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Family Rhizophoraceae
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob.

Hai jia zi

Scientific names Common names
Bruguiera arnottiana Wight ex Am. Balaw (Bis._
Bruguiera timoriensis Wight ex Am. Ligasen (Tag.)
Ceriops boviniana Tul. Magtoñgod (P. Bis.)
Ceriops candolleana Arn. Pakat (Tagb.)
Ceriops forsteniana Blume Roñgon (Sbl.)
Ceriops globulifera Boreau ex Tul. Ruñgon (Sbl.)
Ceriops lucida Miq. Tagasa (Tag.)
Ceriops mossambicensis Klotzsch Tañgag (S. L. Bis.)
Ceriops pauciflora Benth Tañgal (Tag., Bag., Pang., Sul.)
Ceriops somalensis Chiov. Tañgal-lalaki (Tag.)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. Tanghal (Tag., P. Bis.)
Ceriops timoriensis (DC.) C.A.Gardner Tigasan (Tag.)
Rhizophora tagal Perr. Tonggi (Kuy.)
Rhizophora timoriensis DC. Toñgog (Bag., S. L. Bis.)
  Toñgong (Sub.)
  Tuñgod (P. Bis., C. Bis.)
  Tuñgog (P. Bis.)
  Tuñguds (Sul.)
  Yellow mangrove (Engl.)
  Spurred mangrove (Engl.)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Tengar.
CHINA: Jiao guo mu, Hai jia zi, Hai dian zi, Jian zi shu.
INDIA: Gat garan, Math garan.
INDONESIA: Tengar, Tanggala tutu, Tingi.
SINGAPORE: Tengar, Tengar putih.
THAILAND: Prong, Prong daeng, Samae.

Tañgal is a small tree growing up to 8 meters or less in height, with many buttresses at the base. Bark is dark red. Leaves are ovate, 5 to 7.5 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, blunt at the tip and pointed at the base. Flowers are about 6 millimeters in length, borne on short stalks. Calyx lobes are linear, with pointed tips. Petals are five, smooth; tips are flat or notched, with three of four club-shaped appendages. Stamens are ten. Fruit is small, club-shaped or subovoid, surrounded near the base by the reflexed segments of
the calyx.

- Abundant in mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya.
- Listed as "vulnerable" on the Red List of threatened plants of Singapore. (19)

- Aerial parts yielded three new lupane-type triterpenes, 3a-O-trans-feruloylbetulinic acid, 3a-O-trans-coumaroylbetulinic acid and 3ß-O-cis-feruloylbetulin, with 10 known triterpenes.
- Phytochemical screening of stems and leaves yielded flavonoids, anthraglycosides, bitter principle, saponins, terpenoids, and essential oils. (See study below) (12)
- Total phenolic content of wood and bark extracts in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) were 141.86 mg GAE/100 g sample and 181.91 mg GAE/100 mg g sample, respectively. (see study below) (14)
- Water soluble amino acids constituents of Ceriops tagal fruit were lysine, threonine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and proline, while hypocotyl yielded arginine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, and alanine. (see study below) (15)
- Study of hypocotyls and fruits of Ceriops tagal yielded three new dammarane triterpenes, cereotagaloperoxide (1), cereotagalo A (2), and cereotagalol B (3), together with four known dammarane triterpenes, an oleanane triterpene, and 13 known lupane triterpenes. (18)
- Study of stems and twigs yielded seven dolabrane-type diterpenes, namely tagalsins A-G, along with the norditerpene tagalsin H. (23)
- Study of the edible mangrove fruit yielded a high total protein content, ash content (4.3%), and a fiber content of 15.64%. (26)

- Whole plant is considered astringent.
- Stem-bark considered vulnerary and anti-infective.
- Bark is astringent, hemostatic, and used as quinine substitute.
- Studies have suggested antitumor, antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antioxidant properties.

Parts used


- Fruit reportedly eaten by natives of the Andamans (19)
- Decoction of the bark used to stop hemorrhages; applied to malignant ulcers.
- Bark used for diabetes.
- In the African Coast, decoction of shoots used as substitute for quinine.
- Malay women use a decoction of bark in childbirth.
- In India, bark used as hemostatic.
- In Malaysia, bark lotion used for ulcers and abdominal ailments.
- In India, chewing of stem bark is used to cure injury infection. Juice from stem bark used to stop hemorrhage and to cure eczema (25)
- Dye: In eastern Africa and Asia, stem bark used for dyeing and tanning. In SE Asia, source of "soga browns" of Javanese batiks.
- Preservative: In fishing communities, bark extract used to preserve nets and sails from decay.
- Wood: Poles, planks and wattlework for house building.

Dolabrane Diterpene / Tagalsin / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated a new dolabrane-type diterpene, tagalsin, together with six known analogues. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cancer cell line. (2)
Anti-Tumor / Triterpenes: Study of 95% ethanol extract from embryo of Ceriops tagal yielded four triterpenes and tested against three cell lines. Compounds 1 and 3 were effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and growth of H-7402 and HeLa. (4)
Antihyperglycemic: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of the crude extract of Ceriops tagal showed significant improvement of glucose tolerance in sucrose-loaded normal rats and a 10.9% reduction of hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (5)
Antihyperglycemic / Hexose Uptake Stimulation: Study on the effect of an ethanolic extract and its fractions on H-2-deoxyglucose uptake by cultured L6 rat muscle cells showed enhancement of glucose uptake comparable with insulin and metformin. Results suggest the n-hexane soluble fraction might be a potential source of new antihyperglycemic compounds. (7)
Antibacterial / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark extracts of Ceriops tagal and Pemphis acidula against human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, V parahemolyticus, S aureus and V cholera. P acidula showed higher antibacterial potency than C tagal. In all the tests, the crude methanolic extracts showed better inhibition. (6)
Antitumor: Dolabrane diterpenes of Ceriops tagal exhibited significant antitumor effect in the LLC mice probably through induced apoptosis of tumor cell and the lower expression of the tumor-associated transcription factor NF-KPp65. (8)
Dolaborane Diterpenes / Tagalsins / Roots / Anticancer: Study investigated the anticancer activity of tagalsins A-G isolated from the roots of C. tagal. Tagalsins A- G induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 enzyme. Tagalsin A was the most active. Results suggest a potential for the development of anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of actions. (9)
Antioxidant / Stems and Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity and phytochemicals in stems and leaves of C. tagal. Study confirmed the free radical scavenging potential of C. tagal. The leaves showed higher dose-dependent reducing power. Phytoscreening yielded flavonoids, anthraglycosides, bitter principle, saponins, terpenoids, and essential oils. (12)
Total Phenolic Content / Fungitoxic Property / Bark: Study evaluated bark and wood water soluble extracts of mangrove "tangal" as a potential antifungal agent against wood pathogenic fungi Lasiodyplodia theobromae. The bark extract was more effective in controlling fungal growth when compared with the wood extract. Results suggest some of the phenolics in tangal could inhibit fungal growth and development. (see constituents above) (14)
Potential for Supplementing Animal Feed: Study analyzed organic and inorganic constituents of fruit and hypocotyl of Ceriops tagal. Both showed high concentration of carbohydrates and crude fibers, with very low amounts of fat and protein. It was rich in Na, K, and Ca, and was fairly high in calorific values. Results showed a potential source for supplementing animal feed. (see constituents above) (15)
• Bioactive Terpenoids / Antidiabetic / Leaves:
Study of air dried leaves showed promising antidiabetic activity (PTPase inhibitory activity). Bioassay guided fractionation yielded 12 chemical molecules. Four molecules stearic acid (94.2%), betulin (94.4%), ß-hydroxy betulinic acid (90.5%) and ursolic acid (91.6%) showed promising PTPase activity at 100 µg/ml. (16)
• Proanthocyanidines / Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study evaluated the relationships between degree of polymerization and antioxidant activities of subfractions obtained by fractionation of proanthocyanidins from Ceriops tagal leaves. (17)
• Cytotoxicity / Anticancer / Fruit:
Study evaluated the anticancer activity of methanol extract of fruit of C. tagal against MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and HCT-116 (colon cancer) cell lines. Results showed anticancer activity with IC50 values of 50.57 µg/ml and 38.51 µg/ml for MDA-MB-231 and HCT-116 cell lines, respectively. (20)
• Antibacterial / Phenolic Content / Bark:
evaluated various extracts of dried leaves and bark for phenolic content and antibacterial activity. The methanolic bark extract showed higher total phenolic content of 6.063 ± 0.205 mg GAE/g extract. Antimicrobial activity was tested against B. cereus, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. typhi using paper disk diffusion method. The methanol extracts of bark showed best activity. None of the extracts showed activity against E. coli. (21)
• Antifouling Metabolites / Roots:
Study of roots yielded a new diterpene methoxy-ent-8(14)-pimarenely-15-one (1) and three known metabolites: ent-8(14)-pimarene-15R,16-diol (2), stigmasterol (3) and β-sitosterol (4). Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 exhibited significant antifouling activities against cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus Pilsbry, with EC50 of 0.32, 0.04, 4.05 and 18.47 µg/cm2, respectively, with low toxicities towards cyprids (LC50 values all above 10 µg/cm2. (22)

• Cytotoxic Effect / WiDr Colon Cancer Cell Lines / Polyisoprenoids / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of polyisoprenoids from R. mucronata and Ceriops taga leaves. The polyisoprenoids of RM and CT leaves exhibited toxicity against WiDr cell line, with IC50s of 278 ± 5.77 and 276 ± 0.54 µg/ml, respectively. The polyisoprenoids significantly induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 pases, and decreased expression of Bcl2- and cyclin D1. Results showed the polyisoprenoids have potential to be developed as anti-colon cancer agents. (24)


Updated March 2019 / June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Rhizophoreae sp Blanco2.415-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Tengar putih (Ceriops tagal) -- Ria Tan / Jan 25, 2009 / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial / Click on image to go to source page / flickr /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. / Protologue - Philipp. Journ. Sci., Bot. 3: 306 (1908). / Protabase Record Display
A new dolabrane-type diterpene from Ceriops tagal
/ Ouyang XW, Wang XC, Yue QX, Hu LH / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Jan;5(1):9-12.
Three new lupane-type triterpenes from Ceriops tagal / Li-Hong Hu / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 12, Issue 7 July 2010 , pages 576 - 581 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2010.485566
In vitro antitumor activity of triterpenes from Ceriops tagal / He, Lei, Wang, You-Shao and Wang, Qing-Ji / Natural Product Research, December 2007; Vol 21, No 14: pp 1228-1233 / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410701369516
Antihyperglycaemic activity of Ceriops tagal in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Priti Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar et al / MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 2008; Volume 17, Issue 2-7: pp 74-84 / DOI: 10.1007/s00044-007-9038-3
Antibacterial Activity of Mangrove Leaf and Bark Extracts Against Human Pathogens
/ Natarajan Arivuselvan et al / Advances in Biological Research 5 (5): 251-254, 2011
Stimulatory Efrect of Ceriops tagal on hexose uptake in L6 muscle cells in culture / Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh Sharma et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 22, No 7, May 2008, 592-599
Anti-Tumor Effect of the Dolabrane Diterpenes of Ceriops Tagal in Lewis / 2011 Tumor Research Center
Comparative anticancer activity of dolaborane diterpenes from the roots of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae) / M Chacha / International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 6, No 2 (2012)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Robinson / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemical analysis in the stem and leaves of Ceriops tagal mangroves / Jadhav B.L.,* Quraishi Firdaus Mukhtar and Pagare B.G. / Research Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (9) September (2013)
Ceriops tagal / Synonyms / The Plant List
A preliminary study on the Total Phenolic Content of Tangal (Ceriops tagal) bark and wood extracts and their fungitoxic properties / Jovale Vincent Tongco, Ramon Razal, Mutya Maria Manalo / Conference Paper · December 2013 / Natural Products Society of the Philippines PosterPaper Presentation PP-20
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE FRUIT AND HYPOCOTYL OF MANGROVE, CERIOPS TAGAL / Noor-un-Nisa Qadri and Khalid Jamil / Pakistan Journal of Marine· Sciences, 1993; Vol.2(2): pp 119-122
Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Terpenoids from the Leaves of Ceriops tagal Linn. / Lakshmi V, Mahdi AA, Agrawal SK, Kumar R. / Herb Med., 2017; Vol 3, No 2 / doi: 10.21767/2472-0151.100031
Relationships between Degree of Polymerization and Antioxidant Activities: A Study on Proanthocyanidins from the Leaves of a Medicinal Mangrove Plant Ceriops tagal / PLOS | ONE / doi:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107606.t001
Dammarane Triterpenes from the Hypocotyls and Fruits of Ceriops tagal / Charoen Pakhathirathien, Chatchanok Karalai, Chanita Ponglimanon, Sanan Subhadhirasakul, and Kan Chantrapromma / J. Nat. Prod., 2005; 68(12): pp 1787–1789 / DOI: 10.1021/np0502793
Tengar putih -- Ceriops Tagal / Wild Fact Sheets
Effect of solvents on total phenolic compounds and antibacterial activity of Ceriops tagal extracts / Luksamee Vittaya, Chakhriya Chalad, Thunwadee Ritthiwigrom / www.natpro5.psu.ac.th
Antifouling Metabolites from the Mangrove Plant Ceriops tagal / Jun De Chen, Dan Qin Feng, Zhi Wei Yang, Zhan Chang Wang, Wan Qiu, and Yi Ming Lin / Molecules, 2008; 13(2): pp 212-219 / https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules13020212
Tagalsins A-H, dolabrane-type diterpenes from the mangrove plant, Ceriops tagal / / Phytochemistry, 2005; 66(12): pp 1465-1471 / PMID: 15927216
/ DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.018
Cytotoxic Effect of Polyisoprenoids from Rhizophora mucronata and Ceriops tagal / DINI PERMATA SARI, MOHAMMAD BASYUNI, POPPY ANJELISA ZAITUN HASIBUAN, RIDHA WATI & SUMARDI / Sains Malaysiana, 2018; 47(9): pp 1953–1959 / http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2018-4709-02
CUSTOMARY USE OF MANGROVE TREE AS A FOLK MEDICINE AMONG THE SUNDARBAN RESOURCE COLLECTORS / Tapan Ray / International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, April 2014; Vol 2, Issue 4: pp 43-48
Nutritional and antioxidant potential of some selected edible mangrove fruits of Odisha coast / Pramodini Rout, Shovna Singh, Nikhil Kumar and Uday Chand Basak / International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research, 2015; 1(9): pp 349-355 / Journal DOI: 10.7439/ijasr

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