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Family Caricaceae
Papaya
Carica papaya Linn.
MELON TREE

Fan mu gua

Scientific names Common names
Carica papaya Linn. Capaya (Pamp.) 
Carica hermaphrodita Blanco Kapaya (S.L. Bis., Sul.) 
Carica mamaja Vellero. Lapaya (Bon.)
Carica vulgaris DC. Papaya (Tag., Engl.) 
Papaya vulgaris A. DC. Papaye (Sul.)
Papaya carica Gaertner Papyas (Sub.) 
Papaya sativa Tussac. Tapayas (Bik.)
Carica papaya Karsten Melon tree (Engl.) 
Carica vulgaris DC. Pawpaw (Engl.)
  Papau (Engl.)
  Fan mu gua (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Omita.
BENGALI: Pepe.
BURMESE: Thimbaw.
CZECH: Papaja.
ESTONIAN : Harilik papaia, Papaia.
FIJIAN: Oleti.
FRENCH: Papaye, Papayer.
GERMAN: Melonenbaum, Papayabaum.
GUJARATI: Papaiya, Papayi.
HAWAIIAN: He'i, Mikana, Milikana.
HINDI: Papeeta, Papiitaa.
ITALIAN: Papaia.
JAPANESE: Motukuwa, Papaia, Popoo.
KHMER: Ihong, Doeum lahong.
KOREAN: Pa pa ya.
LAOTIAN: Houng.
MALAY: Betek, Betik, Gedang, Kates, Ketalah. Papaya.
MALAYALAM: Karamooza, Omakai, Omakaya.
MARATHI: Papai, Papaya, Popai.
PALAUAN: Babai, Bobai.
POLISH: Melonowiec właściwy, Papaja.
PORTUGUESE: Ababaia, Mamao, Papaia, Fruto de Mamoeiro, Papaeira.
PUNJABI: Katcha pepita.
RUSSIAN: Papaia.
SAMOAN: Esi.
SPANISH: Fruta bomba, Lechosa, Melon de arbol, Melon zapote, Papayero, Papayo, Papaya.
SWAHILI: Papai.
THAI: Loko, Malako, Malakor, Ma kuai thet, Sa kui se.
TONGAN: Lesi, Lesi fefine
URDU: Papiitaa, Pappeeta.
VIETNAMESE: Du du.

Botany
Papaya is a small, erect,, usually unbranched, fast-growing tree growing 3 to 6 meters high. Trunk is soft and grayish, marked with large petiole-scars. Leaves are somewhat rounded in outline, 1 meter broad or less, palmately 7- or 9-lobed, each lobe pinnately incised or lobed. Petioles are stout, hollow, and about 1 meter long. Staminate inflorescence is axillary, pendulous, paniculate, and 1 to 1.5 meters long. Male flowers are in crowded clusters, straw-colored, and fragrant. Corolla tube is slender, about 2 centimeters long. Female flowers are in short, axillary spikes or racemes, the petals 7 centimeters long or less. Fruit is indehiscent, subglobose, obovoid or oblong-cylindric, 5 to 30 centimeters long, fleshy and yellowish or yellow-orange when ripe, containing numerous black seeds which are embedded in the sweet pulp.

Distribution
- Found throughout the Philippines, in cultivation or semi-cultivation, in many regions.
- Thoroughly naturalized, at low and medium altitudes.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Contains many biologically active compounds; two important ones are chymopapain and papain, believed to aid digestion; varying in amount in the fruit, latex, leaves and roots.
- Phenolic compounds are higher in male trees than female.
- Leaf, fruit, stem and root yield a proteolytic enzyme, papain (papayotin), phytokinase, malic acid, calcium maleate.
- Fresh latex yield chymopapain.
- Leaves yield carpaine (alkaloid); carposide (glucoside); saccharose, 0.85%; dextrose, 2.6%; levulose, 2.1%; citrates.
- Fruit yields saccharose 0.85%, dextrose 2.6%, levulose 2.1%, mallic acid, pectin, papain, and citrates.
- Seeds yield a volatile oil.
- Study on papain reported it to be a true, soluble, digestive ferment or a mixture of ferments of vegetable origin, with a proteolytic action that is marked in acid, alkaline, and neutral solutions. It has a peculiar softening and disintegrating action on proteids, with a general proteolytic action that is of a genuine digestive ferment. It also has amylolytic action. It is considered to have greater digestive power than either pepsin or pancreatin, and can be used when pepsin is contraindicated or ineffective. Although comparable to trypsin, it does not yield leucin, tryrosin and tryptophan in appreciable quantities.

Properties
- Considered antirheumatic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic.
- Seeds are considered antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, analgesic, stomachic and antifungal.
- Leaves are used as tonic, stomachic and analgesic.
- Roots considered analgesic, abortifacient.
- Latex considered styptic and vermifuge.


Parts used
Leaves, fruit and latex of trunk.



Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
- Fruit is a popular Filipino breakfast item. Lemon juice is often squeezed over the flesh.
- Makes an excellent ingredient for fruit salad.
- Used in making jams.
- Green fruit used in making achara (pickles).
- The unripe fruit is essential ingredient for tinola, a popular native soup.
- Leaves are sometimes used with soap or as a soap substitute for washing clothes.
- Source of calcium, iron; good source of vitamins A and B; excellent source of vit C.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bruised papaya leaves are used as a poultice for rheumatism.
- Decoction of the center part of the roots is used as a digestive and tonic, and used to cure dyspepsia.
- Roots are used for yaws and piles.
- In the Gold Coast, roots are used as abortifacient.
- Decoction of leaves used for asthma.
- Leaves used as heart tonic and febrifuge.
- Debridement (removal of purulent exudate and blood clots from wound and ulcer): Apply latex (dagta) of unripe fruit or trunk on the wound or ulcer.
- Ripe fruit eaten for laxative effect. Eat ripe fruit liberally. (May cause
harmless yellowing of the skin, specially palms and soles but not the eyes.) Green fruit is also used as laxative and diuretic.
- Ripe fruit also useful for bleeding piles and dyspepsia.
- In India, milky
juice from the unripe fruit used splenic and hepatic enlargement.
- Boiled cup of chopped fresh leaves and 1 cup chopped green fruit in glasses of water used for cystitis.
- For acne, mix 3 tablespoons of mashed ripe papaya with a tablespoon of kalamansi juice; apply the mixture to face for 30
minutes, then wash face with warm water.
- For worm infestation, 1 cup of dried seeds, pulverized and mixed with 1 cup of milk or water; 1 teaspoon 2 hours after supper.
- Tea decoction of dried leaves for variety of stomach troubles.
- Decoction of boiled flowers or powdered seeds promote menstruation.
- Infusion of male flowers (left insert) with honey used for cough, hoarseness, bronchitis, laryngitis and tracheitis: a spoonful every hour.
- Poultice of roots used for centipede bites.
- In the West Indies, powdered seeds used as vermifuge.
- Infusion of flowers used as emmenagogue, pectoral and febrifuge.
- In India and Sri Lanka, green papaya is used as contraceptive and abortifacient.
- In southern Nigeria, aqueous extract of unripe papaya taken by sickle cell patients for its "antisickling" activity.
- Papain used for gastric juice deficiency, dyspepsia, intestinal irritation, in doses of 1 to 5 grains. Used in solution to dissolve fibrinous membranes in croup and diphtheria. Applied to ulcers and fissures of the tongue. In pigment form prepared with borax and water, used to remove warts, corns, or other horny excrescences of the skin. Papain also used as anthelmintic; also used for warts,
epithelioma
and tubercles.
- In India and among the Malays, milky juice is applied to the os uteri to induce abortion.
- Latex used as styptic and vermifuge.
Others
- Meat tenderizer: Mix the peelings of the unripe fruit or latex with raw meat before cooking. The enzyme "papain" is a main ingredient in commercial meat tenderizers.

- Papain is also the main ingredient of an ointment
popularly used as a topical application for cuts, rashes, stings and burns.
- Food: Eat unripe or ripe fruit.
- Cosmetics: Ripe fruit used as cosmetic; pulp used as skin soap. Juice of fruit pulp used for freckles caused by the sun.
- Young leaves of papaya are sometimes steamed and eaten like spinach.
- Seeds are edible, sharp and spicy.

Dengue
· Web grapevine blogs tell of the use of raw papaya leaf juice in patients with dengue – two leaves, cleaned, pounded and squeezed our of a cloth for a two tablespoonfuls serving, once a day. Reports of improvement in the decreased platelet counts –some are rather dramatic – are attributed to the use of the papaya leaf juice. Bioactive chemicals reported in the leaf are: carpaine, carposide, dehydrocarpaine, flavonols, pseudocarpaine and tannins. Other than a Nigerian folkloric use of the aqueous extract of the unripe
papaya for its "anti-sickling" effect, a search failed to show any study on Carica papaya's effect on the platelet pathway. (Also see: Gatas-gatas and the folk medicine grapevine reports on use for dengue.)

Studies
Phytochemicals / Unripe Pulp:
Phytochemical analysis of the mature unripe pulp of C papaya yielded minerals in considerable quantities and the presence of saponins and cardenolides that explains its astringent therapeutic uses. (2)
Toxicity study:
A study to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of unripe papaya
, consumed for its anti-sickling effect by some sickle cell patients, showed no adverse effects or evidence of toxicity on the organ functions in rats. (3)
Hypotensive:
Blood pressure depression by the fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) in renal and DOCA-induced hypertension in the rat: Study showed significant lowering of mean arterial pressure, more than hydralazine. It concludes that the fruit juice of C papaya contains antihypertensive agent/s which exhibits mainly alpha-adrenoreceptor activity.
(4)
Antihemolytic:
Antihemolytic action of an extract of Carica papaya bark. Possibilities of use in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies.
(5)
Antioxidant / Antiulcer:
Study of the aqueous extract on alcohol-induced acute damage and the immediate blood oxidative stress level in rats showed that Cp may potentially serve as a good therapeutic agent against gastric ulcer and oxidative stress.
(7)

Antiulcerogenic: Study on the antiulcerogenic activities of Cp extract on aspirin-induced ulcer in rats showed reduced ulcer index, lipid peroxide levels and alkaline phosphatase activity in rats. It suggests Cp may exert gastroprotective effects by free radical scavenging action and presents a therapeutic potential in the treatment of gastric diseases. (9)
Anthelmintic / Jejunal Contraction Modulation :
Study of an ethanol extract of C papaya seeds caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contraction which was significantly irreversible. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC)is the main bioactive compound responsible for its anthelmintic activity. The results show that papaya seed extract and BITC are capable of weakening the contractile capacity of isolated rabbit jejunum and concludes that the anthelmintic efficacy level may also cause impairment of intestinal functions.
(8)
Antisickling Property / Leaves:
Study on the methanolic leaf extracts of Cp showed reduction of hemolysis and protection of erythrocyte membrane stability under osmotic stress conditions. Pretreatment with Cp leaf extract inhibited formation of sickle cells under severe hypoxia. The results indicate the feasibility of Cp as an attractive candidate for Sickle Cell Disease therapy.
(10)
Nephroprotective Property / Seeds:
Study showed the aqueous seed extract of Cp has nephroprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride renal-injured rats, possibly mediated through any of the phytocomponents through either an antioxidant and/or free radical scavenging mechanism/s.
(11)
Wound Healing Property / Latex:
Study showed the papaya latex formulated in the Carbopol gel, based on hydroxyproline content, wound contraction and epithelialization time, to be effective in the treatment of burns and supports its traditional use.
Pregnancy Concerns:
A study was done to evaluate the safety of papaya consumption in pregnancy. Ripe papaya consumption showed (1) no significant difference in the number of implantation sites and viable fetuses in papaya fed rats relative to control (2) no fetal or maternal toxicity in all groups (3) No significant contractile effect on uterine smooth muscles. However, crude papaya latex (1) induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles similar to oxytocin and prostaglandin F2a. Results suggest, ripe papaya consumption pose no significant danger during pregnancy. However, unripe or semi-ripe papaya that contains high concentration of latex produces marked uterine
contraction and may be unsafe during pregnancy. (12)
Male Infertility:
Study of the alkaloid extract of Cp seeds prevented ovum fertilization, reduced sperm cell counts, sperm cell degeneration and induced testicular cell lesion, changes that induce reversible male infertility and a potential for a pharmaceutical male contraceptive.
(13)
Leaf Extract Acute Toxicity Study: Acute toxicity study of Carica papaya leaf extract did not cause death or acute adverse effects. However hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, and total proteins were significantly increased suggesting dehydration.
(15)
Dried Seeds / Anthelmintic: Study evaluated air-dried papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis showed efficacious results without significant side effects.
(16)
Hepatoprotective: Study of Carica papaya fruit extract showed significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection in carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxic rats.
(17)
Pawpaw Wine: Wine produced from pawpaw had similar taste and characteristics with natural palm wine. It can be produced for immediate consumption or preserved by refrigeration.
(18)
Leaves / Pharmacognostic / Physiochemical / Phytochemical: Leaf showed abundant sphaeraphides and rhomboidal calcium oxalate crystals. Histochemical testing revealed the presence of alkaloids and starch.
Anthelmintic / Latex / Poultry Nematodes: Trials concluded the latex of C. papaya (papain) has phamacotherapeutic activities against intestinal nematodes of poultry.
(21)
Acetogenins: Acetogenins have been isolated from the twigs. Acetogenins are active compounds that modulate ATP production in the mitochondria of specific cells.
Anti-Cancer Effects: In a study that exposed 10 different types of cancers--including cervix, breast, liver, lung, and pancreas-- extract made from dried papaya leaves was reported to slow down tumor growths. While one mechanism suggested apoptosis induction as a mechanism, the extract also boosted the production of key signaling molecules called Th-1 type cytokines. Results suggest a potential therapeutic strategy that uses the immune system to fight cancers and a use for various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Also, the extract showed no toxicity on normal cells.
(23)
Wound Healing / Fruit: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of fruit for wound healing activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision and dead space wound models. Extract treated animals showed 77% reduction of wound area controlled to 59% of control. Faster epithelization was noted, with increased hydoxyproline content. Extract showed antimicrobial activity against five organisms tested.
(24)
Reversible Contraception in Male Wistar Rats: Study investigated the antifertility activity of an ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds. Study results conclude that the seed extract induces reversible male contraception in Wistar rats. The antifertility action was clearly evident on the testicular germinal epithelium of treated male rats.
(25)
Anti-tumor / Immunomodulatory: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous-extracted CP leaf fraction on the growth of various tumor cell lines and the anti-tumor effect on human lymphocytes. Results showed significant growth inhibitory activity of the CP extract on tumor cell lines. In PBMC, IL-2 and IL-4 production was decreased, with increased cytotoxicity of activated PBMC against K562. Results showed the extract can mediate a Th1 type shift in human immune system, with a potential use for selected human diseases like cancer and allergic disorders, as well as immunoadjuvant for vaccine therapy.
(26)
Increased Platelet Count / Fresh Leaf Extract: Study showed fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in test groups compared to control. Identification of active constituents is paramount for its potential as medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and animals where those cell lineages have been compromised.
(27)
Acceleration of Platelet Count Increase in Dengue: Study investigated the platelet increasing property of leaf juice in patients with dengue fever. In an open-labeled randomized controlled trial of 228 patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), study showed a significant increase in mean platelet count in the intervention group in both DF and DHF patients.
(28)

Availability
- In the rural areas, a common backyard fruit tree.
- Small and large scale commercial production.
- Perennial market produce.
- Tinctures and seed extracts in the cybermarket.


Last Updated January 2013

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Carica papaya, Caricaceae, Papaya, female flowers; Botanical Garden KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. The leaves are used in homeopathy as remedy: Carica papaya (Cari-p.) / File:Carica papaya 004.JPG /H. Zell / 10 June 2009 / GNUFree Documentation License / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Papaya / Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(2)
Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya
/ Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4 (6): 379-381, 2005
(3)
Toxicity studies on an unripe Carica papaya aqueous extract: biochemical and haematological effects in wistar albino rats / Odula, T et al /Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 1 (1) pp. 001-004, August 2007
(4)
Blood pressure depression by the fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) in renal and DOCA-induced hypertension in the rat / Phytotherapy Research / Volume 14 Issue 4, Pages 235 - 239
(5)
Antihemolytic action of an extract of Carica papaya bark. Possibilities of use in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies
Dakar Med. 1979;24(3):255-62.
(6)
Chemicals in Carica papaya / Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
(7)
Protective effect of Carica papaya L leaf extract against alcohol induced acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress in rats / M Indrann et al / West Indian med. j. vol.57 no.4 Mona Sept. 2008
(8)
Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds / Adebiyi Adebowale et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research • 2005, vol. 19, no7, pp. 628-632
(9)
The Anti-ulcerogenic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Carica Papaya Fruit on Aspirin – Induced Ulcer In Rats / Augustine Ologundudu / The Internet Journal of Toxicology™ ISSN: 1559-3916
(10)
Antisickling property of Carica papaya leaf extract / N O A Imaga et al / African Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol.3 (4), pp 102-106 April, 2009
(11)
Nephroprotective activities of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study / J A Olagunju et al / Biology and Medicine, Vol. 1 (1): 11-19, 2009.
(12)
Papaya (Carica papaya) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model / Adebowale Adebiyi et al / British Journal of Nutrition (2002), 88, 199–203
(13)
Activity of Alkaloid Extract of Carica papaya. Seeds on Reproductive Functions in Male Wistar Rats / F V Udoh et at / Summary / Pharmaceutical Biology • 2005, Vol. 43, No. 6, Pages 563-567
(14)
Sorting Carica Names / Maintained by Michel H. Porcher /MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(15)
Acute toxicity study of Carica papaya leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats / S. Z. Halim, N. R. Abdullah, A. Afzan, B. A. Abdul Rashid, I. Jantan and Z. Ismail / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(xx), pp. 1867-1872, 18 May, 2011
(16)
Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study.
/ Okeniyi JA, Ogunlesi TA, Oyelami OA, Adeyemi LA. / J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):194-6.
(17)
The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats /
Adeneye AA1, Olagunju JA, Banjo AAF et al / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 2(2), pp. 19-32, June-July 2009
(18)
Studies on wine production from pawpaw (Carica papaya)
/ Idise Okiemute Emmanuel and Ofiyai Odoyo / Journal of Brewing and Distilling Vol. 2(4), pp. 56-62, November 2011
(19)
Carica papaya / Common name details from PIER
(20)
Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Studies on Carica papaya Linn. Leaves / Zunjar V, Mammen D, Trivedi BM, Daniel M / Pharmacognosy Journal / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.20.2
(21)
Potency of Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) Latex as an Anthelmintic in Poultry Production
/ O.A. Adu, K.A. Akingboye and A. Akinfemi / Botany Research International 2 (3): 139-142, 2009
(22)
Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: A review. / Nguyen TT, Shaw PN, Parat MO, Hewavitharana AK. / Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Dec 5. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200388. [Epub ahead of print]
(23)
Papaya Extract Thwarts Growth of Cancer Cells in Lab Tests / Mar. 10, 2010 / University of Florida (2010, March 10)
(24)
Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. in experimentally induced diabetic rats
/ B. Shivananda Nayak et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 45, August 2007, pp 739-743.
(25)
Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats
/ Wilson O. Hamman, Sunday A. Musa, Daniel T. Ikyembe, Uduak E. Umana, Alexander B. Adelaiye, Andrew J. Nok and Samuel A. Ojo / British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(5): 257-261, 2011
(26)
Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects / Noriko Otsukia, Nam H. Dangb, Emi Kumagaia, Akira Kondoc, Satoshi Iwataa, Chikao Morimoto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127 (2010) 760–767
(27)

Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine mode / Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka Dharmarathna, Susiji Wickramasinghe,* Roshitha Nilmini Waduge, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe Rajapakse, and Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kularatne / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 September; 3(9): 720–724 /
doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60145-8
(28)
Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever / Soobitha Subenthiran, Tan Chwee Choon, Kee Chee Cheong, Ravindran Thayan, Mok Boon Teck, Prem Kumar Muniandy, Adlin Afzan, Noor Rain Abdullah, and Zakiah Ismail / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/616737


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