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Family Fabaceae
Dalbergia sissoo DC..
Yin du huang tan

Scientific names Common names
Amerimnon sissoo (Roxb.) Kuntze Bombay blackwood (Engl.)
Dalbergia sissoo DC. East Indian rosewood (Engl.)
  Himalayan raintree (Engl.)
  Indian teakwood (Engl.)
  Indian dalbergia (Engl.)
  Indian rosewood (Eng.)
  Penny-leaved tree (Engl.)
  Sheesham (Engl.)
  Shisham (Engl.)
  Sissoo tree (Engl.)
  Sisu (Engl.)
  Zigzag (Phil.)
Dalbergia sissoo DC. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFGHAN: Shewa.
BENGALI: Shishu, Shisu, Sisu, Sitral.
CHINESE: Yin du huang tan.
FRENCH: Ebenier jaune, Palissandre de l'Inde, Palissandre des Indes, Sesham, Sissou.
GERMAN: Indisches Rosenholz, Java-Palisander, Ostindisches jacaranda, Ostindischer palisander.
HINDI: Sheesham, Sisam, Sissai, Sissu.
ITALIAN: Palissandro di India, Palissandro d'India.
MALAY: Sonoswaseso (Java)
NEPALESE: Sisham, Sisau, Sissau.
PAKISTANI: Sheesham.
PUNJABI: Shisham, Sissu, Tahali, tali, Tahli.
RUSSIAN: Dal'bergiia sissu.
SANSKRIT: Aguru, Shinshapa.
SPANISH: Palissandro de India, Sisu.
SWEDISH: Shesham.
TAMIL: Gette, Nukku kattai, Sisuitti, Sisso, Yette.
THAI: Du-khaek, Pradu-khaek.

Sissoo is a fast-growing, medium to large deciduous tree that can grow a maximum height of 25 meters, often with a crooked trunk. Bark is thin, gray. longitudinally furrowed, and downcast twigs. Leaves are leathery , alternate, pinnately compound, acuminate, about 15 centimeters long. Flowers are whitish or pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, up to 1.5 centimeters long, in dense clusters 5-10 centimeters in length. Pods are oblong, flat, thin,, light brown, 4 to 8 centimeters long and 1 centimeters wide, containing 1 to 5 flat bean-shaped seeds 8 to 10 millimeters long. (3)

- Introduced.
- Cultivated.
- Native to India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh.

- Study of ethanolic extract of back showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds and flavanoids. (see study below) (5)
- Studies have yielded Isoflavone-O-glycoside, Biochanin A, tectorigenin, 7, 4 dimethyl tectorigenin and 7-O- methyl tectorigenin, Mesoinisitol, 7-O- methyl tectorigenin and 4’-rhamnoglucoside, Isocaviumin, tectorigenin, dalbergin, caviunin and tannins, Dalberginone, Dalbergia, methyl Dalbergia and dalbergichromene, Dalbergin, nordalberginones, dalbergichromene, fixed oil and essential oils.
- Heartwood yields dalbergiphenol, delbergenone, dalbergin, methyl dalbergin. Leaves yield biochanin A, tectorigenin. Stem bark yields isotectorigenin. Ethanol extract of bark contains carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. (13)

- Leaves considered antipyretic, analgesic, anthelmintic.
- Studies have suggest anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, memory enhancing, anti-termite, anti-spermatogenic, wound healing, adsorbent, anti-osteoporosis, sunscreening, DNA protective, gastroprotective properties.

Parts used
Leaves, bark, wood, leaf juice.


- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Leaf juice used for eye ailments.
- Used for the treatment of obesity, vitiligo, fever, ulcers, intestinal parasites.
- Wood and bark used for scabies, burning urination, boils, syphilis, leprosy, leucorderma, skin ailments, blood disorders, among others. Leaf extracts used to treat sore throats, heart problems, dysentery. (6)
- In Ayurveda, woody bark paste used as anthelmintic, antipuretic and analgesic. Bark and wood used as aphrodisiac, abortifacient, expectorant anthelmintic, antipyretic, antidysenteric, and used for leucoderma and diseases of the blood. (7)
- Decoction of leaves used for treatment of gonorrhea, menorrhagia, boils and acne. (7)
- Larval food: Sissoo is the larval food plant of the black rajah, Charaxes solon. (3)

- Wood: It is the best known economic timber species of the rosewood genus. The heartwood is durable and very resistant to fungi, while the sapwood is readily attacked by termites and borrers. It is among the finest cabinet and veneer timbers. Used in the production of percussion instruments; also used for making plywood, agricultural tools, flooring, brentwood, and for turning. (3)
- Fuel: Wood has excellent calorific value for both sapwood and heartwood, 4.908 kcal/kg and 5,181 kcal/kg, respectively. It has excellent coppicing ability. Also, makes excellent charcoal. (3)
- Toothbrush: Slender tree twigs are chewed as toothbrush, and then split as a tongue cleaner. (3)

Antinociceptive / Leaves:
Study evaluated methanol extract of leaves of D. sissoo using chemical and heat induced pain models such as hot plate, tail immersion, acetic-acid induced writhing, formalin, glutamate, and cinnamaldehyde test models in mice. Results showed potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all chemical and heat-induced mice models (p<0.001). Findings indicate involvement of both peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms. (4)
Antinociceptive a/ Bark: Study evaluated the antinociceptive activity of an ethanolic extract of bark of D. sissoo using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Results showed significant and dose-dependent anticociceptive activity (p<0.01). Activity was attributed to flavanoids. Acute toxicity study showed no toxicity up to 3000 mg/kbw. (see constituents above) (5)
Anti-Termite / Heartwood: Study of crude extract of Dalbergia sissoo heartwood showed anti-termite activity and can be used as alternative to synthetic pesticides. (6)
Anti-Osteoporosis / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated standardized extract of leaves of D. sissoo for anti-osteoporotic activity in animal models of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) using DXA, biochemical markers, and effect on clinical profile. Results showed anti-osteoporotic and anti-inflammatory activities as indicated by decline in circulating TNF-α along with reduction in ALP. Non-decline in BMD index in the majority confirmed the anti-osteoporotic activity. (8)
Sawdust as Adsorbent for Nickel Ions: Sawdust of Dalbergia sissoo, a byproduct of sawmills, was found to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of nickel ions from aqueous solution. (9)
Healing of Long Bone Fracture / Leaves / Clinical Study: Single arm, pilot study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a standardized extract of D. sissoo leaves in patients with long bone fracture. Treatment resulted in fading of fracture line and restored functional mobility. At the end of the study (week 8) fractures were healed. No clinically significant adverse events were reported. (11)
Gastroprotective / Antiulcer / Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antiulcer effect of D. sissoo methanol extract of stem bark against diclofenac sodium induced ulceration in rat. Parameters measured were gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Results showed potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotective ability. (12)
Sunscreening Potential / DNA Nick Prevention: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of leaves, fruits, and bark for photoprotective and DNA protective potential in vitro. TPC, TFC, antioxidant activity and SPF (sun protection factor) were found to be high in the three extracts. Dose dependent protection of DNA was observed. Phytol, lupeol, squalene, palmitic acid and phytosterol were key constituents. Results suggest exploration of methanol extract as photoprotective and DNA protective agents. (14)
Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the protective effect of ethanol extract of leaves of D. sissoo against experimentally induced diarrhea and peristalsis in mice. Results showed significant reduction of fecal output in castor oil- and MgSO4 induced diarrhea and significant reduction of diarrheal episodes, delayed onset of diarrhea. Results were comparable to standard loperamide. Both extract and atropine sulphate significantly reduced peristaltic activity of charcoal meal and barium sulphate milk in mice. Phytochemical analysis yielded carbohydrates, phenolics, glycosides, and flavonoids. The LD50 was greater than 2000 mg/kg orally. (15)
Anti-Spermatogenic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of stem bark for anti-spermatogenic activity. In vitro study obtained semen from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35. Results showed a dose dependent and time dependent effect on sperm motility and sperm viability. In vivo studies in on male Swiss albino mice showed a significant decrease in weight of testis and epididymis, with a significant decrease in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis. The effect was attributed to the presence of an immobilizing factor that reduced sperm motility by disruption of the membrane architecture of the sperm cell. (Vasudeva and Vats, 2011) (16)
Rapid Fracture Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the fracture healing properties of ethanolic extract of D. sissoo leaves in a drill hole injury model in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed significant increase in bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and connectivity density and decreased trabecular separation in bone. Extract also induced expression of osteogenic genes. The EE improved fracture healing much earlier than normal healing process as assessed by increased callus volumes and mineralized nodule formation. (17)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated different extracts of D. sissoo leaves for in vitro anthelmintic potency using Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. A carbon tetrachloride extract demonstrated highly potent anthelmintic activity compared to other extracts. Petroleum ether, benzene and ethanol. extracts showed anthelmintic activity comparable to standard Piperazine citrate. (18)
Memory Enhancing / Leaves: Study evaluated the learning and memory enhancing activity of ethanolic leaf extract of B. sissoo in mice. Scopolamine treated mice were used as negative control. The ethanol leaf extract significantly enhanced the learning and memory activities against scopolamine induced dementia and significantly decreased acetylcholinesterase level in brain of test animals. Memory enhanced activity as evidenced by learning and retrieval was attributed to cholinergic facilitatory effect in animals. The memory enhancing action was qualitatively comparable wit that of piracetam. (19)
Mechanisms of Action in Infectious Diarrhea / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of a decoction of dried leaves of D. sissoo to define possible mechanisms of action on aspects of pathogenicity i.e., colonization to intestinal epithelial cells and production/action of enterotoxins. The decoction showed no antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activity. It reduced the production and the binding of CT (cholera toxin) and bacterial adherence and invasion Results suggest it has no antimicrobial activity but has antidiarrheal property by its effect on bacterial virulence. (20)
Chalcone / Anti-Inflammatory / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Bio-assay guided fractionation isolated a chalcone [(E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one] or okanin from extracts of leaves. Okanin exhibited good antibacterial activity towards various pathogens like gram positive M. luteus and S. aureus and gram negative bacteria E. coli, R. plnaticola and Acinetobacter. On evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, the methanolic extract showed maximum activity on carrageenan induced rat paw edema. (21)

- Wild-crafted.
- Herbal teas, supplements, seeds in the cybermarket.

April 2020

IMAGE SOURCE: Photos: Dalbergia sissoo: / click on image to go to source page / Bonanza
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photos: Pods of Dalbergia sissoo: / click on image to go to source page / Nursey Pioneer

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Dalbergia sissoo / Synonyms / The Plant List

Sorting Dalbergia names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Dalbergia sissoo / Wikipedia
Antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo leaves in mice / Md Abdul Mannan, Ambia Khatun, Md Farhad Hossen Khan / BMC Complement Altern Med., 2017; 17: 72 /  doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1565-y / PMCID: PMC5260076 / PMID: 28114964
Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark / Mohammad Asif and Arun Kumar / Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, Jan0Jun 2011; 2(1): pp 76-79 / doi: 10.4103/0976-9668.82315 / PMCID: PMC3312704 / PMID: 22470239
DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB: MONOGRAPH / Sabira Sultana, Hafiz Mohammad Asif, Naveed Akhtar and naheed Akhtar / International Journal of Pharmacognosy
Dalbergia sissoo - An Important Medical Plant. / Mamta Bhattacharya, Archana Singh, Chhaya Ramrakhyani / Jurnal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2014; 2(2): pp 76-82
A Clinical Study of a Standardized Extract of Leaves of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb ex DC) in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. / Meeta, Raut AA, Agashe SV, Wajahat A, Sarada CV, Vaidya ADB, Vaidya RA / Journal of Mid-life Health01 Jan 2019; 10(1): pp 37-42 / DOI: 10.4103/jmh.JMH_22_19 / PMID: 31001055 PMCID: PMC6459066
Sorption Studies of Nickel ions Onto Sawdust of Dalbergia Sissoo / Habib-ur-Rehman, Mohammad Shakirullah, Imtiaz Ahmad, Sher Shah, Hameedullah / Journal of the Chinese Medical Society, 2013; 53(5) / https://doi.org/10.1002/jccs.200600139
Pharmacological Effects and Medicinal Importance of Dalbergia sissoo: A Review / S Y Sehra and J Sharma / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 2018; 8(2): pp 234-243 / ISSN: 2249-9504
Safety and Efficacy of a Standardized Extract from Leaves of Dalbergia Sissoo in Healing of Long Bone Fracture: A Pilot Clinical Study / Dixit Pankaj, Pande Shishir and Deshmukh Amol / Journal of Complementary Medicine and Alternative Healthcare, Jan 2018; 5(1) / DOI: 10.19080/JCMAH.2018.05.555654
Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissooRoxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats / Muhammad Israr Khan, Muhammad Rashid Khan / Osong Public Health Res Perspect., 2013; 4(5): pp 271-277 / doi : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.09.006
Dalbergia sissoo: Shisham Tree Uses, Research, Side Effects
Protective effect of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. (family: Fabaceae) leaves against experimentally induced diarrhoea and peristalsis in mice / Phool Chandra, Neetu Sachan, Dilipkumar Pal / Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2014 / https://doi.org/10.1177/0748233713491815
Anti-spermatogenic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark / Vasudeva N, Vats M / JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 2011; 4(2): pp 116-122 / DOI: 10.1016/S2005-2901(11)60017-4
Ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo promotes rapid regeneration of cortical bone in drill-hole defect model of rat / Vikram Khedgikar, Priyanka Kushwaha, Naseer Ahmad, Jyoti Gautam, Padam Kumar, Rakesh Maurya, Ritu Trivedi / Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, Feb 2017; Vol 86: pp 16-22 / DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.140
Anthelmintic activity of different extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. on Indian Adult Earthworms / Hood M. M., Tembhurne S. V. and Sakarkar D. M / Der Pharma Chemica, 2011; 3(2): pp 142-146
EVALUATION OF MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF DALBERGIA SISSOO IN MICE / Sayanti Sau, Mukund Handral / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 2015; 7(3): pp 263-269
Studies on Dalbergia sissoo (Rob=xb.) leaves: Possible mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea / S Brijesh, P G Daswani, P Tetali, N H Antia, T J Birdi / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2006; 36(2): pp 120-124
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Microbial Activity of Chalcone from Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. leaves / Padma C. Behera, S. M. Verma, Posa Mahesh Kumar, Nalin B. Das, Pravat M.Mishra andSasmita Baliarsingh / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 2013; 1(2): pp 186-194

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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