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Family Compositae

Tango
Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn.
CROWN DAISY

Ai cai
Scientific names  Common names 
Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn. Tung hao (Chinese) 
Chrysanthemum spatiosum Bailey Tañgo (Tag.) 
Matricaria coronaria (L.) Desr. Crown daisy (Engl.) 
Tong hao (Chin.)  Garland daisy (Engl.)
  Garland chrysanthemum (Engl.)
  Ai cai (Chin.) 

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Chrysanthème des jardins.
INDONESIA: Tango, saruni walanda.
JAPANESE: Shungiku.
LAOS: Tang 'ôô.
THAILAND: Phaktang-o, phakkhikhwai.
VIETNAM: c[ar]i c[us]c, c[us]c t[aaf]n [oo].

Botany
Tango is an erect, smooth, fleshy and slightly aromatic and branched annual herb, about 30 to 90 centimeters high. Leaves are alternate, auricled, and clasping at the base, oblong to lanceolate, 5 to 10 centimeters long or less, and bipinnately parted, lobes are narrow, entire or toothed, and thick. Flowering heads, which terminate the branches, are solitary, yellow, long-peduncled, 2 to 3.5 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Popular cultivation in Manila Chinese gardens, and in Baguio by the Chinese and Japanese.
- Also occurs in Europe to southeastern Asia.

Constituents
- Young leaves and tops are good sources of phosphorus and calcium; excellent source of iron.
- The leaves are also a source of vitamin C.
- Leave are rich in quercetin and its glycosides, rutin and isoquercetin. source
- Stems shown to contain emodin (in aglycone and glycoside forms) and chrysophanol. source
- Stems found to contain emodin and chrysopanol; the roots, chrysopanol and chrysazin.
- Fresh young plant yield adenine 0.15% and traces of choline.

Properties
- Reported not poisonous, but excessive use may result in intoxication.
- Dried flowers, like pyrethrum, impart a prickling sensation to the tongue.
- Roots are pellitory; chewed, imparts a tingling sensation to the tongue.
- Considered digestive, sedative, stimulant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.
Uses
Culinary / Nutrition
- A leafy vegetable; gathered while young, imparting a spicy taste, used as a condiment for pancit luglog.
- Flowers and leaves used in salads and soups.
Folkloric
- The bark is purgative.
- Topically, the leaves are used for inflammatory afflictions.
- People of the Deccan use the plant in conjunction with black pepper for gonorrhea.
- Root is chewed for the pellitory tingling sensation in the tongue.
- The Yunanistas consider the bark as a useful purgative in syphilis. The leaves are also applied to lessen inflammation.
- Flowers are sometimes used as a tolerable substitute for chamomile.

Studies
Campesterol / Antiangiogenic / Anticancer: Campesterol, a plant sterol , known for cholesterol lowering and anticarcinogenic effects. Isolated from C coronarium, the study results supported its potential antiangiogenic action through inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and capillary differentiation.
Pyrethrosin Derivatives / Cytotoxic:
Study yielded three sesquiterpene lactones. Two compounds showed cytotoxic activities against human cancer lines.
Heterocycle / Hypolipidemic:
Study of methanol extract of aerial parts of CC isolated one new heterocycle, 5, 5'-dibuthoxy-2,2'-bofuran and five known compounds: methyl trans-ferulate, prunasin, sambunigrin, pterolactam and adenosin. Results showed inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation.
Hypoglycemic:
Study results on the aqueous extracts of C coronarium suggest hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats equivalent to that of glibenclamide.
Insecticidal:
Study of extracts from flower and leaves of C coronarium showed insecticidal activity. Sesquiterpene lactones, toxic to insects have been isolated from the flower head of CC.
Antibacterial / Antifungal:
(1) Study of extract of C coronarium flowers showed inhibition of gram positive organisms.(2) Study showed activity of C coronarium against Alternaria sp, Aspergillus flavus and Phthium ultimum.
Phytochemical:
Phytochemical studies yielded compounds emodin, chrysopanol, chrysazin, quercetin and isoquercetin, high amounts of vitamin C and carotenoids – all together suggesting possible usefulness in cardiovascular preventive therapy.
Antihormone / Insecticidal:
Studies confirm the antihormone as acetylenic sulfoxide, compound C. Biological assays indicate significant insecticidal activity in a number of fractions. Anti-juvenile hormone activity was not expressed until the pure major constituents were tested individually.
Antimicrobial :
Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of four Tunisian Chrysanthemum species. Findings showed that some Chrysanthemum extracts exhibited antimicrobial and/or anti-HSV activities.
Nematicidal :
Study showed significant reduction nematode infection of tomato roots and improved plant-top fresh weight, both in the greenhouse and in microplots. Only mature plants, in their flowering stage, exhibited nematode control activity. The green plant parts were more effective than the flowers.
Insecticidal :
Study showed the flower extract to have insecticidal activity on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. Major constituents were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). Because of its safety profile, it presents as a promising alternative to integrated pest management.

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update September 2012

IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Chrysanthemum coronarium May 2008.jpg / Author: Laitche - Website / Wikimedia Commons / Cropped & Modified by G. Stuart / Click to see source image
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Leaves / Flowers / Chrysanthemum coronarium / alterVISTA / Click on graphic to see source image

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Identification of campesterol from Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and its antiangiogenic activities / Jun-Min Choi et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research . 2007, vol. 21, no10, pp. 954-959 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2189
(2)
Heterocyclic compounds from Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their inhibitory activity on hACAT-1, hACAT-2, and LDL-oxidation / Myoung-Chong Song et al /Archives of Pharmacal Research / Volume 31, Number 5 / May, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s12272-001-1195-4
(3)
Hypoglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Four Korean Medicinal Plants in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats / Kim, Ji Su et al / American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2 (4): 154-160, 2006 ISSN 1553-3468
(4)
Insecticidal Activity of Flower and Leaf Extracts from Chrysanthemum Species Against Tribolium confusum / Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection Vol. 3, No. 2, 2008
(5)
Secondary metabolites of Chrysanthemum genus and their biological activities / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 89, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2005
(6)
Hydroxyanthraquinones and flavonoids of garland chrysanthemum / Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology . Vol 36, Number 3 / May, 2000 / DOI 10.1007/BF02742584
(7)
Isolation of Pyrethrosin Derivatives from the Flower ofChrysanthemum coronarium L / Kyung Dong Lee et al / Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 46(2), 76-79 (2003) /
(8)
Discovery and Indentification of an Antijuvenile Hormone from Chrysanthemum coronarium / Wm Bowers and M Aregullin / Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol 82, Suppl. III, 51-54, 987
(9)
Antimicrobial activities of four Tunisian Chrysanthemum species / Ahlem Ben Sassi et al / Indian J Med Res 127, February 2008, pp 183-192
(10)
Chrysanthemum coronarium L / Catalogue of Life, China
(11)
Chrysanthemum coronarium L. / Vernacular names /GLOBINMED
(12)
Nematicidal Activity of Chrysanthemum coronarium / Meira Bar-Eyal, Edna Sharon and Yitzhak Spiegel / EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, Volume 114, Number 4 (2006), 427-433, DOI: 10.1007/s10658-006-0011-7
(13)
Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition / Mourad L. Shonouda, Salah Osman, Osama Salama and Amal Ayoub /
Journal of Applied Sciences, 8: 1859-1866. / DOI: 10.3923/jas.2008.1859.1866


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