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Family Bombacaceae
Duryan
Durio zibethinus Murr.
DURIAN
Liu Lian

Scientific names  Common names 
Durio zibethinus Murr. Dulian (Lan., Sul., Mag., Bag.)
Durio acuminatissima Merr. Duren (Indonesia)
Durio foetida Thunb. Durian (Lan., Span., Engl.)
  Durio (Bag.)
  Duryan (Tag., Ilk.)
  Duyan (Sul.)
  Civet-cat fruit tree (Engl.)
  Civet fruit (Engl.)
  Common durian (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Liu lian.
DUTCH: Doerian, Stinkvrucht.
GERMAN: Durianbaum, Stinkfrucht, Zibetbaum.
JAPANESE: Durian.
KOREAN: Du ri an.
MALAY: Duren (Java), Durian (Malaysia).
PORTUGUESE: Durião.
SPANISH: Durión.
THAI: Thurian.

Gen info
In Southeast Asia, considered the "King of Fruits."

Botany
Durian is a tree that grows to a height of 20 meters or more. Leaves are dark green, smooth and shiny above, cinnamon-colored and scaly beneath, oblong to obovate-oblong, about 15 to 25 centimeters long, 5 to 9 centimeters wide. Flowers are white to yellowish-white, abourt 7.5 centimeters in diameter, with a pouchlike calyx. Fruit is globular, very large, 15 to 25 centimeters long, covered by a hard shell with stiff, sharp spines, weighing as much as 3 kilos or more. Shell breaks into five parts to which the flesh adhere. In each section of the fruit, there are 2 to 6 very large seeds covered by the flesh (aril). The flesh is soft and whitish, with the consistency of soft cheese, with a characteristic unpleasant rank and repugnant odor of bad smelling cheese. The seeds are eaten, either boiled or roasted.

Distribution
- Cultivated for its highly prized fruit.
- Not known to exist in a wild state in the Philippines.
- Found in Agusan, Butuan, Lanao, Zamboanga, Cotobato, and Davao Provinces in Mindanao, and in the Sulu Archipelago.
- Also occurs in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and the Moluccas mostly in cultivation.

Constituents
• The odor of the flesh believed to be dues to indole compounds which are bacteriostatic.
• Study identified the three strongest sulfury durian odorants and one non-sulfurous odorant with the highest odor impact.

• Study on the fruit odorants identified ethyl 2-methylbutanoate to have the highest odor impact among non-sulfurous odorants in durian.
• The fruit yields considerable amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids.

Properties
- Fruit is considered tonic, operative, depurative, and vermifuge.
- Possess a repugnant odor that bans it from hotel lobbies and rooms.

Nutritional Facts
• Serving size: 1 - cup, chopped or diced (8.6 oz)
• Calories 357
• Total Fat 13.0 g
• Cholesterol 0 mg
• Total Carbs 65.8 g
• Fiber 9.2 g
• Protein 3.6 g
• Calcium 14.6 mg
• Potassium 1059.5 mg *

Caution !
High Potassium Content: As a potassium-rich food it could be a good fruit to supplement potassium needs of patients on diuretic therapy. However, it's potassium content should be of concern in patients with kidney failure or varying degrees of renal impairment or those already taking other forms of potassium supplementaion or potassium-sparing diuretics.

Parts used
Fruit, leaves, and root.

Uses
Edibility
· Seeds are eaten, boiled or roasted.
Folkloric
· Decoction of root and leaves taken for fevers.
· Leaves are used in medicinal baths for jaundice.
· The juice is used in a solution for bathing the head of a patient with fever.
· In Java, fruit walls used externally for skin problems.
· In Malaya, decoction of leaves and roots used as febrifuge.
· Leaf juice applied on head for fever.
· Decoction of leaves and fruits used for swelling and skin diseases.
· Flesh used as aphrodisiac.
· In China, decoction of leaves and roots used for fever. Used for colds, phlegm. Leaves used in medicinal baths for patients with jaundice. Ash of burned rind taken after childbirth. Used to improve sexual function.
· In Malaysia, leaf juice applied to head for fever.
· A Malay prescription for fever is a decoction or poultice of boiled roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Durio zibethinus, Nephelium longan, Nephelium mutabile and Artocarpus integrifolia.
source
Others
· Dried rinds burned as fuel and used to smoke fish.
· Ash used to bleach silk.


Studies
Lipid Entrapment / Lipid Lowering Effect / Fruit Hulls:
Study evaluated the lipid entrapment property of a polysaccharide gel extracted from fruit hulls of durian. Results suggest that PG from fruit-hulls of durian may be a potential dietary fiber/ medicinal supplement for a blood lipid / cholesterol lowering effect. (3)
Durian-Alcohol Combination: Study investigated the adverse, and sometime lethal, effect of ingesting durian while imbibing alcohol with its Disulfiram-Ethanol type reaction arising from inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). (See Toxicity below)
(4)
Immunomodulatory / Antibacterial: Polysaccharide gel from the fruit rind of D zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. (13)
Hyperthermic Effect / Paracetamol Interaction: Believed to have body-warming properties with concerns on consumption with paracetamol. Rat study showed no significant body temperature elevation. Rats receiving a durian-paracetamol combination showed a significant drop in body temperature. No mechanism for toxicity was identified. (5)
Antibacterial / Wound Healing Effect: Polysaccharide gel extracted from fruit-hulls of durian was prepared as a preparation of dressing film for use in the treatment of full-thickness excisional woulds in swine. Results showed the PG dressing film treated wounds showed showed a beneficial effect on wound healing with more rapid wound closure.
(8)
Bactericidal Effect / Wound Healing: Bactericidal effect of polysaccharide gel was clearly demonstrated against S. aureus and E. coli. Study showed accelerated wound healing. (11)
Phenolic Content / Antioxidant Effect: Study showed the durian cultivars' high bioactivity and total polyphenols were the main contributors to the overall antioxidant capacity and provides a source of nutritional supplement. (10)
Fruit-Hulls Antimicrobial Activity: PG inhibited the growth of 2 bacterial strains tested: S aureus and E coli. The yeast strains were resistant. (14)
Physiochemical Properties / Storage: Study on ambient and refrigerated storage showed the pulp can be stored for 21-days, after which off-flavor develops and the green aroma becomes too intense and renders the pulp unacceptable. (15)
Antioxidant / Phytochemicals: Study showed caffeic acid and quercetin were the dominant antioxidant substances in durian. Ripe durian showed high bioactivity and the total polyphenols were main contributors to the overall antioxidant property.
Wood Bark / Synergism with Penicillin G: Study showed the synergistic activity of a chloroform extract of Durio zibethinus wood bark with Penicillin G against Staphylococcus aureus. Although the effect was mild, authors suggest it is possible that DZ can reverse resistance and potentiate the effect of common penicillin against resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (17)
Aroma Volatile Profile / Pulp: Study analyzed the aroma volatile compounds of the Philippine "Puyat" durian. The pulp produced 22 volatiles composed of 15 esters, 6 sulfurs, and 1 thioacetal. Ethyl propanoate, ethyl octanoate, propyl propanoate, ehtyl 2-methyl butanoate and diethyl disulfide were the major compounds identified. (18)

Toxicity
• Durian with Alcohol:
Reports have been made of believed adverse and sometimes lethal effects of ingesting durian while drinking alcohol. The scientific basis has not been established. A study showed a dose-dependent inhibition of yeast ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase) by sulphur-rich fruit extract. Results support the role of durian fruit's high sulphur content in its ALDH-inhibiting property providing insight into the disulfiram-ethanol-like reaction with the simulataneous fruit ingestion and alcohol consumption. (4)

Availability
Cultivated for its fruit.


Last Updated October 2013

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Durio Zibethinus Van Nooten.jpg/ Chromolithograph of Durian (Durio Zibethinus) by Hoola Van Nooten (fl 1863-1885), ca. 1863 / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Durio zibethinus; Doorian; Boorong Brass Brass (William Farquhar Collection, 1819–1823).jpg / A watercolour drawing of the pied triller or pied cuckoo-shrike (Lalage nigra; known in Malay as the burung murai batu) flying near a durian tree (Durio zibethinus). The drawing is one of 477 natural history drawings of plants and animals of Malacca and Singapore commissioned by William Farquhar / between 1819 and 1823 / Public Domain / National Museum of Singapore / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Durian: Food Database
(2)
Durian / Durio zibethinus L. / Purdue.Edu
(3)
Lipid entrapment property of polysaccharide gel (PG) extracted from fruit-hulls of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr. Cv. Mon-Thong)
(4)
Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme by Durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) fruit extract / John S. Maninang et al / Food Chemistry Vol 117, Issue 2, 15 Nov 2009, Pages 352-35 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.106
(5)
Hyperthermic effects of Durio zibethinus and its interaction with paracetamol / Chua, Y A et al / Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol / 2008-Dec; vol 30 (issue 10) : pp 739-43
(6)
Sulfur-Containing Volatiles of Durian Fruits (Durio zibethinus Murr.) / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44 (10), pp 3291–3293 / DOI: 10.1021/jf960191i
(7)
Durian / Joe Hing Kwok Chu / Complementary and Alternative Healing University
(8)
THE EFFICIENCY OF POLYSACCHARIDE GEL EXTRACTED FROM FRUIT-HULLS OF DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS L.) FOR WOUND HEALING IN PIG SKIN / P. Chansiripornchai, C. Pramatwinai, A. Rungsipipat, S. Ponsamart, O. Nakchat / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 679: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Volume 5: Quality, Efficacy, Safety, Processing and Trade in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

(9)
Pharmaceutical and Dermatocosmetic Compositions Comprising Extract of Durio Zibenthinus
(10)
Screening of the antioxidant and nutritional properties, phenolic contents and proteins of five durian cultivars / FERNANDO TOLEDO, PATRICIA ARANCIBIA-AVILA, YONG-SEO PARK, SOON-TECK JUNG, SEONG-GOOK KANG, BUK GU HEO, JERZY DRZEWIECKI, ZOFIA ZACHWIEJA, PAWEL ZAGRODZKI, PAWEL PASKO6 & SHELA GORINSTEIN / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, August 2008; 59(5): 415-417
(11)
Antibacterial Activity of Polysaccharide Gel from Durian Fruit-hull and its Application in Treatment of Wounds in vivo / Thai J. Pharm. Sci. 2003. 27 (Suppl.) : 7

(12)
CALORIES IN Fresh Fruits: Durian, raw, edible portion / Calorie King
(13)
Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV / Komsil Pholdaeng and Sunanta Pongsamart / Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Vol 28, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 555-561 / doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2009.12.009
(14)
Antimicrobial activity (in vitro) of polysaccharide gel from durian fruit-hulls / Vimolmas Lipipun et al / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 2002, 24(1) : 31-38
(15)
Physicochemical Properties of Whole and Fresh Cut Durian (Durio Zibethinus) Stored At Ambient and Refrigerated Temperatures / Voon, Yit Yang (2008) / PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
(16)
Sorting Durio names / Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020 / Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - A Work in Progress / Institute for Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne.
(17)
Synergistic Activity of Chloroform Extract of Durio zibethinus Wood Bark With Penicillin G Against Staphylococcus aureus. / Sivananthan Manoharan / Int J Biol Med Res. 2013; 4(2) : 3025- 3027
(18)
Analysis of Aroma Volatile Profile of Philippine Durian Pulp (Durio zibethinus Rumph. ex Murray) using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS / Princess Tiffany G. Dantes,* John S. Maninang, Arnold R. Elepaño, Hiroshi Gemma / 13th ASEAN Food Conference, 9-11 September 2013, Singapore


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