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Family Moraceae
Niyog-niyogan
Ficus pseudopalma Blanco

PALM-LIKE FIG

Scientific names Common names
Ficus pseudopalma Blanco Niyog-niyogan (Tag.)
Ficus blancoi Elmer Niog-niogan (Tag.)
  Lamiyog (Bis.)
  Lubi-lubi (Tag.)
  Dracaen fig (Engl.)
  Palm-like fig (Engl.)
  Philippine fig (Engl.)
Niyog-niyogan is a shared common name by (1) Ficus pseudopalma, niyog-niyogan, niog-niogan, Lubi-lubi, and (2) Quisqualis indica, niyog-niyogan, niog-niogan.
Ficus pseudopalma Blanco is an accepted name The Plant List

Botany
Niyog-niyogan is an erect, glabrous, unbranched shrub growing to a height of 5 meters. Leaves are crowded at the end of the stems, spreading and short-petioled, oblanceolate with a cordate base and an acute apex. Blade is coriaceous and dark-green, coarsely toothed growing to more than 25 centimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, angular, up to 4 centimeters long, on short peduncles and crowded at the axils of the leaves. The leaves and fruits leave a pattern of scars on the trunk.

Distribution
- Endemic to the Philippines
- Widely distributed in thickets at low altitudes.
- Occasionally planted for its ornamental leaves.
- Sparingly cultivated in Hawaii.

Constituents
- Phytochemical extracts yielded flavonoids, unsaturated sterol and triterpene, steroid glycoside, saponin, tannin and phenol.
- Study isolated triterpenes: ursenone, ß-amyrin fatty acid ester, α-amyrin acetate, ß-amyrin acetate, oleanone, lupeol fatty acid ester, lupenone, squalene, and polyprenol. (see study below) (2)

Properties
- Powdered leaves showed high values of dietary fiber (46.3%) and total carbohydrates (51.0%) qirh minimum mineral content. (see study below) (15)
- Studies have suggest antioxidat, antibacterial, antiproliferative, hypoglycemic, and hypoglycemic properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- Young shoots are edible.
- In the Bicol area, leaves are cooked in gata (coconut milk).
- Study has shown leaves lubi-lubi leaves as potential flavoring in the preparation of enriched lubi-lubi noodles. (see study below).
(15)
Folkloric
- Leaf decoction ised for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, kidney stones, and high cholesterol.

Studies
Hypoglycemic:
Hydroalcohlic extract of dried leaves of Ficus pseudopalma, P. niruri, and Ipomoea batatas were tested on non-diabetic and diabetic Swiss mice. All five doses of F. pseudopalma exhibited hypoglycemic activity. It also showed slight toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. (1) α-amyrin acetate may be one of the active constituents in the anti-diabetic property of F. pseudopalma.
Terpenoids / Sterols / Dried Leaves: Study of dichlormethane extract of dried leaves isolated triterpenes: ursenone, ß-amyrin fatty acid ester, α-amyrin acetate, ß-amyrin acetate, oleanone, lupeol fatty acid ester, lupenone, squalene, and polyprenol. Previous studies have shown a wide range of biologic activities: α-amyrin, with hypoglycemic activity, and lupeol for treatment of kidney stones.
(2)
Lubi-lubi in Vegetable Noodles: Study conducted by the Sorsogon State College reports that vegetable noodles enriched with lubi-lubi leaves, used as puree, is highly nutritious, highly acceptable in taste, texture, and color. (3)
Lupeol / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study demonstrated the free-radical scavenging activity of leaf extracts of F. pseudopalma. All fractions exhibited good nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Chromatographic analysis identified lupeol as one of the possible active components. (4)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study
investigated the antimicrobial properties of F. pseudopalma leaf extracts. Results showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria which may be attributed to flavonoids and terpenoids in the crude ethanolic extract. (5)
Cytotoxicity / Apoptotic Activity / Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line:
Study of F. pseudopalma leaf extracts showed cytotoxic and apoptotic activities against human prostate PRST2 cancer cell lines, which may be due to the presence of lupeol and quercetin. (6)
Acute Oral Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the acute oral toxicity of a crude ethanolic leaf extract. Toxicological and pharmacological observations, together with histological examination showed the leaf extract is not toxic ad safe for consumption up to 2000 mg KBW, and therefore safe for nutraceutical and drug development. (7)
Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study showed a hot-water extract of leaves significantly suppressed the increase of blood glucose levels after glucose, maltose, and starch loading. However, it did not show any hypoglycemic effect in fasted or non-fasted mice. Results suggest a potential usefulness in the management of postprandial elevations of blood glucose. (8)
Enriched Lubi-Lubi Noodles: Study investigated the development and acceptability of an enriched lubi-lubi noodle utilizing its puree as indigenous ingredients.
A nutritional analysis on enriched lubi-lubi (F. pseudopalma) noodles, trial 2 with 250 g of leaves puree, 325 g APF, 10 g salt, 150 g eggs, and 2 g of vegetable oil, 187.5 water was found acceptable as to taste, color, texture, flavor, and odor.Study concluded that lubi-lubi leaves are potential flavoring in the preparation of enriched lubi-lubi noodles. (9)
Free-Radical Scavenging Activity: In a study investigating the hypoglycemic and free-radical scavenging activities of Ficus pseudopalma, Musa paradisiaca and Syzygium cuminii, F. pseudopalma showed the greatest free radical scavenging activity. (10)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study investigated the antimicrobial properties of Ficus pseudopalma leaf extracts and its solvent fractions. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited active antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and partial activity against Staph aureus and S. epidermidis. All extracts exhibited no antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. (11)
Antiproliferative and Apoptotic / Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2): Study showed the crude extract of Ficus pseudopalma dose-dependently inhibited cell growth of HepG2, with observed aggregation of chromatin, cell shrinkage, and formation of apoptotic bodies in treated HepG2 cells. (12)
Suppression of Post-Prandial Increase in Blood Glucose / Leaves: Study evaluated the blood-glucose lowering effect of F. pseudopalma on sugar/carbohydrate loaded and normoglycemic mice. Results showed a hot water extract significantly suppressed the increase of blood glucose after glucose, maltose, and starch loading, with not hypoglycemic effect in fasted or non-fasted mice. (1
3)
Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen Induced Liver Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of F. pseudopalma against acetaminophen induced liver toxicity in rats and compared with N-acetyl cysteine and lupeol. Although there was no remarkable reversal of histopathological damage, the effect of the plant on liver enzymes and antioxidant biomarkers support a probable hepatoprotective activity. (14)
Nutritional Composition: Study of powdered leaves yielded high values of dietary fiber (46.3%) and total carbohydrates (51.0%) with minimum mineral content. Study suggests powdered dried leaves may be used as ingredient to high-fiber enriched recipes and menus, functional foods and energy drinks. (15)


Availability
Wild-crafted.
Occasionally planted for ornamental use.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Updated September 2015

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /ILLUSTRATION: File:Ficus pseudopalma Blanco2.356-cropped.jpg / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Modified and uploaded by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Studies on the hypoglycemic property of Ficus pseudopalma Blco. (Moraceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), and Ipomoea batatas Linn. (Convolvulaceae) / de Jesus-Manansala M / Thesis / DOST ScINET Phil.
(2)
Terpenoids and Sterols from the Endemic and Endangered Philippine Trees, Ficus pseudopalma and Ficus ulmifolia / Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Po-wei Tsai, and Chien-Chang Shen / Philippine Journal of Science
138 (2): 205-209, December 2009
(3)
In the News / Sorsogon school tames wild lubi-lubi into veggie noodles / Danny O. Calleja /
Feb 10, 2011
(4)
Lupeol: An antioxidant triterpene in Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Moraceae) / Librado A Santiago and Anna Beatriz R Mayor / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Feb 2014; 4(2): 109-118
(5)
Antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extract and solvent fractions of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco leaves
/ Ma Cristina De Las Llagas*, Librado Santiago, John Donnie Ramos / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2014; 4(5): 367-371 / doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60589-2
(6)
Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Activity of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco Leaf Extracts Against Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2014; 13 (1): 93-100 / Ma Cristina De Las Llagas*, Librado Santiago and John Donnie Ramos / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i1.14
(7)
ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE CRUDE ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF FICUS PSEUDOPALMA BLANCO (MORACEAE) IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS / Librado A. Santiago*, V. L. M. Valerio, and R. T. Yolo / International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, October - November, 2013, Vol. 2, No.6, pp 674-679
(8)
Suppressive effect of the hot-water extract of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco leaves on the postprandial increase in blood glucose level in mice. / Salonga RB, Hisaka S, Mendoza JS, Takaya Y, Niwa M, Binag CA, Nose M /
Journal of natural medicines 67:4 2013 Oct pg 725-9
(9)
Development of an Enriched Lubi-Lubi (Ficus pseudopalma) Noodles / Fely A. Habla, Concepcion J. Cambaliza, Tarcela F. Detera, Mateo Luis G. Janer, Geraldine De Jesus / Philippine Association of Institutions for Research, Inc., 2012, Vol 10, No 1.
(10)
The hypoglycemic and free-radical scavenging activities of Ficus pseudopalma, Musa paradisiaca and Syzygium cuminii. / Torres PC, Mendoza JS, Ysrael MC. / Science and Technology Research Poster Exhibit '04.
(11)
Antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extract and solvent fractions of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco leaves / Ma Cristina De Las Llagas, Librado A. Santiago, John Donnie A Ramos / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 10/2014; 4(5):367–371. / DOI: 10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60589-2
(12)
ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND APOPTOTIC EFFECTS OF FICUS PSEUDOPALMA BLANCO (MORACEAE) AGAINST HEPATOCARCINOMA (HEPG2) / LIBRADO A SANTIAGO*, ANNA BEATRIZ R MAYOR /Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 2, 2015, 257-261
(13)
Suppressive effect of the hot-water extract of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco leaves on the postprandial increase in blood glucose level in mice. / Salonga RB, Hisaka S, Mendoza JS, Takaya Y, Niwa M, Binag CA, Nose M / Journal of natural medicines 67:4 2013 Oct pg 725-9
(14)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Ficus Pseudopalma Blanco against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rat. / Librado A. Santiago, Joy M. Buccat, Mary Rose T. Domalanta, Anna Beatriz R. Mayor. / International Journal of Pharmacy Teaching & Practices 2015, Vol.6, Issue 1, 1603-1608.
(15)
Ethnobotanical Survey and Nutritional Composition of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Moraceae) / Librado A. Santiago*, Anna Beatriz R. Mayor and Joshua B. Arimado / Philippine Science Letters, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2014

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