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Family Combretaceae

Terminalia catappa

Lan ren shu

Scientific names Common names
Badamia comersoni Gaertn. Almendras (Span.)
Buceras catappa Hitchc. Almendro (Span.)
Juglans catappa (L.) Lour. Banilak (Pamp.)
Myrobalanus catappa (L.) Kuntze Banilak (Pamp.)
Terminalia badamia sensu Tul. Dalasa (Pamp.)
Terminalia badamia DC. Dalinsi (Bik.)
Terminalia catappa L.. Dalisai (Ibn.)
Terminalia latifolia Blanco Hitam (Pamp.)
Terminalia moluccana Lam. Kalisai (Pamp.)
Terminalia myrobalana Roth Logo (Ilk.)
Terminalia ovatifolia Noronha Lugo (Ilk.)
Terminalia paraensis Mart. Savidug (Iva.)
Terminalia rubrigemmis Tul. Logo (Ilk.)
Terminalia subcordata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Salaisai (Sbl.)
  Taisai (Sul.)
  Talisai (Tag., Bag., Sbl.)
  Taisi (Yak., Tag.)
  Indian almond (Engl.)
  Tropical almond (Engl.)
  Umbrella tree (Engl.)
Terminalia catappa L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Baangla baadaam, Desi baadaam.
BRUNEI: Telesai.
CAMBODIAN: Chambak barang, Kepang, Pareang.
CHINESE: La ren, La ren shu.
FRENCH: Amandier des Antilles, Amandier des Indes, Amandier de l'Inde, Amandier tropical, Badamier.
GERMAN: Indischer Mandelbaum, Katappenbaum, Seemandelbaum, Seemandelbaumblätter.
HAWAIIAN: Kamani haole, Kamani 'ula.
HINDI: Baadaam, Deshi badam, Hijli badam, Jangli badam, Patee badam.
INDIA: Desabadama, Grahadruma, Ingudi, Kshudrabadma, Tapasataruvu, Thilaphala, Vatana.
JAPANESE: Kobatein, Momo tamana.
LAOS: HUU kwang, Somz moox dong, Hou koung.
MALAY: Ketapang, Telisai.
NEPALESE: Kaathe badaam.
PORTUGUESE: Amendoeira da India.
RUSSIAN: Terminaliia katappa.
SPANISH: Almendro de la India.
SRI LANKAN: Kotamba.
TAMIL: Inkuti, Khon, Nattu vadam, Pinga, Saraparuppu, Vaatumai, Vadumai, Vatha kottai.
TELUGU: Badamu, Nalu badami.
THAI: Hu kwang, Khon, Dat mue, Taa-pang.
URDU: Baadaam.

Talisai is a large, deciduous tree, reaching a height of 20 to 25 meters, smooth or nearly so. Branches are horizontally whorled. Leaves are shiny, obovate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, tapering below to a narrow and heart-shaped base with a expanded rounded apex. Leaf stalks are short and stout. Flowers are white, small, and borne on spikes in the axils of the leaves, 6 to 18 centimeters long. Fruit is smooth and ellipsoid, 3 to 6 centimeters long, and prominently bi-ridged or keeled down to the sides. Pericarp is fibrous and fleshy, the endocarp hard.

- Found throughout the Philippines along seashores.
- A common inland tree preferred for its umbrella-type shade.

- Occurs in the Old World Tropics.
- Introduced to the New World.

- Seed contains 51.2 percent fixed oil, Catappa oil, with 54% olein, palmitin, and 46 % stearin.
- Bark contains tannin.
- Phytochemical analysis yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum).

- Physiochemical analysis of sun dried mesocarp of fruits revealed about 12.65% ash, 84.93% carbohydrate, 0.37% oil, 316 mg/g glucose, 0.1% protein, 1.30 mg/g tannin, 1.95% moisture, with 3434.5 kcal/kg calorific value.
- Seeds yield 4.13% moisture, 23.78% crude protein, 4.27% ash, 4.94% crude fiber, 51.80% fat, 16.02% carbohydrate and 548.78 Kcal calorific value. (See study below) (16)
- Classified in the oleic-linoleic acid group, oil contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 31.48%) and linoleic (up to 28.93%).
- Study of essential oil from leaves
by GC-MS analysis yielded 66 compounds. Main constituents were (Z)-phytol (41.2%), palmitic acid (11.0%), and (E)-nerolidol (4.7%), heptadecane (3.0%), hexadecane (2.3%). Alkaline hydrocarbons (25.5%) made up a significant portion of the leaf composition. (29)
- Phytochemical screening of bark and leaves extracts yielded flavonoids, alkaloid, steroid, terpenoids, gallic tannins, and saponins, with the exception of aqueous extract for coumarins. (see study below) (35)
- Physiochemical analysis of concocted kernels yielded: ash (4.0 ±0.1%), proteins (40.9 ±1.3%), lipids (50.6 ±1.0%), total sugars (1.4 ±0.1%), reducing sugars (0.3 ±0.01%) and moisture content (3.8 ±0.4%). (see study below) (36)

- Leaves are sudorific, anthelmintic.
- Bark and roots are astringent.

- Oil extracts exhibit good physiochemical properties and can be useful as edible oil and potential for industrial applications.

- Studies have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antimetastatic, analgesic, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antitumor properties.

Edibility / Nutrition
- Kernels are edible, with a sweet-acidic pericarp.
- Seeds are a good source of minerals; in descending order: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium.
- Red leaves are used to expel worms.
- Fruit is said to be purgative.
- Leaves mixed with oil are rubbed onto the breast to relieve mammary pain.
- Bark is used for gastric ailments, bilious diarrhea and dysentery.
- The sap of young leaves mixed with the kernel oil has been used for the treatment of leprosy.
- Bark decoction has been used for the treatment of gonorrhea and stomach cramps.
- Leaves are applied to rheumatic joints.
- Juice of young leaves used for scabies and other cutaneous diseases, headaches and colic.
- Leaves macerated in oil has been used for tonsillitis.
- Leaves used for treatment of hepatitis and dermatitis.
- In Sri Lankan folklore, juice of tender leaves used for pains, including headaches.
- In India, the bark is used as a diuretic and cardiotonic; leaves used for headache.
- In Nigeria, leaves macerated in palm oil used for tonsillitis; stems and bark used for sexual dysfunction.
- Seeds have been used for sexual dysfunction.
- Oil: Kernel contains a fixed oil, 51-63% called Indian Almond oil, oil of Badamier, or in the Philippines, as Talisay oil.

- Dye: Fruits and roots used for tanning leather and provides an ink and black dye for dyeing cotton and rattan.

Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study of leaf extracts of TC and an isolated antioxidant, corilagin, was found to provide hepatoprotection in experimentally induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis. (1)
Anti-Inflammatory: Topical application of ethanol and chloroform extracts of leaves in induced acute and chronic ear edema in mice showed reduced inflammation.
Study of the methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa showed inhibitory activity on B subtilis and S aureus. Phytochemical analysis yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum). (2)
Antimetastatic: Study showed extract of TC leaves exerted an inhibitory effect on invasion and motility of highly metastatic lung carcinoma cells. It suggests TCE could be a potential antimetastatic agent
. (3)
Antinociceptive: Study of the leaf extract of TC concludes that it is useful as an analgesic, supporting it folkloric use in Sri Lanka.(4)
Squalene / Antioxidant: Squalene was identified from the leaf extract of TC. The extract of leaves exhibited potent antioxidative and scavenging activities. (5)
Anti-Diabetic: Study of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of T catappa all produced significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Histological studies of the pancreas earlier necrosed by alloxan showed regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts.
Damage to pancreas in alloxan-treated diabetic control and regeneration of ß-cells by glibenclamide was observed. A comparable regeneration was noted with aqueous and cold extracts.
Aphrodisiac: Reports of Terminalia catappa seeds showing aphrodisiac activities in male rates.(6)
Anti-inflammatory / Triterpenic Acids: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves yielded triterpenic acids responsible for the
anti-inflammatory activity of T catappa leaves. (7)
Antiparasitic / Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study looked into T catappa as an alternative to the use of chemicals and antibiotics in the aquaculture industry. Results showed eradication of Trichodina, fish ectoparasites, at 800 ppm. On going research is being done to isolate the active ingredients in the Indian almond for fish pathogen treatment
. (9)
Antibacterial / Ornamental Fish Culture: Study evaluated the concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in a water extract of leaves and its in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals. Results indicated a potential for use as antibacterial alternative for ornamental fish culture.
Oil / Biodiesel Potential: Study of castanhola in Brazil showed the oil obtained from the fruit kernels to yield around 49% (%mass). The fatty acid composition was similar to other conventional oils. Study of physiochemical properties of the TC biodiesel showed to be in acceptable range for use as in diesel engines.
Livestock Feed: The mesocarp of T catappa contain major nutrients of carbohydrate, oil and metal ions (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn) provide for biochemical activities required for livestock feed formulation. (11)
Antidiabetic / L
eaves: Study reports the leaf extracts exhibited significant blood glucose lowering in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Histological studies showed regeneration of the pancreas which were previously necrosed by alloxan. (12)
Anthelmintic: Study of TC leaves showed anthelmintic activity through inhibition of motility and survivability of larvae of T. colubriforis, C curticei and H. contortus. (13)
Hepatoprotective / D-Galactosamine / Radical Scavenging: TC leaf extract showed hepatoprotective effect against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury. There was dose-dependent inhibition of mitrochondrial swelling with dose-dependent superoxide radicals scavenging activity. (15)
Antimicrobial: Study demonstrated
antimicrobial activity, more pronounced against bacteria than fungal strains. (14)
Nutritional Properties of Seed and Oil: Seeds were found to be a good source of minerals. Oil contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic and linoleic acids. Dominant saturated acids were palmitic and stearic acids. Oil extracts exhibited good physiochemical properties and a potential usefulness as edible oils and industrial applications. (See constituents above) (16)
Erythropoiesis Enhancement: Study evaluated the potential of Terminalia catappa to induce erythropoiesis in adult Balb C mice. A methanolic extract of T. catappa exhibited erythropoietic potential, inducing production of hemoglobin higher than untreated control. (18)
Toxicological Study / Leaves: Study evaluated three different doses of T. catappa crude aqueous extract in two stages of toxicity. Results showed no toxicological effects on Sprague-Dawley white rats in a 14-day experimental period. (19) Study evaluated an aqueous extract of T. catappa leaves for potential toxicity in rats. On acute toxicity testing, extract was found safe at doses of 2000 mg/kg body weight per OECD guidelines. In chronic toxicity, no significant changes were noted in hematological, hepatic, and renal parameters were noted at termination of a 6-week study. (28)
Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves showed analgesic activity which may be mediated through both central and peripheral mechanisms. (20)
Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of T. catappa and T. arjuna for in-vitro antifungal activity against A. niger, A. alternata, C. lunata and T. tonsurans. Both showed antifungal activities, with T. arjuna showing better efficacy. Methanol extract showed best activity with Curvularia lunata. (21)
Antifungal / Bark and Wood: Study evaluated aqueous, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Terminalia catappa wood and bark against some fungal species. The hexane extract exhibited potent dose dependent antifungal activity against all selected fungal species. Activity was compared to standard Clotrimazole. (31)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of T. catappa leaves and bark for antibacterial activity against clinical (sensitive and MDR) and ATCC strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus. Bark extracts showed better activity compared to the leaves extracts, and the methanolic extract the most active of all the extracts. (22)
Antibacterial / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves and bark for antibacterial activity against clinical (sensitive and multidrug-resistant) and ATCC strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, and S. aureus (MRSA). The bark extracts generally showed better activity compared to leaves extracts, and the methanolic extract of bark was the most active of all extracts, exhibiting broad spectrum activity. (see constituents above) (35)
Hepatoprotective / Leaves / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Triterpenoids: Study evaluated a chloroform extract of leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage and D-galactosamine induced injury. The chloroform extract yielded ursolic acid and asiatic acid, which dose-dependently inhibited Ca2++-induced mitrochondrial swelling. The hepatoprotective activity attributed to protection of the liver mitrochondria and scavenging action of free radicals. (23)
Natural Anti-solar Agent / Fruit: Study evaluated the UV absorption ability of a methanol extract of fruit of Terminalia catappa as an application as anti-solar agent. Results showed maximum absorbance at 200nm, good absorbance at 240nm to 300 nm, and moderate absorbance at 300-360nm. (24)
Antitumor / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of a methanolic extract of leaves of T. catappa against Ehrlich ascitic lymphoma (ELA) in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant antitumor activity, with the extract bringing back the altered levels of hematological parameters and liver enzymes. (25)
Attenuation of u-PA Expression / Inhibition of Cell Metastases: Study investigated the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases. Results showed TCE has an inhibitory effect on several crucial steps of metastasis, including cell invasion and migration, by regulating u-PA expression and ts natural inhibitor. The TCE anti-migration potential effect on HCC cells may lead to the development of specific mediation to inhibit cell metastases. (26)
Antimetastatic on Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study demonstrated that TC extract dose dependently inhibited human HCC migration/invasions. TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of binding activities of transciption factors NF-kB and AP-1. Results suggest a potential as chemotherapeutic agent. (27)
Safety During Pregnancy / G6PD Effect: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of stem bark of T. catappa on pregnant wistar rats and brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. The dose of 400 mg/kg body weight consumed during pregnancy was considered relatively safe, without any fetal abnormalities in foetus or changes in brain G6PD activity in adult rats. (30)
Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiulcer activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of T. catappa leaves against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Results showed all doses of leaf extracts had significant (p<0.05) effect against gastric damage induced by indomethacin. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between TCLE (400mg/kg) and ranitidine. (32)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of T. catappa for antioxidant effects. A methanol extract showed the highest phenol and flavonoid content of 121.9 ± 3.1 mg/g and 59.6 ± 1.5 mg/g respectively. On antioxidant assays, the methanol extract showed highest total antioxidant activity of 41.4 ± 0.45 µM Fe(II)/g. EC50 for lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml respectively. (33)
Cytotoxic / Radical Scavenging / Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent leaf extracts of T. catappa for cytotoxic and radical scavenging potential. All extracts showed dose dependent response on brine shrimp assay; a chloroform extract showed 100% activity at highest dose of 200 µg/ml. On DPPH and FRAP assays, an acetone extract exhibited significant reduction of free radicals with IC50 value of 36.9 µg/ml. (34)
Concocted Kernels / Sensory and Physiochemical Evaluation: Study evaluated the physiochemical and sensory qualities of appetizers concocted from T. catappa kernels: salted roasted kernels and unsalted roasted kernels. Results showed good nutritional value with high protein and lipid contents. The concocted appetizers were less preferred than Roasted Peanuts (salted or unsalted) and Roasted Salted Cashew nuts. (see constituents above) (36)
Antidiabetic Potential / Leaves: Studies have shown that T. catappa possess anti-diabetic properties. Studies on alloxan-induced diabetic allbino rats subjected to aqueous and cold extracts of fresh tender leaves showed a significant decrease in glucose level and regeneration of necrotic beta cells of the pancreas. Further studies are suggested to discover the regenerating factor. (37)

Wild crafted.

Last Update October 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Terminalia catappa Blanco1.144-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin / Kinoshita S et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 14, Issue 11, Pages 755-762
The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms / H Babayi et al /Biokemistri, Vol. 16, No. 2, December, 2004, pp. 106-111
In vitro and in vivo antimetastatic effects of Terminalia catappa L. leaves on lung cancer cells / Shu-Chen Chua et al / Food and chemical toxicology . 2007, vol. 45, no7, pp. 1194-1201/ ISSN 0278-6915 CODEN FCTOD7
Tender leaf extract of Terminalia catappa antinociceptive activity in rats / Ratnasooriya W D et al / Pharmaceutical biology ISSN 1388-0209 /2002, vol. 40, no1, pp. 60-66
Squalene Content and Antioxidant Activity of Terminalia catappa Leaves and Seeds / Ting-Fu Ko et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50 (19), pp 5343–5348 / DOI: 10.1021/jf0203500
Male Sexual Dysfunction and Methods used in Assessing Medicinal Plants with Aphrodisiac Potentials
/ Pharmacognosy Reviews
Vol 1, Issue 1, Jan-May, 2007

Phytochemical and antiinflammatory studies on Terminalia catappa / Y M Fan et al / Fitoterapia . Vol 75. No 3-4, June 2004 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2003.11.007
Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits / A N Nagappa et al /Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 88, Issue 1, September 2003, Pages 45-50 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00208-3
ANTIPARASITIC, ANTIBACTERIAL, AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES DERIVED FROM A TERMINALIA CATAPPA SOLUTION AGAINST SOME TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) PATHOGENS/ C Chitmanat et al /ISHS Acta Horticulturae 678: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Volume 4: Targeted Screening of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Economics and Law /
The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.) / Nantarika Chansue and Nongnut Assawawongkasem / KKU Vet J. 2008;18(1):36-45

The potential of Terminalia catappa (Almond) and Hyphaene thebaica (Dum palm) fruits as raw materials for livestock feed / Nwosu, F. O., Dosumu, O. O., and Okocha, J. O. C. / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (24), pp. 4576-4580, 17 December, 2008
Anti-Diabetic Activity of Terminalia catappa Linn. Leaf Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats / Syed Mansoor Ahmed, Vrushabendra Swamy BM et al / IJPT 4:36-39, 2005
Determination of Anthelmintic Potential in Terminalia catappa by Modified Selected In Vitro Bioassay / Arzul L M, Effendy AWM, Adzemi MA et al / IPCBEE vol.7 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore
Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa L. Leaf Extracts against Some Clinically Important Pathogenic Microbial Strains / Sumitra Chanda, Kalpna Rakholiya, Rathish Nair / Chinese Medicine, Vol 2, No 4, Dec 2011 / DOI: 10.4236/cm.2011.24027
Mechanisms of Hepatoprotection of Terminalia catappa L. Extract on D-Galactosamine-Induced Liver Damage / Xin-Hui Tang, Ling Gao et al / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 4, 509–519
Composition and Nutritional Properties of Seeds and Oil From Terminalia catappa L. / L Matos, J M Nzikou, A Kimbonguila et al / Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 1(1): 72-77, 2009
Sorting Terminalia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Terminalia catappa Extract Enhances Erythropoiesis in Adult Balb C Mice
/ I A Aimola, H M Inuwa, A I Mamman, N Habila and A S Agbaji, D Omoniwa / Journal of Molecular Biology Research Vol. 1, No. 1; December 2011
Determination of toxicological effects of Terminalia catappa leaves on Sprague- Dawley white rats in short-term period / *Azrul, L. M., Adzemi, M. A., Ahmad, W. M. A. W. and Effendy, A. W. M./ International Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2013; 3(3): 44-47.
Antinociceptive Potential of Terminalia Catappa (Indian Almond) Leaves in Swiss Albino Rat / Saurabh Arjariya*, Nitin Nema, Swati Tiwari, Ritu Dubey / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 1(1), 2013: pp 071-077.
Antifungal Activity of Alcoholic Leaf Extracts of Terminalia Catappa and Terminalia Arjuna on Some Pathogenic and Allergenic Fungi / *Shikha Mandloi, *Rajashree Srinivasa, *Renu Mishra, Ranjana Varma / Advances in Life Science and Technology, Vol 8, 2013
Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and barks of Terminalia catappa on multiresistant strains. / Rubens Dinzedi Mbengui, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Gervais M. M'boh, Julien K. Golly; Constantin O Okou; Jean D. Nguessan; Mireille Dosso ; Joseph A Djaman / J.Appl.Biosci.2013.
Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves and its two triterpenoids / Jing Gao*, Xinhui Tang, Huan Dou, Yimei Fan, Xiaoning Zhao, Qiang Xu / Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 56, Issue 11, pages 1449–1455, November 2004 / DOI: 10.1211/0022357044733
Study on in-vitro evaluation of fruit of Terminalia catappa Linn as a natural anti-solar agent
/ Nevade Sidram, A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N. V. Kalyane / Science and Technology, Asian Journal
Terminalia catappa attenuates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through Erk pathways in Hepatocellular carcinoma / Chao-Bin Yeh, Yung-Luen Yu, Chiao-Wen Lin, Hui-Ling Chiou, Ming-Ju HsiehEmail author and Shun-Fa Yang / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 201414:141 /
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-141
Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity / Chao-Bin Yeh, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Ming-Hsien Chien, Pen-Yuan Lin, Hui-Ling Chiou, and Shun-Fa Yang / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/595292
INVESTIGATE THE TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECT ON AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA LINN. IN RAT / Saurabh Arjariya*, Nitin Nema, Swati Tiwari / International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Aug-Sept 2013, Vol 2, No 5, pp 596-601
Chemical composition of the leaf essential pil of Terminalia catappa L. growing in southwestern Nigeria
/ Moses S. Owolabi*, Oladipupo A. Lawal, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Rebecca M. Hauser William N. Setzer / American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products 2013; 1 (1): 51-54
Influence of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract Terminalia catappa L. on Pregnant Wistar Rats and Brain g-6pdh Activities / Nathaniel Ohiemi Amedu*, Ukanu Paul Idoko and Olusegun Omotoso / European Journal of Medicinal Plants ,11(2): 1-7, 2016
Efficacy of Terminalia catappa L. Wood and Bark against Some Fungal Species / P.Parimala Gandhi, P.Venkatalakshmi* and P.Brindha / Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2015) 4(9): 74-80
Histopathological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Terminalia catappa Leaves in Treatment of Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats / Ardeshir Arzi, Neda Sistani Karampour, Anahita Rezaei, and Amin Gholamhoseyne / Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod / doi: 10.17795/jjnpp-38019.
Studies on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoid Contents of Terminalia Catappa Leaves Using In-vitro Models / Roshan.S*, N.Lal Mahammed, Syed Nadeem, Shaik Aleem, Mohd Munawer Ahmed / American Journal of PharmTech Research
Cytotoxic and Radical Scavenging Potential of Indian Almond (Terminalia catappa) / Leaf ExtractsD. R. Behera, Sunita Bhatnagar* and A.K.Mahapatra / British Biomedical Bulletin, 2(1) (2014)
Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and barks of Terminalia catappa on multiresistant strains. / Rubens Dinzedi Mbengui, Nathalie K. Guessennd , Gervais M. M’boh, Julien K. Golly; Constantin O Okou; Jean D. Nguessan; Mireille Dosso; Joseph A Djaman / Journal of Applied Biosciences 66:5040 – 5048
Physicochemical Quality of Kernels from Terminalia catappa L. and Sensory Evaluation of the Concocted Kernels / Godi H. M. Biego, Amoin G. Konan, Togba E. Douati & L. P. Kouadio / Sustainable Agriculture Research; Vol. 1, No. 2; 2012
Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Terminalia Catappa In The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus / TapanBehl* and Anita Kotwani / Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 3 (Vol. 4) 2014

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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