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Family Solanaceae
Talong-pipit
Solanum indicum Linn.
INDIAN NIGHT SHADE

Ci tian qie

Other scientific names Common names
Solanum indicum Linn. Talong-pipit (Tag.)
Solanum violaceum Ortega Talong-na-puti (Tag.)
Solanum ferox auct. plur. non L. Indian night shade (Engl.)
  African eggplant (Engl.)
  Bush tomato (Engl.)
  Poison berry (Engl.)
Some compilation lists S. sanitwongsei as synonym of S violaceum Ortega, but the plant has no prickles.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ci tian qie, Xiao dian qie, Zi hua qie, Ci qie, Xi hunang qie, Huang shui qie, Xi dian qie, Ci ding qie.
FRENCH: Morelle des Indes, Petite anghive (Africa), Anghive marron (Africa).
JAPANESE: Shiro suzume nasubi.
MALAY: Terong pipit puteh.
SANSKRIT: Bhantahi, Vrihati.

Taxon notes
The binomial "Solanum indicum" is confusing to both lay people and academics due to the many authorities that have attempted to pin it down taxonomically. Consequently when one finds a photo or a text referring to "Solanum indicum" one is never sure if it refers to "Solanum anguivi" or "Solanum violaceum" or even "Solanum ferox". It has been rejected by taxonomists as the following notes from USDA - ARS - GRIN attest but the literature is riddled with "Solanum indicum" so all the common names associated with it become even more unreliable than usual.
"Solanum indicum L., nom. rej., a rejected name (nomen utique rejiciendum) under Vienna ICBN Art. 56 & App. V that is unavailable for use.
Hepper, F. N. 1978. (456,457) Proposals to list Solanum indicum L. and Solanum sodomeum L. as rejected names under Article 69 of the ICBN. Taxon 27:555."
(Sorting EGGPLANT names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE)

Botany
Talong-pipit is an erect undershrub, 0.3 to 1.5 meters high. Stems are much branched, very prickly, and bearing compressed, stout, often recurved prickles. Leaves are ovate, 3.5 to 15 centimeters long, 2.5 to 8 centimeters wide, lobed or pinnatifid in the margins, blunt or pointed at the tip, pointed at the base, and stellately woolly beneath. Leaves in the branchlets are much smaller. Flowers are blue, borne in extra-axillary racemes. Calyx-lobes in flower are triangular, very woolly, unarmed, or furnished with slender, straight spines. Corolla is broadly triangular, 2 to 2.5 centimeters long, and hairy on the outside. Fruit is yellow, rounded, about 1.5 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Found in Davao and Mindanao, on rocky bluffs near the seashore.
- Occurs in southern China and Malaya.

Constituents
- Fruit contains solanin and solanidine.
- Oil from the seeds contains glycerides of lauric, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids, with phytosterols, sitosterol and carpesterol, and a hydrocarbon of high molecular weight.
- Phytochemical study of fruit yields alkaloids, polyphenols and saponins.

Properties
- Plant is considered cordial, aphrodisiac, astringent and resolvent.
- Root is considered diuretic, expectorant, diaphoretic and stimulant.
- Fruit is considered tonic and laxative.


Parts used and preparation
Roots, seeds, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruits used in the preparation of curries, chutneys and preserves.
Folkloric
- Used for asthma, febrile conditions, dry coughs, colic with flatulence, and worms.
- Vapor of burning seed used for odontalgia.
- Decoction of leaves used for dysuria.
- In Malaya, root is pounded and the pulp pressed on ulcerated sores.
- In Java, decoction of leaves drunk as diuretic.
- Root, taken internally, used for difficult childbirth and toothaches; also, for fever, worms and colic, and skin diseases in children.
- Juice of the leaves with fresh juice of ginger is used for vomiting.
- Fruits and leaves, rubbed with sugar, applied externally for skin itches.
- Fruit used as tonic and laxative.
- In
China, used as anti-inflammatory and wound healing herb.
Others
- Leaves placed in infant's cradle to promote sleep.


Studies
Cytotoxic / Solavetivone / Constituents:
Study yielded solavetivone which was found to be cytotoxic to OVCAR-3 cells with an IC50 of 0.1 mM. Other compounds isolated were a novel solafuranone and three known compounds: scopoletin, N-(p-trans-coumaroyl)tyramine and N-trans-feruloyltyramine. (2)
Phytochemicals / Steroidal Glycosides: Study yielded isoangulvine, protodioscin, solasonine and solamargine, together with steroidal glycosides, named indiosides A-E, obtained from the fruits and roots. (3)
Toxicological Study: Study on long-term toxicity in rats showed no histopathological changes in the body organs with extract doses several 100 times greater than its ED50. Results point to a wide safety margin of the extract. (6)
Antibacterial: Ethanolic extract of leaves showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, E coli. A chloroform, acetone, and ethanol extracts showed activity against pseudomonas. (7)
Indiosides / Anticancer: Studies have yielded several synthetic indiosides from S. indicum and shown to have anticancer effects. Results showed indiosides have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on proliferation of Bel-7402 cells, and can induce apoptosis through mitochondria-dependent pathway. (9)
Antibacterial / Fresh Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of Solanaceae plants i.e., solanum indicum, S. xanthocarpum, and Physalis minima against selected pathogenic microorganisms. Ethanol and methanol extracts of fresh leaves of Solanum indicum showed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus spp., Corynebaterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella typhimurium. (11)
Cardiotonic / Laxative / Fruits: Study evaluated crude methanolic extract of fruits of Solanum indicum for laxative and cardiotonic activity in experimental animals. Results showed significant laxative activity (p value <0.01) and marked dose-dependent cardiotonic activity. (12)
Anthelmintic / Fruits: Previous study reported on the strong anthelmintic activity of fruits of Solanum indicum. Study partially purified at least four different anthelmintic compounds. (13)

Toxicity Report
Diabetes Insipidus:
Study reports on a case of diabetes insipidus after seven doses of concentrated solution of Solanum indicum over two weeks. The diagnosis was confirmed by a water deprivation test and a low serum ADH. Results suggest that excessive doses of S indicum may cause central diabetes insipidus. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update March 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Merian Metamorphosis VI .jpg / Illuminated Copper-engraving from "Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium", plate VI. Solanum indicum / 1705 / "Das kleine Buch der Tropenwunder", Insel Verlag Leipzig Wiesbaden 1954. / Author - Maria Sybilla Merian / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: J. J. Dillenius / Solanum indicum / Dillenius Botanicals / CLASSIC NATURE PRINTS

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Solanum Indicum /
(2)
Cytotoxic and Novel Compounds from Solanum indicum / Wan-Jr Syu et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (9), pp 1232–1233 / DOI: 10.1021/np010186v
(3)
Steroidal glycosides, indiosides A-E, from Solanum indicum / Shoji Yahara, Takanori Nakamura et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 43, Issue 6, Dec 1996, Pages 1319-1323 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00395-0
(4)
Central diabetes insipidus following digestion Solanum indicum L. concentrated solution / Wen-Hung Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu, Ji-Tseng Fang / Clinical Toxicology, Volume 46, Issue 4 April 2008 , pages 293 - 296 / DOI: 10.1080/15563650701385881
(5)
Sorting EGGPLANT names and their relatives / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(6)
Toxicological studies on a standardized extract of Solanum indicum ssp. distichum. / Abdel-Aziz H, Fawzy N, Ismail AI, El-Askary H. / Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Apr;49(4):903-9. Epub 2010 Dec 22.
(7)
Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Anti-microbial studies of Solanum indicum leaves / A.R. Srividya, A. Arunkumar, Bony Cherian, V. Maheshwari, S. Piramanayagam, and V. Senthoorpandi / Anc Sci Life. 2009 Jul-Sep; 29(1): 3–5.
(8)
Assay of Nutritional Potential of the Fruits of Solanum indicum L. in Iran / Ali Aberoumand / Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012 Vol. 8(3): 923-929
(9)
Inducement effect of synthetic indiosides from Solanum indicum L.on apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cell line Bel-7402 and its mechanism / Peng Ma, Tong-Tao Cao, Guo-Feng Gu, Xiang Zhao, Yu-Guo Du, Ye Zhang / Ai zheng Aizheng Chinese journal of cancer (2006), Volume: 25, Issue: 4, Pages: 438-442
(10)
Sorting EGGPLANT names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(11)
ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIALS OF Solanum indicum, Solanum xanthocarpum and Physalis minima. /
C.C. Gavimath*, S. M. Kulkarni1, C. J. Raorane, D. P. Kalsekar, B. G. Gavade. B. E. Ravishankar, R. S. Hooli / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications, Vol 3, Issue 4, 2012, pp 414-418
(12)
Evaluation of laxative and cardiotonic activity of solanum indicum linn. Fruits
/ Prashanta Kumar Deb, Lakshman Das, Ranjib Ghosh, Rajkumar Debnath, Tejendra Bhakta* / JPharmPhytother2013, 1:3, 11-14
(13)
Partial Purification of Anthelmintic Compounds from Solanum indicum / U.V.R. Senaratne, H.K.I. Perera, A. Manamperi, and S.B.P. Athauda / Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, Vol. 16, 24th November 2011


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