octype html> Tapiasin, Coldenia procumbens Linn., CREEPING COLDENIA, Shuang zhu zi cao: Philippine Medicinal Herbs / Alternative Medicine
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Family Boraginaceae
Coldenia procumbens Linn.

Shuang zhu zi cao

Scientific names Common names
Coldenia angolensis Welw. Oreganong-lalaki (Tag.)
Coldenia procumbens Linn. Papait-ti-nuang (Ilk.)
Lobophylum tetrandrum F.Muell. Tabata-bokol (Ilk.)
Waltheria microphylola Miq. ex C.B.Clarke Tapiasin (Tag.)
  Creeping coldenia (Engl.)
Coldenia procuumbens L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Shuang zhu zi cao.
HINDI: Tripunkee, Tripungki, Tripunkhi.
MARATHI: Tripunkhi, Taipakshi.
KANNADA: Hamsapaadi, Godaapadi.
SANSKRTI: Trupakshee, Tripakshi.
TAMIL: Seruppadai, Sirupai, cheruppadi.
THAILAND: Yaa teentukkae, Yea Teentukto, Yaa tupto.
VIETNAM: C[as]p di[eef]n, Cap dien.

Gen info
- Coldenia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants traditionally placed in the borage family, Boraginaceae. The sole species is Coldenia procumbens.

Tapiasin is an annual, hairy herb. Branches are procumbent, spreading flat on the ground, and growing as long as 25 centimeters. Leaves are elliptic to oblong-obovate and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long, with coarsely toothed margins, blunt tip, and a very unequal base. Flowers are white and small, and borne in the axils of the leaves. Sepals are four, narrow, with four lobes which are imbricate in bud. Fruit is conical, 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, containing four 1-seeded pyrenes.

- Native to the Philippines. (21)
- Found in Cagayan, La Union, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, in dry open places, fallow rice paddies, etc. at low and medium altitudes.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Queensland, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe. (20)

- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds. (1
- Study of aerial parts of Coldenia procumbens yielded rare cyano nitrile glucosides, Ehretioside A1 and Lithospermoside (Griflonin) 2. (19)

- GC-MS analysis characterized the lipoidal matter i.e., unsaponifiable and saponifiable fractions of hexane extract of C. procumbens leaves. Unsaponifiable matter contained sterols (61.06%) and hydrocarbons ( (34.4%), while the saponifiable matter contained 20 compounds with 49.43% saturated fatty acid methyl esters and 50.57% unsaturated fatty acids. (24)

- Studies have suggest analgesic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant, antidiabetic, antiviral, anti-HIV, anthelmintic, antiarthritic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, juice, aerial parts.


- In the Philippines, leaves are applied as poultice to mature abscesses.
- Dried leaves, when pulverized, provoke sneezing.
- In India, fresh leaves are ground up and applied to rheumatic swellings. Leaves applied externally to cause suppuration of boils. Leaves also used for fever, piles, and scorpion stings. Powdered roots are included in formulations used for leucorrhea and menorrhagia. Root decoction used as aid for digestion.
- In Tamil Nadu, juice of leaf taken orally to prevent white discharge in women.
- In southern India, a herbal concoction made with a mixture of leaves of C procumbens, flowers of Ixora coccinia, leaves of Centella asiatica and stem bark of Madhuca longifolia is boiled in water and the decoction applied topically with coconut oil for wound healing.
- Decoction of aerial parts used for tendonitis.
- In Tamil Nadu, India, Malasar tribes take powdered leaves internally to improve resistance power. ()

Study of C. procumbens on alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed the test drug to have good hypoglycemic effects. Results showed reduction of blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. (1)
Anti-Inflammatory: Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of C. procumbens exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and inhibition of leukocyte migration and reduction of pleural exudates
in the cotton pellet granuloma method. (2)
Antibacterial: Study of aqueous extract showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and K. pneumonia in comparison with standard drug ciprofloxacin. (6)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Ethanolic extracts of leaf of C. procumbens showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, Strep pyrogenes. (7)
CNS Depressant Effects / Analgesic: Alcoholic extract of whole plant produced central nervous system depression and significant prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time. The extract also exhibited significant analgesic effect. (8)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of C. procumbens by DPPH and Nitric oxide radical inhibition activity assays. Results showed promising results. Standards used were ascorbic acid and rutin. (10)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves for anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed potent anthelmintic activity compared with Albendazole. (11)
Hepatoprotective / D-Galactosamine Induced Liver Injury: Study evaluated a chloroform extract of shade-dried and coarsely powdered whole plant for hepatoprotective activity against D-Galactosamine induced liver injury in rats. Results showed significant reversal of biochemical changes involving SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, and blood sugar changes in the liver.(13)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of Heliotropium indicum and Coldenia procumbens for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, Strep pyogenes, P. aeruginosa, K pneumonia, Aspergillus niger, T. viride and Candida albicans. Results showed the leaf extract to showed the highest activity against both bacteria and fungi. H. indicum leaf extract showed highest inhibitory activity. (15)
• Analgesic Activity: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of whole plant for analgesic activity in Swiss mice. In vivo evaluation using hot plate, tail-flick, and tail-immersion tests for central analgesic effect showed significant (p<0.001) analgesic effect comparable to Pentazocine at dose of 10 mg/kbw. Peripheral analgesic effect by acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice showed significant (p<0.001) analgesic effect comparable to standard drug Aspirin at dose of 20 mg/kbw. (16)
• Anti-Viral / Anti-HIV Activity / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the anti-viral activity of aqueous extracts of Coldenia procumbens and Sphaeranthus indicus. The extracts contain antiviral activity that may be useful in the treatment of patients with AIDS. The extract inhibited HIV replication without producing cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract of Coldenia procumbens inhibited both HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication at comparable IC50 values , 32.10 and 41,60, respectively. The aqueous extract of C. procumbens showed more potent anti-HIV activity than S. indicus. (17)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of C. procumbens by DPPH, total antioxidant, total phenolic, and reducing power assays, anti-inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilization method, and anti-arthritic activity by inhibition of Protein denaturation method. Percent inhibition by DPPH method was 76.26% qt 500 µg/0.1ml compared to quercetin (87.74). Total phenolic content was 31.9 mg Pyrcathecol equivalent/gm of extract. Manixum membrane stabilization was 98.09% and inhibition of protein denaturation at 52.84%. (18)
• Antidiabetic: Study sought to identify the bioactive components of chloroform and methanol extracts of C. procumbens and its antihyperglycemic activity against streptozotocin induced animals. IR Spectrum and NMR analysis yielded four compounds: α-amyrin, ß-sitosterol, ß-stigmasterol and wedelolactone. The methanol extract of C. procumbens decreased glucose levels. Histopathology of pancreas showed excellent recovery from damage induced by streptozotocin. Results showed significant anti-diabetic, insulin mimetic, and insulin secretory activities. (23)


Updated September 2023 / Sept 2019 / Jan 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Coldenia procumbens in AP W IMG 9943.jpg / J M Garg / 05.07.08 / GNU Free Documentation / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Coldenia procumbens in AP W3 IMG 9943.jpg / J M Garg / 05.07.08 / GNU Free Documentation / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Coldenia procumbens in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes in Rat / Nita Patel, Sunant Raval et al / Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy,
2007; 7(1): pp 13-23
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF COLDENIA PROCUMBENS LINN. / B Arul, R Kothai et al / Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2005; (18)3: pp 17-20 / PMID: 16380339 
Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India / Chellaiah Muthu, Muniappan Ayyanar et al /Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine, Vol 2, 2006
Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences / Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products
Vol. 2(3), pp. 29-42, Sep-Oct 2009
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAF OF Coldenia procumbens Linn / R. SENTHAMARI, M.UVARANI, B. JAYAKAR / Ancient science of life, 2002; 22(1): pp 67-75 / PMID: 22557078 / PMC3330985
Antibacterial Activity of Coldenia Procumbens Linn . / Mrs. BEEN AP. / Ancient Science of Life Vol: XXIV (3) January, February, March - 2005
in vitro Antibacterial Activity of different extracts of Leaves of Coldenia procumbens / G. Ramakrishnan, R. Kothai, B. Jaykar, T. Venkata Rathnakumar / IJPRIF, Vol. 3, No.2, pp 1000-1004, April-June 2011
Central nervous system effects of Coldenia procumbens / MA Nagarani, V Vijayasekaran, Kameswaran Lalitha / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 1991, Vol 23, No 4, Pp 261-263.
Creeping Coldenia / Common names / Flowers of India
In Vitro Anti Oxidant Study of Ethanolic Extract of Coldenia procumbens Linn / Beena, P.; Purnima, S.; Kokilavani, R.. / Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry . Mar2011, Vol. 4 Issue 3, p450-451. 2p. 2 Charts.
Invitro anthelmintic activity of different extracts of Coldenia procumbens / Aleemuddin MA, Karthikeyan M, Krishna Priya P l / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2012, 2(2): pp 267-271
Review: COLDENIA PROCUMBENS LINN - A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW / *Aleemuddin. MA, Karthikeyan.M, Rajasekar.S / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 2011; 11(2): Article 027 / ISSN: 0976-044X
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF COLDENIA PROCUMBENS LINN AGAINST D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED ACUTE LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS / R. GANESAN, Mathuram Venkatanarasimhan, Sharad Pawar, G Pramod Reddy, T Anandan, and G. Masilamani / International Journal of Integrative sciences, Innovation and Technology, Int. J. Int sci. Inn. Tech. Sec. B, Apr. 2013, Vol.2, Iss 2, pg 9-11
Coldenia procumbens L. / Vernacular names / GLOBnbMED
Antimicrobial activity of Heliotropium indicum and Coldenia procumbens. / Boominathan, M.; Ramamurthy, V. / Journal of Ecobiology, 2009 ;Vol 24 No 1: pp. 11-15
Analgesic Activity of Methanolic Extract f Coldenia procumbens Linn. / Santhosh Kumar Banoth, Krishna Mohan G, Sandhya Rani M and Saba Fatima / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Studies of Antiviral Activity and Cytotoxicity of Sphaeranthus indicus and Coldenia procumbens / Dhanapal Venkatachalam / International Journal of Medical Research and Pharmaceutical Sciences, June 2018; 5(6) /
In-vitro anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in the leaves of Coldenia procumbens Linn / R Lavanya, S Uma Maheshwari, G Harish, J Bharath Raj, S Kamali, D Hemamalani, J Bharath Varma, C Umamaheswara Reddy / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Oct-Dec 2010; 1(4): pp 753-762
Rare Cyano-Glucosides from Coldenia procumbens Linn. / Niranjan Kumar A., Satya Srinivas K V N, Kotesh Kumar J. amd Sastry K P / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Reserch, 2013; 5(12): pp 1394-1397
Coldenia procumbens / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Coldenia / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Coldenia / Wikipedia
Identification of bioactive constituents in Coldenia procumbens L. and its antidiabetic activity against streptozotocin induced Wistar albino rats / Ganesan Rethinam, Mathuram Venkatanarasimhan / Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 2019 / DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2019-0085
GC-MS Profile of the Unsaponifiable and Saponifiable Matters of Coldenia procumbens Linn. Leaves / Gundabolu Usha Rani, Thirupathi Azmeera, Shiva Shanker Kaki, Bhattiprolu Kesava Rao / Medicinal Plants: Biodiversity, Sustainable Utilization and Conservation, 2020 / pISBN: 978-981-15-1635-1 / eISBN: 978-981-15-1636-8 / DOI:10.1007/978-981-15-1636-8_30

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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