Plant yields latex; a source of high quality rubber.

Immunomodulatory / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory / Leaves:
In a study of plants of the genus Ficus, the methanol extract of leaves of F. annulata and stems of F. aurantiaca and F. parietalis showed strong immunomodulatory, xanthine oxidase, and soybean lipoxygenase inhibitory activities. A new sterol, ficusterol, was isolated from the leaves of F. annulata. (4)


April 2024

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Ficus annulata at Matang near Kuching / © Uluulublog / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / THE FIGS OF BORNEO
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Ficus annulata / Drawing of fruits and leaves / Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta (1888) G.C.Das / Click on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ficus annulata / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Ficus annulata / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Ficus annulata / Uluulublog / The Figs of Borneo
Phytochemical study of selected ficus species (moraceae) and immunomodulatory, xanthine oxidase, soybean lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of their isolated compounds /  Shukranul Mawa / Dissertation: 2016 / UKM Learning and Research Repository / Fakulti Farmasi
Ficus annulata / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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