Kamote is a spreading, prostrate, herbaceous, smooth or somewhat hairy vine. Stems or runners, sprawling several meters long, take root when
in contact with soil. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 6 to 14 centimeters long, somewhat entire, with alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves, pointed at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base.
Flowers are sympetalous like that of morning glory, 5 centimeters long, funnel-shaped, purple, self sterile, and rarely producing seeds. Stamens are 5, of different lengths attached to corolla (epipetalous)
with hairy filaments. Sepals are about 1 centimeter long and greenish with pointed lobes. Corolla is funnel shaped, 4 to 5 centimeters long, pink, purple, and whitish. The edible and sweet-tasting tuberous root is long and tapered with a
smooth skin of varying colors from red, purple, brown and white. The
flesh varies from white, orange, purple and yellow.
- A warm season crop extensively cultivated in the Philippines.
- Can be planted any time of the year.
- Easily propagated from stem cuttings.
- Introduced by the Spaniards from Mexico in the early colonial period.
- Cultivated in all warm countries.
• Leaves have a high content of polyphenolics - anthocyanins and
phenolic acids, with at least 15 biologically active anthocyanins with
medicinal value. (1)
• Polyphenols have physiologic functions, radical scavenging activity,
antimutagenic, anticancer, antidiabetes and antibacterial activity in
vitro and vivo.
• Study isolated four compounds: citrusin C, caffeic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboylic acid.
• Considered antioxidant, antimutagenic, antibacterial, antidiabetic.
• Considered hemostatic, spleen invigorating.
Tops, leaves and edible roots.
Edible: Leaves and roots.
Has a higher nutritional value than the common potato.
Good source of vitamins A, B and C, iron, calcium and phosphorus.
High in complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber; deficient in protein.
Leafy tops eaten as vegetables.
A component of many traditional cuisines.
A staple food crop in some countries.
- Tops, especially purplish ones, used for diabetes.
- Crushed leaves applied to boils and acne.
- Boiled roots used for diarrhea.
- In Southwest Nigeria, hot water infusion of the whole plant used in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Starch and industrial alcohol production.
• Dengue: Like gatas-gatas
(Euphorbia hirta), there have been anecdotal reports of the use of Ipomoea
batatas in dengue, with improvement in platelet counts being
attributed to decoctions of kamote tops.
Preparation: kamote tops are boiled in water for 5 minutes to extract
• Diabetes: Despite its "sweet" name, it
may be beneficial for diabetes as some studies suggest it may
blood sugars and lower insulin resistance.
• Diabetes: Study showed the flavone
extracted from IB leaf could control blood sugar and modulate the metabolism
of glucose and blood lipid, and decrease outputs of lipid peroxidation
and scavenge the free radicals in non-insulin dependent diabetic rats.
• Hematologic / Hemostatic: Hemostatic mixture
of ipomoea balatas leaves, methods of preparation and use thereof —
a Jinshuye styptic plant preparation, an invention made from the extracts
of leaf and stems of Ipomoea batatas has qi and spleen invigorating
effects, cooling the blood and stopping bleeding. Such a composition
has the potential of use for ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura),
radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. (8)
• Root Crops as Antioxidant: A
2006 study of commonly consumed roots crops in the Philippines (Kamote,
Ipomoea batatas; ubi, purple yam, Dioscorea
alata; cassava, Manihot esculenta; taro or gabi, Colocasia esculenta;
carrot, Daucus carota; yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) showed them
to be rich sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity,
highest in sweet potato, followed by taro, potato, purple yam and lowest
in the carrot.
• Antioxidant: Study results suggest the total phenolic content was positively correlated
with radical scavenging activities of the sweet potato leaves.
• Antioxidant / Anthocyanins:
Purple Sweet Potato anthocyanins have antioxidative activity in vivo
as well as in vitro.
• Diabetes / Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Effects:
Results suggest the white skinned sweet
potato has antidiabetic activity and and improves glucose and lipid
metabolism by reducing insulin resistance. (2)
• Diabetes: Study to isolate the antidiabetic component
of white-skinned sweet potato suggested the active component to be an
acidic glycoprotein because it contained a protein and sugar and adsorbed
onto the QA column at pH 7.0.
Study confirmed the beneficial effects of
Caiapo (a neutraceutical) on plasma glucose with a decrease in Hb A1c,
as well as cholesterol levels, in type 2 diabetes patients. (10)
• Sweet potato root with antioxidant
activities in vitro / Mucilage: Mucilage might contribute its antioxidant
activities against both hydoxyl and peroxyl radicals. (4)
Leaf extract study isolated five news compounds:
tiliroside, astragalin, rhamnocitrin, rhamnetin and kaempferol. (11)
Study identified new chitinolytic enzymes
in sweet potato leaves. Chitinases catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin,
the main structural component of fungal walls and arthropod integuments.
Studies suggest it has other functions and has been proposed to play
a role in the defense against pathogens. Chitinases are also useful
in the production of biomedical and biotech products; used in the production
of chitooligosaccharides, glucosamines and GlcNAc. Other applications
are found in mosquito control and pathogenic plant fungi control. (13)
/ Antiproliferative: Study demonstrated that the phytochemicals
in sweet potato may have significant antioxidant and anticancer activities.
The antioxidant activity was directly related to the total amount of
phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts. The additive roles of phytochemicals
may contribute to its ability in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation
in vitro. (14)
/ Adiponectin / Natural Insulin Sensitizer: Study confirms the beneficial effects of Caiapo on glucose and HbA1c in T2DM. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was accompanied by increased levels of adiponectin and a decrease in fibrinogen. (15)
• Effects on Glucose and LDL in Type2 Diabetes
/ Antiproliferative: Pilot study showed a beneficial effect of high-dose caiapo on plasma glucose and LDL cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes The effect was attributed
• Antiulcer: Study in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats showed Ipomoea batatas tubers possess gastroprotective activity as shown by inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index and a marked increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. (17)
• Antiproliferative / Antioxidant: Study examined the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different extracts of sweet potato. In the DPPH staining, the ethanol extract of vein had the highest radical-scavenging activity. Among the extracts the ethanol extract showed the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The water extract of the vein showed the highest antiproliferative activity with an EC50 of 449.6 ± 27.73 ug/mL. (18)
• Comparative Antioxidant Properties / Natural Yellow Dye: Study showed the carotenoids extraction process retained most of the antioxidant capacity from the leaves. It is also a potential source of natural yellow dye with antioxidant property that can be beneficial to human health, as an alternative to the artificial coloring dye currently used in the market. (19)
• Anthocyanins / Antitumor Effect: Study showed Ipomoea batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins could have an inhibitory effect on transplantation tumor of mice, with no toxicity and no mutation. (21)
• Wound Healing: In an incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was noted in animals treated with peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared to controls. There was also significant wound closure by the 4th day, a significant increase in hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid and decrease in malondialdehyde content. The wound healing activity was attributed to possible underlying antioxidant mechanism. (22)
• Hypoglycemic Effect: Study in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats fed oral doses of extracts showed significant dose-related reductions in FBG. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones and reducing sugars. (23)
• Thyroid-Gonadal Axis Effect: Study investigated the effect of a leaf extract on the thyroid gonadal axis of male rats. Results showed follicles hypertrophy and hyperplasia and reduction of colloid in the follicular lumen. Testes morphology showed oligospermia, asthenospermia and abnormal sperm morphology. Results suggest a male contraceptive property of the plant extract, the mechanism possibly as both a direct effect on the gonads of indirectly via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. (25)
Common market produce.
Caiapo, in the cybermarkets, an extract of
white sweet potatoes.