Pakpak-lawin is a large xerophyte, belonging to the fern family Polypodiaceae. Rhizome is
creeping, stout and fleshy, with narrow, brown
to blackish short-ciliate scales about 1 centimeter long. Leaves are of two kinds: cup-leaves and the fertile fronds. Cup-leaves are humus gathering fronds, brown and
shiny when mature, ovate, coriaceous, somewhat imbricate, 15 to 30 centimeters long, 5 to 20 centimeters wide, concave, shallowly lobed below and deeply so above. Fertile fronds are long, pinnately lobed, on stipes
20 to 30 centimeters long. Sori are 40 to 120 centimeters in length; lobes are rather large and arranged in tow rows between the main veins.
Throughout the Philippines, in primary and secondary forests,
growing on rocks, trees, old stone walls.
Rhizomes and leaves.
- Phytochemical screening yielded phenols, tannins, alkaloids, proteins, xanthoproteins, carboxylic acid, coumarins and saponins.
- Yields catechin, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponin, steroids, tannins, and triterpenes.
- Study of dried rhizomes yielded friedelin, epifriedelinol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucopyranoside and naringin.
- Phytochemical analysis of fertile fronds yielded the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Total phenolic content was 186 mg/g equivalent of gallic acid. (see study below) (16)
· Decoction of fresh or dried rhizome for hemoptysis.
as an astringent or antihelmintic
· The leaves are used as poultices. Also used for dyspepsia,
phthsis and fever.
· In Tamil, Nadu used to treat arthritis.
· In Bangladesh, rhizomes used in the treatment of excited mental disorders. Mixed with the plant Asparagus racemosus, applied to the head for calming effect and to reduce hair loss.
• Antibacterial: Study of extracts of DQ showed high efficiency of antibacterial activity, especially to Gram negative bacteria. (1)
• Anti-gonorrheal: In preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria
quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhea, D. quercifolia showed activity against N gonorrhea
comparable to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. (2)
• Antipyretic / Rhizomes: Study of the extracts of rhizomes of D. quercifolia in rabbits showed antipyretic activity with significant reduction of elevated body temperature, comparable to aspirin.
• Antioxidant: Study showed the methanolic extract of powdered rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia to be an effective antioxidant compared to other extracts with significant activity compared to standard drug. (4) In a study screening fifteen fern species for antioxidant activity, Drynaria quercifolia was one of five that showed antioxidant properties with strong DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. (9)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the ethanolic extract of the rhizome of D. quercifolia on Wistar rats showed potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity comparable to
indomethacin, sodium salicylate and aspirin. Results justify its use for alleviating painful inflammatory conditions. (5)
• Antidermatophytic / Rhizomes: Study was done on the dermatophytic activity of four rhizome extracts from D. quercifolia against T. mentagrophytes, M. canis, T. rubrum and e. floccosum. Results showed the ethyl acetate extract contains triterpenes and coumarins which may be the compounds responsible for the antidermatophytic activity of this plant.
• Antibacterial / 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid / Rhizome: Study isolated 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid from the rhizome of D. quercifolia which showed significant antibacterial activity against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria. (7)
• CNS Depressant Effect: Study in mice of ethanol extract fractions of rhizome of D. quercifolia showed a dose-dependent depressant effect. (13)
• Phytochemicals / Antimicrobial: Study of dried rhizome yielded friedelin, epifriedelinol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and naringin. The methanol extract showed broad and concentration-dependent antibacterial activity.
• Antibacterial Efficacy Against Urinary Tract Pathogens: Various extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against clinically isolated urinary tract pathogens. An acetone extract was effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes while an ethanol extract was effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (11)
• Antihelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of D. quercifolia against adult earthworms and piperazine citrate as standard. Results showed anthelmintic potency of the extract, inversely proportional to the time taken for paralysis and death of the worms. (12)
• Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity: Various extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Results showed antibacterial activity against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria. Extracts showed cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
• Ameliorative Effect in Rheumatism: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic effect of a rhizome water extract. Results showed reduction of paw thickness and elevation of mean body weight of arthritic rats, with significant reduction of plasma and liver lysosomal enzyme and levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a and IL-1ß and increment of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) with treatment. (14)
• Antioedematous / Analgesic / Fertile Fronds: Study evaluated the antioedematous, antiproliferative, and analgesic properties of ethanolic extract of fertile fronds of D. quercifolia. There was significant inhibition of carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema in Wistar rats. The fertile fronds significantly attenuated acute and delayed phased of formalin induced pain, acetic acid-induced writhing, capsaicin-induced nociception, and hot plate test in mice. (see constituents above) (16)
• Pesticidal / Repellent / Tribolium castaneum: Study of a chloroform fraction of D. quercifolia rhizomes extract showed significant pesticidal and pest repellency activities. (17)
• Hepatoprotective: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of D. quercifolia fronds, its fractions, and isolated compound (Dq-r) on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity showed significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity. (18)
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Drynaria quercifolia rhizome in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant antidiabetic and hypolipidemic property. Glibenclamide was used as reference standard. (19)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts from sun-dried rhizomes for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of whole plant of D. quercifolia. Results showed very potent anti-oxidant activity by DPPH assay, mild antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxic potential using brine-shrimp lethality bioassay. (20)