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Family Solanaceae

Talong punay
Datura metel Linn.
THORN APPLE
Man-t'-o-lo Tu

Scientific names Common names  
Datura metel Linn. Kamkamawlaw (Ilk.) Kachibong (Bis.)
Datura fastuosa Linn. Kachubung,Katsubung (Sul.)  Salanpune (Pamp.) 
Datura alba Nees. Siva (Iv.) Talumpunay (Pamp., Tag.)
  Talong-punai (Bik., Tag.) Talong-punai na morado (Tag.)
  Tanompunay (Tag.) Talong-punay (Tag.)
  Taubibong (Bis.) Tatchubong (Bis.)
  Kamkamaulau (Ilk.) Man-t'-o-lo Tu (Chin.)
  Katsobong, Kachobong (P. Bis.) Angel's trumpet (Engl.)
  Susupan (Ibn.) Devil's trumet (Engl.)
  Talong-ounai na itim (Tag.) Raving nightshade (Engl.)
  Tarampunai (Tag.) Thorn apple (Engl.)
  Trampunay, trampunai (Tag.) Zombie cucumber (Engl.)
  Katsibong (Bis.)  

Botany
Talong-punay is a coarse, erect, branched, smooth or slightly hairy shrub or short-lived shrub, 0.5 to 2 meters high. Leaves are single, ovate to oblong-ovate, 9 to 18 centimeters long, with inequilateral base, pointed tip and irregularly and shallowly lobed margins. Flowers are white or nearly purple, axillary and solitary, with a large ovary. Calyx is green, about 6 centimeters long, cleft at the apex, cylindric and divided into linear teeth. Corolla is white, about 15 centimeters long and the mouth about 8 centimeters in diameter, trumpet-shaped when fully opened. Stamens are 5, stigma 2-fid. Fruits are rounded capsules, green, about 3.5 centimeters in diameter and covered with stout, short spines, dehiscing at the apex when ripe forming an irregular suture. Seeds are numerous, closely packed, nearly smooth, and pale brown.

Distribution
- In open, waste places in and about settlements, throughout the Philippines.
- Also cultivated also for ornamental purposes.
- Native of tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic in distribution.


Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds and flowers.
Collect newly opened flowers and sun-dry.

Constituents
• Yields tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, anisodamine and anisodine.
• Flowers - Scopolamine, 0.5%; hyoscyamine, 0.04%; atropine, 0.01%.
• Leaves: Total alkaloid content is 0.426%, mainly as atropine and small amount of hyoscyamine.
• Seeds contain 0.426% alkaloid, mainly hyoscyamine.
• Roots: contain 0.35% hyoscyamine.
• Study of flower isolated a new compound, ynagjinhualine A, and five known megastigmane sesquiterpenes.
• Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded tannins, phlobatanins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates and flavonoids.
• A 50% ethanol eluate fraction of a macroporous resin of the flower isolated a new compound, yangjinhualin A and five known megastigmane sesquiterpenes.
• Methanolic extract of D. metel flower yielded four compounds: cis-2-Nitro-4-t-butylcyclohexanone (36.54%) acetic acid, trifluoro-, 2,2- dimethylpropyl ester (31.97%), 4- Trifluoroacetoxyoctane (19.28%) and 1,4- Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl- (12.22%).

Properties
- All parts of the plant considered poisonous.
- Bitter tasting.
- Considered anesthetic, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, antitussive, hallucinogenic, hypnotic.
- Plant as a whole has narcotic, anodyne, and antispasmodic properties analogous to those of belladonna.
- Dried seeds are considered a more powerful soporific than the leaves.
- Plant has long bee noted for it intoxicating and narcotic properties. An overdose causes a violent narcotic poisoning.

Uses
Folkloric
· Leaves used a lot in resolutive and mitigant poultices.
· Smoked like stramonium in cases of dyspnea produced by asthma. Seeds and roots have the same uses; some considered the seeds to be more potent.
· For asthma, dried leaves and stems are cut into small slices and mix with equal quantity of tobacco and rolled into a cigarette and smoked 2 to 3 times a day. Also, the leaves are dried and burned with a little saltpeter, the fumes inhaled to give relief to asthmatic attacks.
· Muscle pains and cramps due to rheumatism: get drug, boil and obtain a concentrated decoction. Wash the painful parts with the warm decoction.
· Gastric pain: use 0.3 gm of dried material in decoction.
· Sprains, contusions, snakebites, piles: use pounded fresh leaves and apply over afflicted areas.
· Severe cold accompanied by excessive sneezing similar to hay fever symptoms: use powdered seeds (0.1 gm) in pills or loose.
· Psoriasis: use the oil prepared by boiling Datura seeds with sesame (linga) oil in an alkaline water made from ashes of gabi. For the preparation of the alkaline water, simply dissolve the white ashes of gabi in water.
· For rheumatic swelling of the joints, lumbago, painful tumors, nodes, etc., the plant is applied locally as poultice of leaves, epithem, fomentation or liniment.
· Leaves applied as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts, or to check excessive secretion of milk. A paste made from turmeric and datura fruit is also useful for the same.
· Leaves boiled in oil, or the oil itself, is a useful application for hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and other rectal diseases associated with tenesmus.
· Juice of leaves administered internally for the prevention of gonorrhea.
· Leaves steeped in spirits used to stimulate hair growth.
· Heated leaves applied to the spleen for intermittent fever.
· Malays used the leaves for boils, leg sores, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, swollen joints, ringwornand fish bites. Heated leaves also used enlarged spleen and swollen testicles.
· Juice of ears dropped inside the ear for earaches.
· Ointment of seeds used for smallpox.
· Flowers digested in wine used as an anesthetic tincture.
· Lotion made from the flowers used for facial eruptions and feet swellings.
· In Cambodia, coconut oil is heated inside the fruit capsule, and the juice, with the oil, is squeezed into the ear.
· Plant used as an indigenous substitute for belladonna in the treatment of cataract and other eye diseases. Mydriatic potency has been reported - the watery extract of leaves is applied around the eyes causing dilatation for two days. Also, dilatation may be achieved through an alcoholic extract of the seeds in four ounces of spirits, the tincture evaporated to dryness in a water bath, and the residue dissolved in an ounce of water.
· Roasted leaves applied to the eyes for ophthalmia.
· Powdered roots are rubbed on the gums for toothache.
· Roots used for the bites of wild dogs.
· Used for fever, catarrh, diarrhea, skin diseases, animal bites, cerebral complications, worms and herpetic diseases.
· Pill made from pounded seeds placed on decayed teeth to relieve toothaches.
· Roots boiled in milk and administered with clarified butter and treacle for insanity.
· In Nigeria, used for asthma, cough, convulsion, and insanity.
· Leaves and seeds used as anesthetic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, and hallucinogenic.
· Seeds pounded in oil used as embrocation in rheumatism; also applied to syphilitic swellings and boils.
· In Konkan, plant juice is given with fresh curds for intermittent fevers.
· In India, used for hysteria, insanity, diarrhea, asthma, skin diseases. For epilepsy, seeds of ripe fruit are burned and the smoke inhaled. Seeds used in small doses as analgesic.
· In China, used for asthma; the dried leaves are rolled and smoked like a cigar. Dried flowers used for as anesthetic and prescribed for the treatment of asthma, cough, and convulsions.
Preparation
· Poultice: Bruise fresh leaves into a pulp, and with a little water, mixing it with a equal weight of rice flour.
· Epithem: Steep a few leaves in arrack or spirit, and place them while wet over the painful areas, and secured in that position by a bandage.
· Fomentation: Infuse leaves in boiling water, in measures of one ounce to an pint of fluid.
· Liniment: Macerate, for seven days, an ounce of bruised seeds in a pint of sesamum or other bland oil; then, strain and apply to the loins for relief of dysmenorrhea
, painful affections of the uterus, neuralgic pains, especially of the face.
Tincture preparation
· Tincture may be prepared by macerating two and a half ounces of bruised datura seeds in one pint of proof spirits, and left for seven days in a closed vessel, occasionally shaking it, and the mixture eventually pressed, filtered, and measured, and sufficient spirit proof added to make one pint. The tincture induces sedative and narcotic effects similar to opium.
Others
· Hallucinogenic: Used as a ritualistic herb for its hallucinogenic effects.
In Nigeria, decoction of leaves or fruits added to drinks to achieve a "high," as a substitute for marijuana. It has been reported that the Moros intoxicated themselves with the plant before committing their massacres.
· Poison: In India and Indo-China, reportedly used quite commonly with criminal intent. In China, often mixed with tea that hides the poison without raising suspicion.

Toxicity / Poisoning !
• All parts contain tropanic alkaloids in varying concentrations; mostly parasympatholytic.
• Common side effects: tachycardia (fast heart beat), slight increase in blood pressure, dryness of the mouth and eyes, sedation.
• Early symptoms of poisoning are dilatation of the pupil, drowsiness, general weakness, with varying degrees of hallucinations.
• At toxic levels, tropanic alkaloids can cause hallucinations, delirium, mental confusion, coma and death.
• Excessive doses can cause hallucinations, severe intoxication and death. The window of toxic and medicinal dose is quite small.
• With medium doses, recovery can occur in 12 to 24 hours, however, with loss of memory and confusion that may last for days.

Studies
Anti-asthmatic: Quisumbing's compilation describes a mechanism for the plant's anti-asthmatic effect. -Asthma relief is attributed to depression or paralysis of the receptive mechanism of the parasympathetic nerves in the bronchi (a known action of solanaceous alkaloids), an effect confirmed by the relaxation produced by the alkaloidal extract from the smoke, on an isolated intercartilaginous portion of a bronchial ring previously contracted by pilocarpine. When smoke is inhaled, it is possible the sticky, resinous substance may help by coating the mucosa and thus lessening the bronchial irritation.
Hypoglycemic / Antihyperglycemic: Study of seed powder of DM produced significant dose-dependent reduction of blood glucose
Cytotoxic Withanolides: Study on methanol extract of flowers of DM isolated 10 new withanolides with seven known withanolides. Compounds 1,3,4 and 6 exhibited cytotoxic activities against lung, gastric and leukemia cancer cell lines.

Antimycotic: (1) Study showed the chloroform fraction of Datura metel to be endowed with antifungal activity against all three species of Aspergillus, i.e., A fumigatus, A flavus and A niger. However, the cytotoxicity of the chloroform fraction was less than amphotericin B. (2) Study of root and shoot extracts showed significant suppression of growth of the target fungal pathogen, Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight disease.
Herbicidal Activity: Study showed the root and shoot extracts of Datura metel contain herbicidal constituents. The extracts exhibited activity against Phalaris minor Retz., one of the most problematic weeds of wheat in Pakistan.
Toxicity Studies: Suspensions of powdered leaf of Datura metel and D stramonium on virgin female albino mice showed dose dependent reversible and irreversible changes. Generally, D metel-treated mice showed less anatomical abnormalities than D stramonium-treated mice and suggests D metel could serve as a substitute for D stramonium in drug development.
Antibacterial / Alkaloid: A new antibacterial agent was isolated from Datura metel leaves with activity against S aureus, P aeruginosa, P mirabilis, S typhi, B subtilis and K pneumonia. Results support its use in phytomedicine for the treatment of asthma, cough, burns and wound healing in Nigeria.
Deleterious Frontal Cortex Effect: A study of aqueous leaf extract in adult Wistar rats caused deleterious effects on the frontal cortex of adult albino Wistar rats, with dose-depended vacuolations in the stroma of the brains of treatment group.

Sedation / Decreased Appetite: A study of seed extract for analgesic activity showed insignificant results. The study showed a behavioral pattern of sedation and decreased appetite on administration of the seed extract, attributed to action on u-type receptors in the CNS, which on stimulation have an intrinsic potential to reduce the distress or the effective component of pains without any significant change in the intensity of the actual sensation.
Antimicrobial / Alkaloid: In a study screening 17 different coastal medicinal plants for antibacterial and antifungal activity , Datura metel showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against many fish pathogens. Results suggested DM can be used as a putative antimicrobial drug in the aquaculture maintenance.
Spasmogenic: Study of D. metel leaf and root extracts, scopolamine and acetylcholine on isolated smooth muscle preparations. Leaf extract and scopolamine showed antispasmodic effects while the root extract and acetylcholine cause contracture in isolated rat uterus and rectum whole muscle. Results suggest a spasmogenic factor in the DM root extract.
Antioxidant: Study the aqueous extract contained more phytochemical compounds than ethanol extracts. Antioxidant activities were higher in the plant leaf than the bark. Results suggest the plant as a natural source of antioxidants and phytochemical quality for antibacterial effectiveness.
Flower Bioactive Components / Antimicrobial: Methanolic extract of D. metel flower yielded four compounds: cis-2-Nitro-4-t-butylcyclohexanone (36.54%) acetic acid, trifluoro-, 2,2- dimethylpropyl ester (31.97%), 4- Trifluoroacetoxyoctane (19.28%) and 1,4- Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl- (12.22%). The last three exhibited antimicrobial properties.

Availability
Wild-crafted. 
Seeds in the cybermarket.

Last Update May 2012

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Datura metel Blanco1.34-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A / 1897 / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Datura metel / Plants For A Future: Database
(2)
Phytomania: Medicinal Herbs / Datura Metel
(3)
Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Datura metel (Linn.) seeds in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats / B Krishna Murthy et al / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.010 / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 91, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 95-98
(4)
Cytotoxic Withanolides from the Flowers of Datura metel / J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70 (7), pp 1127–1132 / DOI: 10.1021/np070096b
(5)
Potentiating action of Datura metel Linn. Root extract on rat intestinal cholinesterase / Phytotherapy Research Vol 6 Issue 3, Pages 160 - 162 / 10.1002/ptr.2650060314
(6)
Studies on antimycotic properties of Datura metel / Rajesh and G L Sharma / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 80, Issues 2-3, May 2002, Pages 193-197/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00036-3 /
(7)
HERBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Datura metel L. AGAINST Phalaris minor Retz. / Arshad Javaid et al
/ Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 14(3-4): 209-220, 2008
(8)
Toxicity Studies on Datura metel L. with Reference to Official Stramonium / G Alebiowu et al / References
Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy • 2007, Vol. 7, No. 1, Pages 1-12/
(9)
Isolation, characterization and antibacterial activity of alkaloid from Datura metel Linn leaves / Donatus Ebere Okwu and Ephraim Chintua Igara
/ African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(5). pp. 277-281, May, 2009/
(10)
Antifungal activity of n-hexane extracts of Datura metel against Ascochyta rabiei / Shazia Shafique and Sobiya Shafique / Mycopath (2008) 6(1&2): 31-35/

(11)
Some effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Datura metel on the frontal cortex of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) / Damilare A. Adekomi, A.A. Tijani, O.K. Ghazal / Eur J Anat, 14 (2): 83-89 (2010)
(12)
Evaluation of the analgesic properties of the Datura metel seeds aqueous extract / N N Wannang, H C Ndukwe, C Nnabuife / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 3(4), pp. 192-195, April, 2009
(13)
Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants along Kanyakumari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India
/ Sundaram Ravikumar, Gopi Palani Selvan and N. Anitha Anandha Gracelin / African Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 2 (5-6): 153-157, 2010
(14)
Chemical constituents from the flower of Datura metel L.
/ Hai-xue Kuang, Bing-you Yang, Yong-gang Xia and Wei-sheng Feng / ARCHIVES OF PHARMACAL RESEARCH, Volume 31, Number 9, 1094-1097, DOI: 10.1007/s12272-001-1274-6
(15)
Antibacterial, Phytochemical and Antioxidant activities of Datura metel / Akharaiyi, F.C. / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp 478-483, Jan-Mar 2011
(16)
Screening of bioactive components of the flower Datura metel using the GC-MS technology / K. Anu Kiruthika and R. Sornarai / International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN (USA): IJPRIF, Vol.3, No.4, pp 2025-2028, Oct-Dec 2011

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