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Family Myrtaceae
Red gum eucalyptus

Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Dehnh.
RIVER RED GUM

Chi an

Scientific names Common names
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Eucalyptus rouge (Engl., Fr.)
  Forest red gum (Engl.)
  Murray red gum (Engl.)
  Red gum eucalyptus (Engl.)
  River red gum (Engl.)
  Chi an (Chin.)
There are over 500 different species sharing similar medicinal properties.
This Philippine compilation includes several species of Eucalyptus, a few with a sharing a confusing crossover of color-referring common names: (1) Eucalyptus globulus, blue gum eucalyptus (2) Eucalyptus deglupta, bagras, rainbow gum (3) Eucalyptus camaldulensis, red gum eucalyptus (4) Eucalyptus tereticornis, red gum tree, forest red gum. (5) Eucalyptus robusta, beakpod eucalyptus, brown gum, red gum.(6) Eucalyptus cinerea, silver dollar eucalyptus.

Botany
Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree growing 15 to 25 meters or taller, with an ash-colored, smooth, and exfoliating bark. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, lanceolate, acuminate, light green and thin. Inflorescences are axillary, simple, umbels are 5 to 11-flowered; peduncle is 1 to 1.5 centimeters, slender and terete. Flower buds are ovoid, 5 to 8 millimeters. Hypanthium is semiglobose, about 3 millimeters; stipes are 3 to 12 millimeters. Flowers are in umbels. Capsule is subglobose, 5 to 6 millimeters in diameter, disk broad, valves 3 to 5, exserted from the hypanthium.

Distribution
- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
- Native to Australia where it is widespread.
- Cultivated in China and Taiwan.


Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols, and balsam (gum).
- Study yielded tannins, saponins and cardenolides.

Properties
- Antibacterial, vulnerary.
- Essential oil considered anti-tubercular.


Parts used
Leaves, oils.



Uses
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Nigeria, decoction of leaves used to treat gastrointestinal disorders.
- Decoction of leaves used for sore throat and other bacterial infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts.
- Poultice of leaves applied over wou used for catarrh and nasal congestion.
- Essential oils used for treatment of lung diseases and tuberculosis.
- Volatile oils used as expectorant and cough stimulant.


Studies
Antimicrobial:
Methanolic extract of leaves of E. camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were evaluated for in vitro microbial activities. Both inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with no inhibitory activity on P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, and E. coli. Crude extracts of E. camadulensis inhibited Candida albicans.
Antibacterial: In a study of antibacterial activity of leaf extracts, the methanol extract, dichlormethane fraction and methanol residue exhibited broad spectrum activity against all test organisms, viz., Klebsiella spp, S. typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica, P aeruginosa, S aureus and B subtilis.
Anti-H. Pylori: Study of E. camadulensis and E. torelliana showed anti-H. pylori activities which were attributed to their chemical constituents.
Antiulcer / Gastroprotective: In animal studies, E. camaldulensis and E. torelliana are reported to decrease gastric acid production, with benefits for the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Anti-tuberculosis: Study evaluated the anti-tubercular activities of extracts of E. camaldulensis and E. torelliana. The extracts inhibited the growth of MtbH37Rv. Results suggest the presence of anti-Mtb active compounds in the plants and presents a potential for the development of new and effective anti-Mtb drugs
Antibacterial / Dental Caries / Plaque: In an in vitro study that examined dental biofilm production of Streptococcus mutans, the primary cause of dental caries, with various concentrations of Mentha spicata oil, Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil, and chlorhexidine, EO demonstrated a superior ability. In an in vivo 4-week study on plaque formation, EO at all concentrations had significant more inhibition compared to M. spicata and chlorhexidne

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

January 2012

IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS / Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. - river redgum / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Eucalyptus camaldulensis - Eucalyptus rouge / Guiliano Campus / alterVISTA / Natural Italiana
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Eucalyptus camaldulensis - Eucalyptus rouge / Vito Buono / alterVISTA / Natural Italiana

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. / Chinese Plant Names
(2)
The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms / H. Babayi, I. Kolo, J. I. Okogun and U. J. J. Ijah1/ BIOKEMISTRI 16(2):106-111 (December 2004)
(3)
The Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae)
/ Ayepola O O and B A Adeniyi / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11): 1410-1413, 2008
(4)
In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana /
Christiana Bola A. Adeniyi, Temitope Olufunmilayo Lawal, and Gail B. Mahady / Pharm Biol. 2009 January 1; 47(1): 99–102.
(5)
In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana and isolated compounds / Temitope O. Lawal, Bolanle A. Adeniyi et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, January 2012, Vol. 50, No. 1 , Pages 92-98 (doi:10.3109/13880209.2011.625953)
(6)
Immune-Modifying and Antimicrobial Effects of Eucalyptus Oil and Simple Inhalation Devices / Angela E. Sadlon, ND, and Davis W. Lamson, MS, ND / lternative Medicine Review Volume 15, Number 1


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