Apoi-apoian is an erect, branched, somewhat hairy herb, growing 0.4 to 1 meter high, usually with purplish stems. Leaf has a very long petiole with five leaflets. Leaflets are obovate or oblong-obovate, 2 to 5 centimeters long, pointed at the base, more abruptly pointed at the tip. Flowers are borne in racemes which terminate the branches, showy and somewhat spidery in appearance. Sepals are lanceolate, green, about 4 millimeters long. Petals are white or tinged with purple, 1 to 1.2 centimeters long, withe elliptic to obovate blades. Fruit is a cylindric capsule, 4 to 10 centimeters long, about 5 mm in diameter, containing numerous, small, dark-brown seeds.
- At low and medium altitudes, occurring as a weed in waste places, often abundantly, especially near the sea.
- Plant yields an acrid, volatile oil having the properties of garlic or mustard.
- Seed yields a thick, greenish, drying oil.
- Study yielded biologically active phytochemicals such as triterpenes, tannins, anthroquinines, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, resins, lectins,, glycosides, sugars, phenolic compounds and alkaloids.
- Screening for secondary metabolites
yielded alkaloids, cynanogenetic glycosides and steroidal nucleus. (12)
- In a study of different plant parts, stem extract showed the highest concentration of total phenolics (126 ± 0.55 mg/g), flavonoids (40.58 ± 0.06 mg/g) and flavanols (42.41 ± 0.05 mg /g) while the stem extract had the highest amount of proanthocyanidins (419.01 ± 0.67 mg/g) compared to leaves (403.29 ± 0.89 mg/g) and fruits (107.18 ± 0.59 mg/g). (see study below) (20)
- Phytochemical screening of aerial parts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids; oils, fats, and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract but were absent in the water extract. (see study below) (24)
- Plant has an odor resembling asafoetida, but more delicate.
- Seeds considered to have properties similar to those of mustard.
- Seeds are febrifuge, antispasmodic, sudorific, anthelmintic, carminative.
- Leaves considered rubefacient and vesicant.
Edibility / Nutrition
- Throughout Africa, the tender leaves or young shoots, often the flowers, are boiled and consumed as potherb, relish, flavoring for sauces, stew or side dish. Fresh leaves are bitter and so are cooked with other vegetables; also, are ingredients of mashed foods and dried leaves are ground and incorporated in weaning foods.
- Flavor suggests that of radishes.
- Often pickled with salt and added to rice as a flavoring.
- Rich source of nutrient, especially vitamins A and C, minerals (calcium and iron).
- Bruised leaves used as counterirritant or revulsive.
- Leaves used externally as the seeds of mustard, and taken internally for certain bilious disorders.
- Whole plant made into an ointment applied to pustular eruptions of the skin; simply boiled in oil, used - for cutaneous diseases, especially leprosy.
- In Indo-China, used as antiscorbutic.
- Bruised leaves used as rubefacient and vesicant, producing copious exudation, providing relief obtained from blister without its inconveniences.
- Shangaans used the pounded leaf as counterirritant in rheumatism, neuralgia, headache, stiff neck, taking care to withdraw the application before it produces a blister.
- Leaf juice used occasionally for earache, otorrhea, and other ear affections.
- Root decoction used as mild febrifuge.
- Decoction of seeds used as wash for piles, rheumatism and malarial disorders.
- Seeds are febrifuge and applied locally for headaches.
- In Africa, leaves are crushed for a concoction to drink as scurvy cure. In other communities, leaves are boiled and marinated in sour milk to become a nutritious meal, believed to improve eyesight, provide energy, and cure marasmus. Also, highly recommended for pregnant and lactating women. Also, used in the treatment of bronchitis, boils, earaches and nasal congestion and as eyewash.
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal / Phytochemicals: Phytochemical screening yielded tannin, alkaloid, flavones, sugar, phenolic group, essential oil, amino acids, and saponin. Antimicrobial activity was shown against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Penicillium notatum. The extracts of leaves showed the highest activity and the highest activity index was against the fungus P notatum. (1)
• Antimicrobial: Study showed showed activity against A niger, A flavus and Metarhizium anisopliae, with the seed extract showing the highest activity.
• Essential Oil / Tick Repellent: Study of the G. gynandra oil yielded 28 compounds; carvacrol occurred in the largest quantity (29.2%), followed by trans-phytol (24.0%), linalool (13.3%), among others. Tested against the livestock tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the oil exhibited a repellency effect higher than a commercial arthropod repellent. Methyl isothiocyanate which occurred at a relative percentage of 2.1, not tested in the bioassay due to its toxicity may have contributed significantly to the repellency of the oil. (2)
• Allergic Disorders / Immunotherapy: Study evaluating the effect of immunotherapy with specific pollen of Gynandropsis gynandra showed both immediate and delayed skin test responses were highly significant. The symptom intensity score and medication was reduced and total IgE levels were inconsistent after the course of IT. (4)
• Immunotherapy: Stu Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of respiratory allergic diseases - asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria. In a study evaluating the effect of immunotherapy towards whole pollen antigen of G gynandra and its fractions showed a significant increase in IgG and its subclass antibodies specific to Gg pollen.
• Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition / Antioxidant: Study of G. gynandra extract confirmed its chemopreventive efficacy by diminishing the rate of lipid peroxidation and significantly increasing the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione vitamins E and C, and uric acid) antioxidants.
• Anthelmintic: Study of G gynandra and B coriaceae extracts showed considerable anthelmintic activities against Fasciola gigantica, Taenia solium and Pheritima posthuma. (6) Study pf ethanolic extract of Cleome gynandra against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma showed dose dependent anthelmintic activity when compared to standard drug Albendazole. (27)
• Anthelmintic: Study of seed oils from five medicinal plants, including G gynandra, all showed moderate to significant anthelmintic activity against Pheritima posthuma. (10)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive: Study of G gynandra extract showed significant dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. (7)
• Modulatory Effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The modulation of glucose-metabolizing enzyme activities play a role in the depletion of energy metabolism that leads to inhibition of cancer growth. In this study, the effect of Gg extract on aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma on glucose metabolizing enzymes in rats caused a significant increase in the activities of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in gluconeogenic enzyme activities. The results suggest a definite modulating role on the key enzymes of glucose metabolism in HCC and may be due to phytoactive constituents in the extract. (9)
• Anticancer: Study of methanol extract of Cg in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell line showed a potent dose-dependent anticancer activity comparable to that of 5-fluorouracil. (11)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the extract of leaves and stems of G. gynandra and Buchholzia coriacea for antibacterial and antifungal properties. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both plants showed various degrees of activity in both bioassays. Ampicillin and tioconazole were used as standard reference drugs. (12)
• Volatile Constituents / Spider Mite Repellent: Study evaluated G. gynandra leaves in search of compounds for the management of spider mites. Results yielded thirteen volatile compounds including isothiocyanates, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, and terpenes. Spider mite populations were rendered inactive on 2 h exposure to some of the compounds. (15)
• Antinociceptive: Study evaluated extracts of leaves for antinociceptive activity using a hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were most active. Results suggested involvement of opioid receptors, and flavonoid and tannin constituents probably responsible for the antinociceptive activity. (16)
• Antineoplastic Agents 540: Study of an entire plant extract based on a bioassay employing cancer lines isolated six cancer cell growth inhibitors which were known flavone apegenin (4) and flavonols 1-3, 5 and 6. The five flavonols inhibited the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and all six flavonoids exhibited activity against a panel of six human cancer cell lines. Compound 3, penduletin, inhibited Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhea. (17)
• Antiproliferative Effects on Human and Lung Cancer Cells: Study showed both G. gynandra and Piper methysticum possess antiproliferative effects on human lung and stomach cancer cells. (18)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Lysosomal Stability / Adjuvant Induced Arthritis: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic nature of C. gynandra against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Study showed antiarthritic property which may be through the prevention of spread of inflammation by the stabilizing action on lysosomal membranes. (19)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of acetone extracts of various parts of C. gynandra. Of different plant parts, stem extract showed the highest concentration of total phenolics (126 ± 0.55 mg/g), flavonoids (40.58 ± 0.06 mg/g) and flavanols (42.41 ± 0.05 mg /g). Reducing power of extracts was significant higher than standard drugs. Activities of plant extracts against ABTS, DPPH, and NO radicals were dose responsive with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.1, and 0.03 mg/g respectively. (see constituents above) (20)
• Immunomodulatory: Study evaluated the immunomodultory activity in phagocytic activity, cell-mediated and humoral immune system on albino rats. Results showed the ethanolic extract showed significant (p<0.05) dose dependent suppression of the immune system while an aqueous extract showed week immunosuppressive effect. (21)
• Analgesic: Study of whole plant of Cleome gynandra by writhing method using acetic acid in a mice model showed analgesic activity. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard. (22)
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of C. gynandra on normal and non-insulin diabetic rats induced by alloxan. Administration of 200 mg/kg EECG significantly (p<0.01) reduced blood glucose (119.24 ± 4.67 mg/dL) compared to control (289.42 ± 5.23 mg dL). There was an increase in HDL, a reduction in triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL. (23)
• Antifungal / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Microsporum canis) of ethanol and water extracts of C. gynandra. Both extracts demonstrated antifungal activity as shown by MIC and MFC for the different extracts, which varies with the type of organism of the clinical fungal isolates. The ethanol extract showed comparable activity to the aqueous extract. (see constituents above) (24)
• Comparative Free Radical Scavenging / Wild & L-Arginine Treated: Study evaluated the DPPH radical scavenging activity of L-arginine treated and wild Cleome gynandra using ascorbic acid as standard. Results showed the ethanolic extract of L-arginine treated CG showed highest DPPH scavenging activity than the other extracts. (25)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Hepatotoxicity / Leaves: Study of methanol leaf extract of Cleoma gynandra showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results showed dose-dependent reversal (p<0.05) in levels of all estimated biochemical parameters. The hepatoprotective effect can be attributed to high content of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. (26)