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Family Acanthaceae
Sinta
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees
KING OF BITTERS
Chuan Xin Lian

Scientific names Common names
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Aluy (Tag.)
Justicia paniculata Likha (Tag.)
Justicia latebrosa Russell ex Wall. Maha-tita (India)
  Chiretta (Engl.)
  Green chiretta (Engl.)
  Indian echinacea (Engl.)
  King of bitters (Engl.)
Chuan xin lian (Chin.)
Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Si fang lian.
GUJARATI: Kiriyata, Olikiriyat.
HINDI: Bhuinimb, Kalmegh, Kiryat, Mahatit.
JAPANESE: Andorogurafizu paniikuraata, Senshinren.
KANNADA Nelabevu gida.
MALAYALAM: Nilaveppu, Kiriyatta.
MARATHI: Olen Kirayat.
RUSSIAN: Andrografis.
SANSKRIT: Bhuinimb, Bhunimba, Kirata, Mahateet, Mahatikta.
TAMIL: Nilavempui.
TELUGU: Nela vemu.
THAI: Fa thalai chon.

Botany
Sinta is an annual herb, erect, growing to a height of 30 to 100 centimeters. Stems are quadrangular. Leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, glabrous. Flowers are white, bilabiate, with rose-purple spots or markings in the lower lip in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. Fruit is a capsule, linear-oblong, up to 2 centimeters long and 4 millimeters wide, furrowed, compressed longitudinally with small seeds.

Constituents
• Contains diterpene lactones, glycosides, b-sitosterol-d-glucoside, and flavanoids.
•The active constituent of the extract is andrographolide.
• Study of aerial parts isolated five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, and neoandrographolide. (18)

Properties
• Extremely bitter and cooling.

• Antidiarrheal, antipyretic, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial.
• Stomachic, febrifuge.
• Antityphoid, antifungal, antimalarial, antihepatotoxic.
• Anti-cancer.

• Tonic and immune-boosting.

Uses

Folkloric
- Used for fever and liver ailments.
- Used for diarrhea.
- Abortifacient.
- Extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine. Is in 26 Ayurvedic formulations to treat liver disorders.
- Called "Indian echinacea" for its use in the prevention and treatment of the common cold.
- In Traditional Chinese Medicine, use for fevers and to remove toxins from the body.
- In Scandinavian countries, used to prevent and treat common colds.
- In China, India, Thailand and Malaysia, used for treatment of sore throat, flu, upper respiratory tract infections.

Studies
• In China, found effective in preventing blood clots and re-clogging of arteries post-angioplasty.
• Herb activates fibrinolysis (dissolution of blood clots) and has a blood pressure lowering effect.
• May inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells.
• Studied for its anti-viral activity in HIV and AIDS, found to increase AZT's ability to inhibit HIV replication.
• Studied for E. coli associated diarrhea and dysentery.

Comparative Study in Uncomplicated Common Colds : Study comparing Kan Jang, a fixed herbal combination with Andrographis paniculata with Immunal containing E purpurea found adjuvant treatment with Kan Jang more effective in parameters of nasal congestion and secretion. (2)
Anti-Malarial : Study of extracts of A paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa, known hepatoprotective and fever-reducing was tested for antimalarial activity. Results suggested further studies for a potential herbal drug for malaria treatment.
Anti-Malarial / Combination with Curcumin: CoMethanolic extracts of A paniculata and H corymbosa showed inhibition of the ring stage of the parasite without in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination with curcumin. (13)
Antioxidant / Anticarcinogenic: Study showed antioxidant action of the aqueous extract of AP which may play a role in the anticarcinogenic activity by reducing oxidative stress. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), as tumor marker, showed decreased activity. Extract effect on more effective than anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX).
Anti-inflammatory: (1) Study showed andrograpanin, one of its components, enhanced chemokine SDF-1 alpha- induced leukocytes chemotaxis. (2) Study isolated active compounds showing anti-inflammatory activity, significantly dec4reasing TNF-a, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and nitric oxide secretions. Study provides encouraging results for bioactive compound development.
Diabetes: Study of commercially prepared spray-dried ethanolic extract of AP on STZ-induced diabetic female rates showed increased survival rate and endocrine cell density, improved estrus cycle and reduced "insulin resistance" phenomenon. (6)
• Antivenom activity / Echis carinatus: Study was done on the antivenom activity of A paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Echis carinatus venom. Results showed both plant extracts could for used for therapy in patients with snakebite envenomation.
(7)
• Antivenom activity: Study for antivenom activity against Daboia russelli venom confirmed A paniculata and A indica to possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity.
• Anti-Hyperglycemic / Renal Protective: Study showed significant antidiabetic activity with extract of AP roots supporting its traditional Ayurveda use for diabetes. Study also showed preventive effect for diabetic nephropathy.
(8)
• Spermatogenesis and Semen Quality Study: Study compared Kan Jang, a fixed combo of Andrographis paniculata extract (SHA-10) and Acanthopanax senticosus, with Valeriana officinalis and Panax ginseng for spermatogenesis and semen effect. Results showed all three to be safe with respect to effects on human male sterility. (9)
• Antinociceptive / Antiedematogenic: Study isolated andrographolide from the leaves of A paniculata. Results showed andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities, probably modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. (11)
• Respiratory Tract Infection Therapy: Review of data suggest that A paniculata is superior to placebo and may be a promising treatment for the subjective symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infection. With few reports of adverse events with short-term use, A paniculata presents as an herbal treatment option. (12)
• Anti-Fertility Effect: Results of study of water extract of A paniculata suggest that due to lower level of hormone, female rats have promising percentage of infertility with AP. (14)
• Renoprotective Effect: Study of aqueous extract of whole plant of A paniculata exhibits a significant renoprotective effect in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. (16)
• Anti-Dengue: Study of evaluated the antiviral effects of six plants on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results showed the methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro studies. (17)
• Cardiovascular Effect / Coronary Vasodilation: Study evaluated a dichlormethane DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata for cardiovascular activity. Aerial parts yielded five labdane diterpenes. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure and reduced heart rate. (18)
• Gastroprotective / Antiulcer / Cytoprotective: Study of an aqueous and ethanol extract of A. paniculata showed significant anti-ulcer and cytoprotective properties and inhibited leukocyte infiltration of the gastric wall. (19)
• URTI and Sinusitis
: A double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical study evaluated the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 fixed combination, Kan Jang,
showed a positive effect in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and also relieves the inflammatory symptoms of sinusitis. Also, the drug was well tolerated. (20)
• Andrographolide: Andrographolide is a major bioactive constituent of the plant. The paper summarizes its various experimental and clinical pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, parasitic, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic effects. (21)
• CNS Effects / Anxiolytic and Seizure Suppressing Activities : Study evaluated the therapeutic potential of A. paniculata for mental health problems. Various rat models were used for characterizing brain function modulating activities. Prolonged daily oral use of extract gradually suppresses central sensitivity to acute stressful stimuli, eventually down regulates central dopaminergic receptors. with benzodiazepine like anxiolytic and seizure suppressing activities. (22)
• Larvicidal / Repellent / Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the effects of A. paniculata and A. lineata extracts against two mosquitoes Cule quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Results showed that insecticidal activity of plant combinations was ecofriendly and has better larvicidal activity compared to individual extracts. (23)
• Terpenoid / Inhibitory Actiity against Biofouling Bacteria: Phytochemical analysis isolated a terpenoid with inhibitory activity against biofouling bacteria, viz., Pseudomonas sp., alteromonas sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Serratia sp. Of various solvents tested, a methanol extract showed the best activity. (24)
• Andrographolide / Anti-Inflammatory:Andrographolide exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, either in vitro or in vivo experimental models of inflammation and cancer. Several immunomodulatory responses of andrographolide have been observed in in vitro studies, such as reduction of iNOS, COX-2, NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL-12 in macrophages and microglia. (25)
• Immunostimulant / Cerebroprotctive / Nootropic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of chronic administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves in rats with experimentally induced diabetes. Results showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective, and nootropic activities in normal and type diabetic rats. Antioxidant activity was made evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased SOD levels. (26)
• Hepatoprotective Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study of an aqueous leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. (27)
• Andrographolide / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: The anti-inflammatory activity of A. paniculata is commonly attributed to andrographolide, its main secondary metabolite. Standardized extracts showed considerable physiochemical background variation. DPPH radical scavenging activity was attributed to flavonoid/phenylcarboxylic acid compounds in the extracts. The inhibitory effect of andrographolide on the release of TNF-α was little affected by variation of non-standardized constituents. (28)
• Antimalarial / Sambiloto / Chloroquine and Artemisinin: Study evaluated the anti-malarial effect of sambiloto extract (A. paniculata), chloroquine and artemisinin-only as well as combinations on Plasmodium falcifarum strains. Results showed the extract of Sambiloto has an in-vitro anti-falciparum malaria effect. The antimalarial effect had been shown both in monotherapy and in combination. (29)

Availability
• Wild crafted.
• Extracts, capsules and supplement in the cybermarkets.

Last Update April 2015

IMAGE SOURCES: (1) File:Andrographis paniculata 001.JPG (2) File:Andrographis paniculata 002.JPG / H. Zell / 2 August 2009 / GNU Free Documentation / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Andrographis In-Depth Review
(2)
Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang® and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children
/ Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, Wikman G. / Phytother Res. 2004 Jan;18(1):47-53.
(3)
Wonder Drug
(4)
Andrographis Paniculata’s Wide Range Of Medicinal Powers
(5)
Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata / Mol Biol Rep. 2007 Sep 5 / Verma N, Vinayak M.
(6)
Effect of spray-dried ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees on streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats / A S Syahrin et al / Year : 2006 | Volume : 26 | Issue : 4 | Page : 163-168 / Dept. of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian Malaysia / DOI: 10.4103/0973-3930.33183
(7)
Studies on antivenom activity of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Echis carinatus venom / S Meenatchisundaram, Prajish, G Parameswari, T Subbraj, A Michael / Internet Journal of Toxiciology, Vol 6, No 1
(8)
Anti-Hyperglycemic and Renal Protective Activities of Andrographis paniculata Roots Chloroform Extract / NALAMOLU KOTESWARA RAO / 1735-2657/06/51-47-50 IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Copyright © 2006
(9)
A phase I clinical study of fixed combination Kan Jang? versus ginseng and valerian on the semen quality of healthy male subjects / A.MKRTCHYAN / Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 6, Pages 403-409
(10)
Studies on antivenom activity of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Daboia russelli venom by in vivo and in vitro methods / S Meenatchisundaram et al / Indian Journal of Science and Technology/ Vol.2 No 4 (Mar. 2009) /
(11)
Antinociceptive and Antiedematogenic Activities of Andrographolide Isolated From Andrographis paniculata in Animal Models / M R Sulaiman et al / Biological Research For Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 3, 293-301 (2010) • DOI: 10.1177/1099800409343311/
(12)
Andrographis paniculata in the Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review of Safety and Efficacy / Joanna Thompson coon and Edzard Ernst / Planta Med 2004; 70: 293-298
(13)
Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin / Kirti Mishra et al / Malaria Journal 2009, 8:26doi:10.1186/1475-2875-8-26
(14)
Relationship of anti-fertility effects of Andrographis paniculata and hormonal assay in female rats / S Sakila, N Begum, S Kawsar, ZA Begum, MS Zola / doi: 10.3329/bjms.v8i1.3183 / Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.8 No. 1-2; 2009 10-14
(15)
Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Compounds from Andrographis paniculata by NF-κB Transactivation Inhibition / Wen-Wan Chao et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., Article ASAP • DOI: 10.1021/jf903629j /
(16)
Renoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees in rats
/ Pratibha Singh et al / Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 114, Issue 3 2009 , pages 136 - 139/ DOI: 10.1080/03009730903174321/
(17)
Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants / Leon IC Tang, Anna PK Ling, Rhun Y Koh, Soi M Chye, Kenny GL Voon / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, January 2012, 12:3,
(18)
Cardiovascular Activity of Labdane Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in Isolated Rat Hearts
/ Khalijah Awang, Nor Hayati Abdullah, A. Hamid A. Hadi, and Yew Su Fong / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/876458
(19)
Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi) in Sprague Dawley rats / S Q Wasman, A A Mahmood, Lee Suan Chua, Mohammed A Alshawsh, S Hamdan / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 49, Oct 2011, pp 767-772.
(20)
A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. / Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, Chandanian GL, Panossian AG, Wikman G, Wagner H. / Phytomedicine. 2002 Oct;9(7):589-97.
(21)
Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide / Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Cheng-Ying Hsieh, Jie-Jen Lee, and Joen-Rong Sheu / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/846740
(22)
Neuropsychopharmacology of a therapeutically used Andrographis paniculata extract: a preclinical study
/
Ajit Kumar Thakur, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Vikas Kumar / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
June 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 181-191
(23)
Studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) and Andrographis lineata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) / G Renugadevi, T Ramanathan, Priya R Shanmuga, P Thirunavukkarasu / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 6, Issue 3, March 2013, Pages 176–179
(24)
Inhibitory activity of Terpenoid from the Medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata against Biofouling bacteria /
Sarala V, M. Radhakrishnan and R. Balagurunathan / International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol. 3, No.3, pp 1225-1231, July-Sept 2011
(25)
Andrographolide a New Potential Drug for the Long Term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease / María A. Hidalgo, Juan L. Hancke, Juan C. Bertoglio and Rafael A. Burgos / Innovative Rheumatology", Chapter 11, book edited by Hiroaki Matsuno / DOI: 10.5772/55642
(26)
Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats / P. Radhika, A. Annapurna* & S. Nageswara Rao* / Indian J Med Res 135, May 2012, pp 636-641
(27)
Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees Against Carbon Tetrachloride – Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / *A. Nasir, M.G. Abubakar, R.A. Shehu, U. Aliyu, and B.K. Toge / Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (March, 2013), 21(1): 45-54 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v21i1.7
(28)
An in vitro study of anti-inflammatory activity of standardised Andrographis paniculata extracts and pure andrographolide / Mitchell Low, Cheang S Khoo, Gerald Münch, Suresh Govindaraghavan and Nikolaus J Sucher* / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015, 15:18 / doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0525-7
(29)
Comparative Study of Antimalarial Effect of Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Extract, Chloroquine and Artemisinin and Their Combination Against Plasmodium falciparum In-vitro / Umar Zein, Loeki E. Fitri, Awaluddin Saragih / Acta Medica Indonesiana - The Indonesian Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol 45 • Number 1 • January 2013

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