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Family Polypodiaceae
Pakpak lawin
Drynaria quercifolia (Linn.) J. Sm.

BASKET FERN

Common names  Common names 
Drynaria quercifolia (Linn.) J. Sm. Baga-baga (Pamp.) 
Polypodium quercifolium L. Gona-tibatib (Pamp.) 
Phymatodes quercifolia C. Presl. Kabkab (Bis., Bik.) 
Li ye hu jue (Chin.)  Kabkabin (Bis.) 
  Kabkaban (Bis.) 
  Kappa-pappa (Ilk.) 
  Pako (Tag.) 
  Paipai-amo (Tag.) 
  Pakpak lawin (Tag.) 
  Saga (Ig.) 
  Basket fern (Engl.)
  Oak-leaf fern (Engl.)
  Squirrel head (Engl.)
Pakpak-lauin is a local name for three different herbal plant s, two of the genus Asplenium and one of genus Drynaria: Pakpak-lauin: Asplenium nidus; Pakpak-lauin na babae: Asplenium macrophyllum; and Pakpak lawin: Drynaria quercifloia.
Note: There are some dissimilarities in Quisumbing's 1978 publication of Medicinal Plants of the Philippines and the Plants of the Philippines 1964 publication by the University of the Philippines. The former refers to Asplenium nidus as pakpak-lauin and the latter as pasdak; both refer to it as Bird's nest fern. The Plants of the Philippines publication has a Pakpak lawin entree with the scientific designation of Drynaria quercifolia.

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Fo lo rere, Chilo vasa.
BENGALI: Pankhiraj, Pankha, Garur.
HINDI: Asvakatri, Katikapan, Basingh
MALAYALAM: Matilpanna, Pannakizhangu, Pannikizangu.
SANSKRIT: Aswakatri.

Botany
Pakpak-lawin is a large xerophyte, belonging to the fern family Polypodiaceae. Rhizome is creeping, stout and fleshy, with narrow, brown to blackish short-ciliate scales about 1 centimeter long. Leaves are of two kinds: cup-leaves and the fertile fronds. Cup-leaves are humus gathering fronds, brown and shiny when mature, ovate, coriaceous, somewhat imbricate, 15 to 30 centimeters long, 5 to 20 centimeters wide, concave, shallowly lobed below and deeply so above. Fertile fronds are long, pinnately lobed, on stipes 20 to 30 centimeters long. Sori are 40 to 120 centimeters in length; lobes are rather large and arranged in tow rows between the main veins.

Distribution
Throughout the Philippines, in primary and secondary forests, growing on rocks, trees, old stone walls.

Parts utilized
Rhizomes and leaves.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded phenols, tannins, alkaloids, proteins, xanthoproteins, carboxylic acid, coumarins and saponins.
- Yields catechin, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponin, steroids, tannins, and triterpenes.
- Study of dried rhizomes yielded friedelin, epifriedelinol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucopyranoside and naringin.


Uses
Folkloric
· Decoction of fresh or dried rhizome for hemoptysis.
· Used as an astringent or antihelminthic.
· The leaves are used as poultices. Also used for dyspepsia, phthsis and fever.
· In Tamil, Nadu used to treat arthritis.
· In Bangladesh, rhizomes used in the treatment of excited mental disorders. Mixed with the plant Asparagus racemosus, applied to the head for calming effect and to reduce hair loss.



Studies
Antibacterial:
Study of extracts of DQ showed high efficiency of antibacterial activity esp to gram negative bacteria.
Anti-gonorrheal: In preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhea, D. quercifolia showed activity against N gonorrhea comparable to penicillin and ciprofloxacin.
Antipyretic: Study of the extracts of rhizomes of D. quercifolia in rabbits showed antipyretic activity with significant reduction of elevated body temperature, comparable to aspirin.

Antioxidant: (1) Study showed the methanolic extract of powdered rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia to be an effective antioxidant compared to other extracts with significant activity compared to standard drug. (2) In a study screening fifteen fern species for antioxidant activity, Drynaria quercifolia was one of five that showed antioxidant properties with strong DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the ethanolic extract of the rhizome of D. quercifolia on Wistar rats showed potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity comparable to indomethacin, sodium salicylate and aspirin. Results justify its use for alleviating painful inflammatory conditions.
Antidermatophytic: Study was done on the dermatophytic activity of four rhizome extracts from D. quercifolia against T. mentagrophytes, M. canis, T. rubrum and e. floccosum. Results showed the ethyl acetate extract contains triterpenes and coumarins which may be the compounds responsible for the antidermatophytic activity of this plant.
Antibacterial / 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid: Study isolated 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid from the rhizome of D. quercifolia which showed significant antibacterial activity against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria.
CNS Depressant Effect: Study in mice of ethanol extract fractions of rhizome of D. quercifolia showed a dose-dependent depressant effect.
Phytochemicals / Antimicrobial: Study of dried rhizome yielded friedelin, epifriedelinol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and naringin. The methanol extract showed broad and concentration-dependent antibacterial activity.
Antibacterial Efficacy Against Urinary Tract Pathogens: Various extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against clinically isolated urinary tract pathogens. An acetone extract was effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes while an ethanol extract was effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antihelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of D. quercifolia against adult earthworms and piperazine citrate as standard. Results showed anthelmintic potency of the extract, inversely proportional to the time taken for paralysis and death of the worms.
Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity: Various extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Results showed antibacterial activity against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria. Extracts showed cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
Ameliorative Effect in Rheumatism: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic effect of a rhizome water extract. Results showed reduction of paw thickness and elevation of mean body weight of arthritic rats, with significant reduction of plasma and liver lysosomal enzyme and levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a and IL-1ß and increment of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) with treatment.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Ornamental cultivation.
 

Last Update November 2012

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Drynaria quercifolia / Modified from Richard Wettstein - Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik (1924) - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Source: www.biolib.de / GNU Free Documentaion License / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.Sm: A potential resource for antibacterial activity
African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol.(2) pp. 202-205, August, 2008 / M. Kandhasamy, K. D. Arunachalam and A. J. Thatheyus
(2)
Preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhoeae / SHOKEEN Poonam; RAY Krishna; BALA Manju; TANDON Vibha /
(3)
Antipyretic Activity of Rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia. in Rabbit / Alam Khan, Ekramul Haque, et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2007, Vol. 45, No. 4, Pages 312-315
(4)

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY STUDY OF DRYNARIA
QUERCIFOLIA LINN RHIZOME
/ Arun Kumar Beknal, Prakash Korwar et al / International Journal of CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 2, Issue 4, 2010
(5)
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. / G I Anuja, P G Latha, S R Suja, S Shyamal et al / J Ethnopharmacol 132(2):456-60 (2010
(6)
Anti-dermatophytic activity of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith / Batool Sadeghi Nejad, Subhash Sadhu Deokule / Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology (2009); 2(1): 25-30
(7)
Isolation of antibacterial constituent from rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia and its sub-acute toxicological studies / Khan A,, Haque E et al / DARU Vol. 15, No. 4 2007
(8)
Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Sm. / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(9)
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic / Extracts of Selected Ferns in Malaysia HowYee Lai and YauYan Lim / International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 2, No. 6, December 2011
(10)
Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on Drynaria quercifolia. / Ramesh N, Viswanathan MB, Saraswathy A, Balakrishna K, Brindha P, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. / Fitoterapia. 2001 Dec;72(8):934-6.
(11)
Antibacterial efficacy of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith (Polypodiaceae) against clinically isolated urinary tract pathogens / Muraleedharannair Jalajakumari Mithraja, Varaprasadham Irudayaraj, Solomon Kiruba, Solomon Jeeva / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S131-S135 S131
(12)
Anthelmintic activity of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. / Gauri Kaustubh Kulkarni, Renuka V. Kadolkar, Amit B. Maisale / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 3, No 5 (2010)
(13)
Neuropharmacological Effect of the Rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia in Mice / Alam Khan, Ekramul Haque, BYTUL M RAHMAN, MATIUR RAHMAN / Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol 8, No 1 (2009)
(14)
Ameliorative effect of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Sm., an ethnomedicinal plant, in arthritic animals / Saravanan S, Mutheeswaran S, Saravanan M, Chellappandian M, Gabriel Paulraj M, Karunai Raj M, Ignacimuthu S, Duraipandiyan V. / Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Oct 26;51C:356-363. / doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.020.


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