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Family Acanthaceae
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees
Chuan Xin Lian

Scientific names Common names
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Aluy (Tag.)
Justicia paniculata Likha (Tag.)
  Maha-tita (India)
  Chiretta (Engl.)
  Green chiretta (Engl.)
  Indian echinacea (Engl.)
  King of bitters (Engl.)
Chuan xin lian (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Si fang lian.
GUJARATI: Kiriyata, Olikiriyat.
HINDI: Bhuinimb, Kalmegh, Kiryat, Mahatit.
JAPANESE: Andorogurafizu paniikuraata, Senshinren.
KANNADA Nelabevu gida.
MALAYALAM: Nilaveppu, Kiriyatta.
MARATHI: Olen Kirayat.
RUSSIAN: Andrografis.
SANSKRIT: Bhuinimb, Bhunimba, Kirata, Mahateet, Mahatikta.
TAMIL: Nilavempui.
TELUGU: Nela vemu.
THAI: Fa thalai chon.

Sinta is an annual herb, erect, growing to a height of 30 to 100 centimeters. Stems are quadrangular. Leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, glabrous. Flowers are white, bilabiate, with rose-purple spots or markings in the lower lip in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. Fruit is a capsule, linear-oblong, up to 2 centimeters long and 4 millimeters wide, furrowed, compressed longitudinally with small seeds.

• Contains diterpene lactones, glycosides, b-sitosterol-d-glucoside, and flavanoids.
•The active constituent of the extract is andrographolide.
• Study of aerial parts isolated five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, and neoandrographolide. (18)

• Extremely bitter and cooling.

• Antidiarrheal, antipyretic, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial.
• Stomachic, febrifuge.
• Antityphoid, antifungal, antimalarial, antihepatotoxic.
• Anti-cancer.

• Tonic and immune-boosting.


- Used for fever and liver ailments.
- Used for diarrhea.
- Abortifacient.
- Extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine. Is in 26 Ayurvedic formulations to treat liver disorders.
- Called "Indian echinachea" for its use in the prevention and treatment of the common cold.
- In Traditional Chinese Medicine, use for fevers and to remove toxins from the body.
- In Scandinavian countries, used to prevent and treat common colds.

• In China, found effective in preventing blood clots and re-clogging of arteries post-angioplasty.
• Herb activates fibrinolysis (dissolution of blood clots) and has a blood pressure lowering effect.
• May inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells.
• Studied for its anti-viral activity in HIV and AIDS, found to increase AZT's ability to inhibit HIV replication.
• Studied for E. coli associated diarrhea and dysentery.

Comparative Study in Uncomplicated Common Colds : Study comparing Kan Jang, a fixed herbal combination with Adrographis paniculata with Immunal containing E purpureafound adjuvant treatment with Kan Jang more effective in parameters of nasal congestion and secretion. (2)
Anti-Malarial : Study of extracts of A paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa, known hepatoprotective and fever-reducing was tested for antimalarial activity. Results suggested further studies for a potential herbal drug for malaria treatment.
Anti-Malarial / Combination with Curcumin: CoMethanolic extracts of A paniculata and H corymbosa showed inhibition of the ring stage of the parasite without in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination with curcumin. (13)
Antioxidant / Anticarcinogenic: Study showed antioxidant action of the aqueous extract of AP which may play a role in the anticarcinogenic activity by reducing oxidative stress. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), as tumor marker, showed decreased activity. Extract effect on more effective than anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX).
Anti-inflammatory: (1) Study showed andrograpanin, one of its components, enhanced chemokine SDF-1 alpha- induced leukocytes chemotaxis. (2) Study isolated active compounds showing anti-inflammatory activity, significantly dec4reasing TNF-a, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and nitric oxide secretions. Study provides encouraging results for bioactive compound development.
Diabetes: Study of commercially prepared spray-dried ethanolic extract of AP on STZ-induced diabetic female rates showed increased survival rate and endocrine cell density, improved estrus cycle and reduced "insulin resistance" phenomenon. (6)
• Antivenom activity / Echis carinatus: Study was done on the antivenom activity of A paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Echis carinatus venom. Results showed both plant extracts could for used for therapy in patients with snakebite envenomation.
• Antivenom activity: Study for antivenom activity against Daboia russelli venom confirmed A paniculata and A indica to possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity.
• Anti-Hyperglycemic / Renal Protective: Study showed significant antidiabetic activity with extract of AP roots supporting its traditional Ayurveda use for diabetes. Study also showed preventive effect for diabetic nephropathy.
• Spermatogenesis and Semen Quality Study: Study compared Kan Jang, a fixed combo of Andrographis paniculata extract (SHA-10) and Acanthopanax senticosus, with Valeriana officinalis and Panax ginseng for spermatogenesis and semen effect. Results showed all three to be safe with respect to effects on human male sterility. (9)
• Antinociceptive / Antiedematogenic: Study isolated andrographolide from the leaves of A paniculata. Results showed andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities, probably modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. (11)
• Respiratory Tract Infection Therapy: Review of data suggest that A paniculata is superior to placebo and may be a promising treatment for the subjective symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infection. With few reports of adverse events with short-term use, A paniculata presents as an herbal treatment option. (12)
• Anti-Fertility Effect: Results of study of water extract of A paniculata suggest that due to lower level of hormone, female rats have promising percentage of infertility with AP. (14)
• Renoprotective Effect: Study of aqueous extract of whole plant of A paniculata exhibits a significant renoprotective effect in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. (16)
• Anti-Dengue: Study of evaluated the antiviral effects of six plants on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results showed the methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro studies. (17)
• Cardiovascular Effect / Coronary Vasodilation: Study evaluated a dichlormethane DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata for cardiovascular activity. Aerial parts yielded five labdane diterpenes. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure and reduced heart rate. (18)
• Gastroprotective / Antiulcer / Cytoprotective: Study of an aqueous and ethanol extract of A. paniculata showed significant anti-ulcer and cytoprotective properties and inhibited leukocyte infiltration of the gastric wall. (19)

• Wild crafted.
• Extracts, capsules and supplement in the cybermarkets.

Last Update August 2013

IMAGE SOURCES: (1) File:Andrographis paniculata 001.JPG (2) File:Andrographis paniculata 002.JPG / H. Zell / 2 August 2009 / GNU Free Documentation / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Andrographis In-Depth Review
Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang® and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children / PTR. Phytotherapy research ISSN 0951-418X / 2004, vol. 18, no1, pp. 47-53
Wonder Drug
Andrographis Paniculata’s Wide Range Of Medicinal Powers
Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata / Mol Biol Rep. 2007 Sep 5 / Verma N, Vinayak M.
Effect of spray-dried ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees on streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats / A S Syahrin et al / Year : 2006 | Volume : 26 | Issue : 4 | Page : 163-168 / Dept. of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian Malaysia / DOI: 10.4103/0973-3930.33183
Studies on antivenom activity of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Echis carinatus venom
Anti-Hyperglycemic and Renal Protective Activities of Andrographis paniculata Roots Chloroform Extract / NALAMOLU KOTESWARA RAO / 1735-2657/06/51-47-50 IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Copyright © 2006
A phase I clinical study of fixed combination Kan Jang? versus ginseng and valerian on the semen quality of healthy male subjects / A.MKRTCHYAN / Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 6, Pages 403-409
Studies on antivenom activity of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Daboia russelli venom by in vivo and in vitro methods / S Meenatchisundaram et al / Indian Journal of Science and Technology/ Vol.2 No 4 (Mar. 2009) /
Antinociceptive and Antiedematogenic Activities of Andrographolide Isolated From Andrographis paniculata in Animal Models / M R Sulaiman et al / Biological Research For Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 3, 293-301 (2010) • DOI: 10.1177/1099800409343311/
Andrographis paniculata in the Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review of Safety and Efficacy / Joanna Thompson coon and Edzard Ernst / Planta Med 2004; 70: 293-298
Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin / Kirti Mishra et al / Malaria Journal 2009, 8:26doi:10.1186/1475-2875-8-26
Relationship of anti-fertility effects of Andrographis paniculata and hormonal assay in female rats / S Sakila, N Begum, S Kawsar, ZA Begum, MS Zola / doi: 10.3329/bjms.v8i1.3183 / Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.8 No. 1-2; 2009 10-14
Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Compounds from Andrographis paniculata by NF-κB Transactivation Inhibition / Wen-Wan Chao et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., Article ASAP • DOI: 10.1021/jf903629j /
Renoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees in rats
/ Pratibha Singh et al / Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 114, Issue 3 2009 , pages 136 - 139/ DOI: 10.1080/03009730903174321/
Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants / Leon IC Tang, Anna PK Ling, Rhun Y Koh, Soi M Chye, Kenny GL Voon / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, January 2012, 12:3,
Cardiovascular Activity of Labdane Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in Isolated Rat Hearts
/ Khalijah Awang, Nor Hayati Abdullah, A. Hamid A. Hadi, and Yew Su Fong / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/876458
Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi) in Sprague Dawley rats / S Q Wasman, A A Mahmood, Lee Suan Chua, Mohammed A Alshawsh, S Hamdan / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 49, Oct 2011, pp 767-772.

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