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Family Meliaceae
Aglaia tomentosa zalacca (Gaertn.) Teijsm. & Binn.

Scientific names Common names
Aglaia tomentos Teijsm. & Binn.            Arangnang (Dumagat)
Accepted infraspecifics Bayanti (Tagalog)
Aglaia tomentosa subsp. cordata (Hiern) Pannell            Karamiras (Tag.)
Aglaia cordata Hiern Maybosug (Yakan)
Aglaia tomentosa subsp. kabaensis (Baker f.) Pannell            Mata-mata (Sulu)
Aglaia kabaensis Baker f.  
Aglaia tomentosa subsp. tomentosa          
Aglaia bamleri Harms  
Aglaia dyeri Koord.  
Aglaia elaphina Merr.  
Aglaia glomerata Merr.  
Aglaia harmandiana Pierre  
Aglaia minutiflora Bedd.  
Aglaia minutiflora var. travancorica Hiern  
Aglaia minutiflora var. longifolia Craib  
Aglaia polyantha Bedd.  
Aglaia ramuensis Harms  
Aglaia rufa Miq.  
Aglaia zippelii Miq.  
Euphora exstipularis C.DC.  
Euphora exstipularis Griff.  
Milnea harmandiana Pierre  
Aglaia tomentosa is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online.
In the confusing landscape of common names in the Philippines, Bayanti is shared by three Aglaia species: A. edulis, A. rimosa, and A. tomentosa.

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Bunau, Kumpang penjaru, Lantupak, Sampak tupai, Segera, Umpong.
INDONESIA:  Awa saelu saelu datan, Kayu si rah-rah batu, Malasot.
MALAYALAM: Neermulli, Nirmula.

MALAYSIA: Buan patung, Medang belulu, Redan, Lambunau burong.

THAILAND: Sangkhriat-langsat.

Gen info
- Aglaia is genus of 117 species of woody dioecious trees belong to the Mahogany family Meliaceae.
- Due to considerable morphological variation, the genus is burdened with taxonomic problems, with the number of accepted species varying from 117 to over 390 depending on the species concept used. (3)

Aglaia tomentosa is small, sometimes medium-sized tree up to 15(-23) m tall, bole branchless for up to 9 m, up to at least 20 cm in diameter, bark surface pale reddish-brown or gray with green patches, inner bark yellow. Leaflets 5-11(-13), opposite or subopposite, with 5-25 pairs of secondary veins, above smooth and glabrous or the midrib densely covered with reddish-brown or orange-brown stellate hairs, below with numerous stellate hairs and interspersed with smaller paler hairs. Flowers 5-merous, anthers 5, style-head subglobose, longitudinally ridged. Fruit a subglobose indehiscent berry, 1-2-locular, ca. 2 cm in diameter, red, velvety, juicy. (1)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Borneo, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (2)

- An understorey tree in evergreen, primary, secondary, riverine, montane, and ridge forests; from sea level to 2,000 m. (6)

- Study of stem bark extract showed TPC of 6.11 mg GAE/g extract and TFC of 5.16 mg QE/g extract; DPPH radical scavenging activity IC50 of 31.04 ppm, and ABTS radical scavenging activity IC50 of 71.07 ppm. (see study below) (4)
- Study of bark isolated dammarane triterpenes, viz., the known cabraleone, cabraleadiol 3-acetate, 3-epiocotillol, cabralealactone, cabralealactone 3-acetate and the new aglinins C and D; along with two new pregnane steroids, aglatomins A and B, with known cytotoxic cyclopenttetrahydrobennzofuran, rocaglol. (see study below)   (5)

- Studies have suggested antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties.


- Fruits are edible, although lacking in flavor. The acidic tasting, gelatinous, translucent covering (aril) around the seed is eaten, (6)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Wood: Sapwood is pale brown or pinkish brown. Wood is not durable; density of 800-905 kg/m3 at 15% moisture. Used in construction, but not very durable when exposed. (1)

Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity:
Study evaluated 11 potential extracts from various Meliaceae plants family for antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. Aglaia tomentosa showed highest antioxidant activity by ABTS assay with IC50 of 8.91 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity via DPPH radicals showed 29.32% inhibition. On cytotoxic activity testing on MCF7 cell line, A. tomentosa showed 80.40% inhibition at concentration of 100 ppm. (see constituents above) (4)
Dammarane Triterpenoids and Pregnane Steroids / Cytotoxicity / Bark: Study of ethanol extract of bark showed cytotoxicity against KB cells (69% inhibition at 10 µg/ml). (see constituents above) (5)


August 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo -- Aglaia tomentosa / Flowering branch / Copyright © B. Gray / Australian National Botanic Gardens / click on image or link to go to source page / Non-Commercial Use / image modified / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aglaia tomentosa -- closeup of immature fruits / Ehoarn Bidault / CC By-NC-ND -CC BY NC-ND / image modified / cliick on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Aglaia tomentosa (PROSEA) / PCM Jansen. J Jukema, LPA Oyen, TG van Lingen, MSM Sosef / Pl@ntUse
Aglaia tomentosa / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Aglaia / Wikipedia
Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Various Meliaceae Plants Extract  / Vera Permatasari, Muhammad Eka Prastya, Sri Rahayu et al / DOI: 10.2991/978-94-6463-112-8_29

Dammarane triterpenes and pregnane steroids from Aglaia lawiiand A. tomentosa / Khalit Mohamad, Thierry Sevenet, Vincent Dumontet, Mry Pais, Marie-Therese Martin et al / Phytochemistry, 1999, 52(8): pp 1031--1037
Aglaia tomentosa / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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