HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq.

Tian ji er

Scientific names Common names
Calonyction muricatum (Linn.) G. Don Tonkin (Tag.)
Calonyction speciosum var. muricatum (L.) Choisy Tunkin (Tag.)
Convolvulus muricatus L. Lavender moonvine (Engl.)
Ipomoea bona-nox var. purpurascens Ker Gawl. Lilac bell (Engl.)
Ipomoea calderonii Standl. Purple moonflower (Engl.)
Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq.  
Ipomoea spinulosa Brandegee  
Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Tian je er.
SPANISH: Pepitas del maravillosas, Pepitas del tonkin.

Tunkin is a smooth, climbing vine. Stems are rough, with small tuberculous outgrowths or prickles. Leaves are smooth, soft, heart-shaped, 5 to 10 centimeters long, and tapering abruptly into a narrow point at the tip. Flowers are large, 5 to 6 centimeters long, pale purple, and borne singly or in small-stalked clusters resembling the morning glory. Fruit is rounded, 10 to 15 millimeters in diameter. Seeds are polished, black, and smooth.

- Introduced from tropical America.
- Found in cultivation in Pampanga, Luzon.

- Seeds have yielded indolizidine alkaloids, two resin glycosides and muricatins VII and VIII.
- Study of seeds yielded nine previously undescribed resin glycosides, Calonyctins B-J. (see study below) (7)
- Study of seeds for bioactive constituents isolated phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoid glucosides, and a phenylethanol diglucoside. The phenylpropanoids were ethyl caffeate, caffeic acid, and methyl p-coumarate. The phenylpropanoid glucosides were 6-0)p-coumaroyl)-Beta-D-methylglucopyranoside and 6-0 (p-coumaroyl)-alpha-D-methylglucopyranosde. The phenylethanol diglucoside was identified as 2-(4-[0-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy] phenyl} ethanol. (11)
- Study of seeds yielded a new resin glycoside, Muricatin IX, the first representative of resin glycosides in which an organic acid connects the sugar moiety and aglycone moiety to form a macrocyclic ester ring. (12)

- Seeds considered purgative, vulnerary and antidotal.
- Considered analgesic, antiseptic, antimicrobial and antifungal.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, anticholinesterase, cardiac depressant, cytotoxic, analgesic properties.

Parts used
Seeds, stems, leaves, plant juice.


- In the Philippines, seeds are used for wound healing.
- Ground seeds taken orally for gastric and duodenal ulcers.
- Used as efficacious antidotal remedy.
- Also used as purgative.
- Seeds used as substitute for Ipomoea hederacea, sharing the same medicinal properties.
- Juice of the plant used as insecticide and for destroying bedbugs.
- Rural people of Madhya Pradesh use the immature floral pedicels as appetizer and digestive capacity.
- Seeds, stems and leaves used for various skin ailments - gangrenous wounds, cuts, and burn blisters.
- In Africa, used as aphrodisiac.
- In Vedic myth and Hindu practice, used as aphrodisiac; mystically, used in tantric lovemaking, with the salve rubbed into the forehead 'third eye.'

- In India, seeds are used as laxative and carminative. (12)

Glycoside Muricatin / Cardiac Depressant / Seeds:
Seeds yielded a glycoside muricatin which showed to be a cardiac depressant, spasmolytic to the smooth musculature of the gut, and blood pressure lowering on the anesthetized dog. (2)
Seed Alkaloids: Study of seeds yielded five nitrogen indene alkaloids: ipalbidine, ipalbidinium, ipaldinium, isolpomine and ipomine. (4)
Seed / Mutagenicity / Antimutagenicty: Study evaluated a seed extract of Ipomoea muricata for mutagenicity and antimutagenicity effects. Results showed an antimutagenic potential at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg bw, and a mutagenic effect in Swiss mice at 500 and 2,500 mg/kbw. (5)
• Resin Glycosides / Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activities / Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Vincristine / Seeds: Resin glycosides represent an important chemotaxonomic marker of the Convolvulaceae family and possess multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. Previous study yielded nine resin glycosides, Calonyctins B-J. Calonyctins E, J, and muricatic acid C methyl ester were non-cytotoxic but enhanced the cytotoxicity of vincristine by 2,5-407.1 fold at 25 µM in KB/VCR cells. Calonyctin was the most active. (7)
• LD50 / Seed: A 7-day LD50 of crude alcoholic extract of seed was 1100 mg/kbw intraperitoneally, and 7810 mg/kbw orally. Slight depression manifested by decrease in motor activity, loss of screen grip and righting reflex, ataxia, analgesia, diarrhea and loss of appetite were observed with multidimensional screening method. No effects were seen on hematologic parameters. (8) (10)
• Lysergol / Alkaloid / Seeds: Seeds contain many indole alkaloids. Lysergol, one of its major alkaloid, exhibits hypotensive, psychotropic, and uterine and intestine-stimulating properties. Study reports on a simple, precise, accurate, and time-saving method for isolated of LysergolTLC densitometric quantification of lysergol from the seeds showed an average percentage recovery of 99.68, with the amount of Lysergol at 0.23% w/w. (9)
• Analgesic Effect / Seeds: A crude ethyl alcoholic (EtOH) extract of seeds of Ipomoea muricata showed analgesic activity at dose of 100-1000 mg/kbw comparable to 112 mg/kbw of aspirin. (10)
• Chanoclavine / Clavine Alkaloid / Synergy with Tetracycline Against MDR E. coli: Study evaluated the synergy potential and the drug resistance reversal mechanism against multi-drug resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli (MDREC). While the chanoclavine did not show antibacterial activity, in combination it could reduce the MIC of tetracycline up to 16-fold. Chanoclavine inhibited the efflux pumps which seem to be ATPase dependent. In silico docking studies showed significant binding affinity of chanoclavine with different proteins involved in drug resistance. Toxicity studies showed the chanoclavine to be safe, non-hepatotoxic, with good intestinal absorption, no CY 2D6 inhibition, non-mutagenic, with no skin irritancy. (13)
• Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Alzheimer's Disease / Seed: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter ACh, inhibition of which is a target in the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This study evaluated a crude methanolic extract of I. muricata seed for potential AChE inhibitory activity compared to Donepezil, a prescription drug for AD. The crude seed extract showed moderate but persistent inhibition of AChE in comparison to Donepezil with its strong but short-lived action. Results suggest a potential herbal alternative for AD treatment. (14)
• Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study evaluated crude ethanolic extract of seeds of Ipomoea muricata for antimicrobial activity against 45 bacterial clinical isolates. A 30% hydroalcoholic extract of seeds showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from abscess, wound, and wound discharge. Extract showed activity against B. subtilis from corneal scraping, peritoneal fluid, urine and wound discharge and strong activity against S. saprophyticus isolated from urine and wound. S. aureus from seminal fluid, endotracheal sputum, throat swab, blood, placental swab and urine and Gram negative clinical isolates were resistant to the crude extract. (15)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds from the cybermarket.

Updated May 2019 / January 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Ipomoea capillacea Blanco2.315-original.png/ Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS /Ipomoea turbinata Lag. - lilacbell / Carole Ritchie @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Laksmana-Ayurvedic Drug of Controversial Origin / Dr Amrit Pal Singh / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 141-147. 2007.
Phytopharmacologic studies of Ipomoea muricata seeds / M L Gupta, J P Tewari, S N Khanna, P C Gupta, M C Srivastava, S S Mishra / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, June 1967; 56(6): pp 771–773 /
Medicinal plants used by the tribal and rural people of Satna district, Madhya Pradesh for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and diseases / S N Dwivedi, Sangeeta Dwivedi and P C Patel / Natural Product Radiance
Studies on alkaloids from seed of Calonyction muricatum
/ Ying-Ming Wang, Xiao-Juan Li et al / CHINESE. TRADITIONAL AND HERBAL DRUGS, 2002, 33 (2)
Determination of the mutagenicity, clastogenicity and antimutagencity potential of the seeds of Ipomoea Muricata L. Jacq. (Convolvulaceae). / Lourdes V. Songco, Clara Lim-Sylianco / Acta Manilana
Publisher : University of Santo Tomas Research Center, No. 34, December 1985
Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq. / Synonyms / The Plant List

Resin glycosides from the seeds of Ipomoea muricata and their multidrug resistance reversal activities. / Wang WQ, Liu SS, Song WB, Li J, Xuan LJ / Phytochemistry, May 2018; 149: pp 24-30 / doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.01.020.
Isolation and TLC Densitometric Quantification of Lysergol from the Seeds of Ipomoea muricata (Linn.) Jacq. / Shrikant Patil, Manish Nivsarkar, and Sheetal Anandajiwala / ISRN Chromatography, Volume 2013, Article ID 134586 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/134586
Toxicological pharmacological evaluation of the alcoholic extract of the seeds of ipomoea muricata convolvulaceae / / Acta Manilana Series A Natural & Applied Sciences, 1982; (21): pp 1-13
Identification of phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoid glucosides and a phenylethanol diglucoside from Ipomoea muricata Jacq. Convolvulaceae / Ysrael, M.C.Waterman, P. / Acta Manilana (Philippines), ISSN : 0065-1370; 1997
A New Resin Glycoside, Muricatin IX, from the Seeds of Ipomoea muricata / Maseteru Ono, Saki Taketomi, Yuichi Kakiki, Shin Yasuda, Masafumi Okawa, Junei Kinja, Hitoshi Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro Nohara / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2016; 64(9) / https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c16-00359
Synergy of clavine alkaloid ‘chanoclavine’ with tetracycline against multi-drug-resistant E. coli / Gaurav Raj Dwivedi, Anupam Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar Yadav, Vigyasa Singh, Feroz Khan, Mahendra Kumar Gupta / Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 2019; 37(5): pp 1307-1325 / https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2018.1458654
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF IPOMOEA MURICATA (LINNAEUS) JACQUIN /  L. A. Santiago, P. J. O. Pineda and M. L. G. Gerona / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2015; pp 108-114 /  10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7(1).108-14
Antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract of the seeds of Ipomoea muricata (Jacq.) Convolvulaceae against selected clinical isolates / Carmelita C. Cardona & Mafel C. Ysrael / Acta Manilana, 2012; 60: pp 49–55

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT