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Family Myrtaceae
Red gum eucalyptus

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Chi an

Scientific names Common names
Eucalyptus acuminata Hook. Eucalyptus rouge (Engl., Fr.)
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Forest red gum (Engl.)
Eucalyptus longirostris F.Muell. ex Miq. Long beak eucalyptus (Engl.)
Eucalyptus mcintyrensis Maiden Murray red gum (Engl.)
Eucalyptus rostrata Schltdl. [Illegitimate] Red gum eucalyptus (Engl.)
  River red gum (Engl.)
There are over 500 different species sharing similar medicinal properties.
This Philippine compilation includes several species of Eucalyptus, a few with a sharing a confusing crossover of color-referring common names: (1) Eucalyptus globulus, blue gum eucalyptus (2) Eucalyptus deglupta, bagras, rainbow gum (3) Eucalyptus camaldulensis, red gum eucalyptus (4) Eucalyptus tereticornis, red gum tree, forest red gum. (5) Eucalyptus robusta, beakpod eucalyptus, brown gum, red gum.(6) Eucalyptus cinerea, silver dollar eucalyptus.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Ban, Kafur.
BURMESE: Pyilon-chantha.
CHINESE: Chi an.
FRENCH: Eucalyptus rouge.
GERMAN: Rotgummibaum, Roter eukalyptus.
INDONESIAN: Ekaliptus.
ITALIAN: Eucalipto rostrato.
SPANISH: Eucalipto rojo, Eucalipto.
SWAHILI: Mkaratusi.
THAI: Yukhalip.
VIETNAMESE: B[aj]ch d[af]n [us]c.

Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree growing 15 to 25 meters or taller, with an ash-colored, smooth, and exfoliating bark. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, lanceolate, acuminate, light green and thin. Inflorescences are axillary, simple, umbels are 5 to 11-flowered; peduncle is 1 to 1.5 centimeters, slender and terete. Flower buds are ovoid, 5 to 8 millimeters. Hypanthium is semiglobose, about 3 millimeters; stipes are 3 to 12 millimeters. Flowers are in umbels. Capsule is subglobose, 5 to 6 millimeters in diameter, disk broad, valves 3 to 5, exserted from the hypanthium.

- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
- Native to Australia where it is widespread.
- Cultivated in China and Taiwan.
- Exotic in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar.

- Phytochemical screening yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols, and balsam (gum).
- Study yielded tannins, saponins and cardenolides.
- Study of leaf essential oil from different localities showed an oil yield from 0.63% up to 1.59%. On GC-MS analysis, monoterpene hydrocarbons were a major class of compounds. Dominant compounds were p-cymene (17.38-28.60%), ß-phellandrene (12.35-14.47%), and ß-pinene (0.94-11.48%). Second largest group was oxygenated monoterpenes with cryptone (4.97-7.25%) and terpinene-4-ol (2.75-4.21%) as predominant.
- Study of volatile oils from different fruit samples in Turkey yielded 46, 54, 55, and 59 components. Main compounds were: aromadendrene (6.45-15.02%), eucalyptol (0.17-12.61%), γ-gurjunene (8.40-10.08%), terpinolen (1.98-8.39%), spathulenol (1.42-8.34%), α-pinene (0.85-6.81%), ledene (0.94-6.72%), and longifonene (0.07-6.22%). (15)
- Study on leaves of EC var. obstusa yielded a new triterpenoid camldulin (3ß-formyloxyurs-11-en-28,13ß-olide) (1) along with ursolic acid lactone acetate (2), ursolic acid lactone (3), betulinic acid (4) and ß-sitosterol 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (5). (see study below) (19)
- Aqueous acetone leaf extract yielded 56 compounds including ellagitannins, flavonoids, phloroglucinol derivatives and galloyl esters. (see study below) (20)
- Phytochemical analysis of various extracts of leaves (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and water extracts) showed the presence of tannins, sterol, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds, with absence of alkaloids, anthraquinone glycoside, and cyanogenic glycoside. (22)

- Antibacterial, vulnerary.
- Essential oil considered anti-tubercular.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, gastroprotective, cytotoxic, anti-dermatophytic, antioxidant properties.

Parts used
Leaves, oils.

- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Nigeria, decoction of leaves used to treat gastrointestinal disorders.
- Decoction of leaves used for sore throat and other bacterial infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts.
- Poultice of leaves applied over wounds; used for catarrh and nasal congestion.
- Essential oils used for treatment of lung diseases and tuberculosis.
- Volatile oils used as expectorant and cough stimulant.

- Apiculture: Major source of honey, capable of producing heavy yields of nectar. (8)
- Fuel:
Suitable for use in industrial brick kilns. Makes a good charcoal.
- Timber:
Wood known for good strength and durability, suitable for many structural applications such as poles, posts, floorings, sleepers, and heavy construction.
- Dye: Bole yields a gum that can be used as a dye.
- Essential Oil: Rich in 1,8-cineole leaf oil with potential as commercial source of medicinal-grade eucalyptus oil.

Methanolic extract of leaves of E. camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were evaluated for in vitro microbial activities. Both inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with no inhibitory activity on P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, and E. coli. Crude extracts of E. camadulensis inhibited Candida albicans. (2)
Antibacterial: In a study of antibacterial activity of leaf extracts, the methanol extract, dichlormethane fraction and methanol residue exhibited broad spectrum activity against all test organisms, viz., Klebsiella spp, S. typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica, P aeruginosa, S aureus and B subtilis. (3)
Anti-H. Pylori: Study of E. camadulensis and E. torelliana showed anti-H. pylori activities which were attributed to their chemical constituents. (4)
Antiulcer / Gastroprotective: In animal studies, E. camaldulensis and E. torelliana are reported to decrease gastric acid production, with benefits for the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Anti-tuberculosis: Study evaluated the anti-tubercular activities of extracts of E. camaldulensis and E. torelliana. The extracts inhibited the growth of MtbH37Rv. Results suggest the presence of anti-Mtb active compounds in the plants and presents a potential for the development of new and effective anti-Mtb drugs. (5)
Antibacterial / Dental Caries / Plaque: In an in vitro study that examined dental biofilm production of Streptococcus mutans, the primary cause of dental caries, with various concentrations of Mentha spicata oil, Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil, and chlorhexidine, EO demonstrated a superior ability. In an in vivo 4-week study on plaque formation, EO at all concentrations had significant more inhibition compared to M. spicata and chlorhexidne.

Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for acute toxicity in a rat model. LD50 of the extract was ≥ 5000 mg/kbw. Extract did not show any obvious symptom or signs of toxicity, without alterations on hepatic and renal functions and hematologic profile. (9)
Sub-Acute Hepatotoxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on albino rats on varying doses from 250 mg to 1000 mg per kbw using hepatic biomarkers of ALT, AST, ALP, total protein and conjugated bilirubin. Results showed no significant difference (p<0.05) in all parameters suggesting no toxicological effect at administered doses. (21)
Antimicrobial Effects / Biofilm Formation / Eucalyptus Oil: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes, with focus on in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation. Antibacterial and in vivo biofilm preventive efficacies of all concentrations of Eucalyptus oil were significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of M. spicata oil and chlorhexidine. Results suggest E. camaludensis and M. spicata significantly retard biofilm formation that can contribute to the development of novel anticaries treatments. (10)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of E. camaldulensis leaves against some important food pathogen. Results showed Eucalyptus leaf extract has considerable in vitro antimicrobial activity over studied strains. (11) Methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were studies for in vitro antimicrobial activities. E. camaldulensis inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and S. aureus. Crude extracts of EC inhibited Candida albicans. (15)
Cytotoxicity on K562 Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of ethanolic extract of E. camaldulensis leaves on chronic myeloid leukemia cells K562. Results showed leaf extract compounds showed time dependent and dose dependent effects of K562 cells. Extract also has efficient antioxidant compounds with potential benefit in the treatment of cancer by inhibiting free radicals or as inhibitor of tumor cell growth. (12)
Anti-Dermatophytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of E. camaldulensis against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Tricophyton rubrum, T. shcoenleinii, T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton flocossum. Results showed antifungal activity against all the dermatophytes tested with MIC values ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 mg/mL. Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the extracts ranged from 0.8 to 6.4 mg/mL. (13)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of methanol extract, dichlormethane fraction and methanol residue of leaves of E. camaldulensis showed broad spectrum activity against all test organisms i.e., Klebsiella spp, Salmonella typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. (16)
Dyeing Studies: Silk fabric dyed with Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin using the pad-batch method showed higher color strength than those dyed with pad-dry technique. Results also showed good results with color fastness to washing. Application of natural dyes to silk fabric can be considered an effective eco-option. (18)
Spasmolytic Constituents / Leaves: Study on leaves of E. camaldulensis var. obtusa yielded a new triterpenoid camldulin (3ß-formyloxyurs-11-en-28,13ß-olide) (1) along with ursolic acid lactone acetate (2), ursolic acid lactone (3), betulinic acid (4) and ß-sitosterol 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (5). Compounds 1-3 were tested for spasmolytic activity and were found to possess calcium antagonist activity. (19)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated an acetone leaf extract yielded 56 compounds including ellagitannins, flavonoids, phloroglucinol derivatives and galloyl esters. Most of the fractions showed strong antioxidant activity on DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The aqueous acetone extract showed cytotoxic activity, reducing viability of all cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with more activity against MCF-7 ad HCT-116 cell lines. (20)
Antibacterial / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study of crude oil of EC leaves for in vitro antimicrobial activities against two clinical bacteria showed zones of inhibition of 10-31 mm and 10-26 mm respectively for E. coli and S. aureus. Results suggest potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. (23)

- Wild-crafted. 

Last Update September 2016
January 2012

IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS / Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. - river redgum / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Eucalyptus camaldulensis - Eucalyptus rouge / Guiliano Campus / alterVISTA / Natural Italiana
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Eucalyptus camaldulensis - Eucalyptus rouge / Vito Buono / alterVISTA / Natural Italiana

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. / Chinese Plant Names
The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms / H. Babayi, I. Kolo, J. I. Okogun and U. J. J. Ijah1/ BIOKEMISTRI 16(2):106-111 (December 2004)
The Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae)
/ Ayepola O O and B A Adeniyi / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11): 1410-1413, 2008
In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana /
Christiana Bola A. Adeniyi, Temitope Olufunmilayo Lawal, and Gail B. Mahady / Pharm Biol. 2009 January 1; 47(1): 99–102.
In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana and isolated compounds / Temitope O. Lawal, Bolanle A. Adeniyi et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, January 2012, Vol. 50, No. 1 , Pages 92-98 (doi:10.3109/13880209.2011.625953)
Immune-Modifying and Antimicrobial Effects of Eucalyptus Oil and Simple Inhalation Devices / Angela E. Sadlon, ND, and Davis W. Lamson, MS, ND / lternative Medicine Review Volume 15, Number 1
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. / Synonyms / The Plant List

Eucalyptus camaldulensis / World AgroForestry
Acute Toxicity Studies of Ethanolic Extract of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Dehnh Leaves / AZZA DAWOUD H. DAWOUD, MOHAMED El HASSAN SHAYOUB, SARA MOHAMED El HASSAN SHAYOU / Journal of Network Communications and Emerging Technologies (JNCET), Volume 2, Issue 2, June (2015)
The effect of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils on dental biofilm. / Rasooli I, Shayegh S, Astaneh S. / Int J Dent Hyg. 2009 Aug;7(3):196-203. / doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00389.x.
Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. on food infection and intoxication microorganisms “in vitro” / Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Ali Mortazavi, Fatemeh Zendeboodi, Mohammad Mahdi Gholian, Alireza Vasiee / Journal of Paramedical Sciences (JPS) Summer 2013 Vol.4, No.3
Study of cytotoxic effects of Ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf on the cells k562 of human chronic Myelogenous leukemia (CML) under in Vitro conditions / Naeimeh Meshkani *, Nooshin Naghsh and Monireh Ranjbar / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 3 Spl Issue III 2014: 186-190
Anti Dermatophyte Activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Comparison with Griseofulvin / MEHRABAN FALAHATI, NASIM OMIDI TABRIZIB and FERESHTEH JAHANIANI / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS: IJPT 4:80-83, 2005
VARIATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS (MYRTACEAE) FROM THE MONTENGERO COASTLINE / Slavenko Grbović, Dejan Orčić, Maria Couladis, Emilija Jovin, Dušan Bugarin, Kristina Balog and Neda Mimica-Dukić / APTEFF, 41, 1-203 (2010) / DOI: 10.2298/APT1041151G
The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms / H. Babayi, I. Kolo, J. I. Okogun and U. J. J. Ijah* / BIOKEMISTRI 16(2):106-111 (December 2004)
The Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) / AYEPOLA O.O AND B.A. ADENIYI / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11): 1410-1413, 2008
Composition of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Volatiles Using Direct Thermal Desorption Coupled with Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry / Mustafa. Z. Özel*, Fahrettin Gögüs, and Alastair C. Lewis / Journal of Chromatographic Science, Vol. 46, February 2008
Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant / Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit,1 Charoon Klaichoi,2 Nattadon Rungruangkitkrai,3 Nattaya Punrattanasin,4 Kamolkan Sriharuksa,4 and Monthon Nakpathom / Journal of Textiles, Volume 2013 (2013) / DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/423842
Spasmolytic Constituents from Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa Leaves / Sabira Begum, Ishrat Sultana, Bina S. Siddiqui, Farhana Shaheen, and Anwar H. Gilani / J. Nat. Prod., 2000, 63 (9), pp 1265–1268 / DOI: 10.1021/np9902340
Phenolic Constituents of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, with Potential Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities / Abdel-Nasser Singab Nahla Ayoub, Eman Al-Sayed, Olli Martiskainen, Jari Sinkkonen and Kalevi Pihlaja / Rec. Nat. Prod. 5:4 (2011) 271-280
SUB-ACUTE HEPATOXICITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS IN RATS / Imam, A.A. and Wudil, A.M. / Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 4(2): 118 – 120
Phytochemical analysis of leaves extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh / Mohamed El Hasan Shayoub, Azza Dawoud Hussien Dawoud, Mona AM Abdelmageed*,Ali M Ehassan. Ahmad M Ehassan / Omdurman Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, Volume 2(1), 2015
Antibacterial activity of essential oil of north west Algerian Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus / Bachir Raho Ghalem*, Benali Mohamed / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2014; 2(10): 799-804 / doi:10.12980/JCLM.2.201414B57

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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