Siling-labuyo is an erect, branched
and half-woody plant, growing to a height of 0.8 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, and pointed at the tip. Flowers are solitary or several in each axil, stalked, pale green or yellowish-green, and 8 to 9 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is commonly red when ripe, oblong-lanceolate, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous and discoid.
- Found throughout the Philippines, planted there and there about dwellings, but also thoroughly established in open, waste places in settled areas.
- Native of tropical America, now pantropic.
rubefacient, stomachic, sialagogue, alterative, antispasmodic, febrifuge,
- Fruit contains the active principles: capsaicin, 0.14% and capsicin.
- Cayenne pepper contains fatty oil, 15-20%; some volatile oil; capsaicin, 0.15 - 0.5%; starch, 0.8-1.4%; pentosans, 8.57%; and pectin, 2.33%.
- Study yielded two chemical compounds: Ortho- hydroxy- N- benzyl- 16- Methyl- 11, 14- diene- octadecamide and 9, 12-diene-octadecanoic acid.
- Yields ester, terpenoids, noncarotenoids, lipoxygenase derivatives, carbonyls, alcohols, hydrocarbons, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, capsiconinoid, and capsinoid.
Leaves and mature fruit.
- Fruit is a popular condiment.
- Mixed with or made into pickles, and is a principle ingredient in Indian curries.
The leaves are used as vegetable, with a very pleasant and somewhat piquant flavor.
- In tropical countries, eaten fresh to promote digestion.
- In Taiwan and the Batanes Islands, leaves used in soup.
An excellent source of calcium and
iron, a good source of phosphorus and vitamins A and B.
- Bruised berries used as powerful rubefacient; used for sore throats. Also used as gargle.
- Externally, a strong rubefacient that acts gently with no danger of vesication.
Arthritis and rheumatism:
Crush fruit, mix with oil and apply on affected part.
- Dyspepsia and flatulence: Eaten as condiment or drank as infusion as
a stimulant and antispasmodic.
- Infusion of the fruit is stimulant, stomachic and antispasmodic; used
for dyspepsia and flatulence.
- Infusion preparation: 3-10 grains every 2 hours to a cup of boiling
- Toothache: Juice of the pepper pressed into the tooth cavity.
- Rheumatism: Poultice of cayenne applied over affected parts.
- Fomentation of leaves and fruits applied to rheumatic pains.
- Leaves of some varieties used for dressing wounds and sores.
- Strong infusion of fruit of hotter varieties applied as lotion for ringworm of the scalp.
- Used in typhus intermittent fevers and dropsy.
- Externally, used as rubefacient , and internally as stomachic.
- Chile vinegar, made from pouring hot vinegar upon the fruit, used as stomachic.
- Chillies, combined with cinchona, used for lethargic affections, atonic gout, dyspepsia with flatulence, tympanites and paralysis.
- As rubefacient, mixed with with 10 to 20% cotton-seed oil, applied as cataplasm or as liniment.
- Powder or tincture used for relaxed uvula.
- Used in typhus intermittent fevers, gout, dyspepsia, cholera.
- Ancient Mayans used it
for treatment of coughs, sore throat and coughs.
- In Jamaica, used by traditional healers to treat diabetes mellitus.
- Aztecs used chile pungency for toothaches
- In the Philippines, plant commonly used for dyeing in green shades.
- In Taiwan, used as ornaments and for rituals.
Preparation of Capsicum
- Siling labuyo fruits.
- Vegetable oil.
- Macerate siling-labuyo fruits in enough vegetable oil to cover the fruits.
- Keep jar covered.
- After one week, strain to separate the fruits from the oil. The macerated fruits may be discarded or leave the macerated mixture in the jar and just decant the oil as needed.
- If turbid, heat the oil gently at low temperatures (Do not boil) until the mixture becomes clear.
- Transfer to medicine bottles.
Capsaicin for medicinal use comes from Capsicum fructescens and is the
active ingredient in the extract of hot peppers. It is most concentrated
in the rib or membrane, less in the seeds, least in the flesh. Capsaicin
depletes substance P in the afferent type C sensory nerve fibers, affecting
only proprioception. Unlike other treatments for neuropathy, such as
local anesthetics, opiates, anti-seizure medications or tricyclic antidepressants,
capsaicin specifically treats pain without impairing other aspects of
the nervous system. In incomplete depletion of substance P from suboptimal
use, it may cause paradoxical increase of pain. (See: Capsaicin / DrugInteractions)
• Uses: Post-herpetic neuralgia, post-mastectomy
pain, hemodialysis-associated pruritus, psoriatic itching and pain,
painful neuropathies, especially diabetic neuropathy, arthritic pains,and other superficial
and Dyspepsia: In
a small trial in Italy (Dr. Mauro Bortolotti et al, University of Bologna),
30 patients with functional dyspepsia were randomized on daily capsules
of 2.5 g of red pepper or placebo. The capsaicin content (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide)
was 0.7 mg/g of red pepper power. After 3 weeks, upper gastrointestinal
symptoms of epigastric pain, fullness, nausea and early satiety were
all significantly reduced in the capsaicin group and not in the placebo
group. The mechanism of action is believed to be the desensitization
of gastric nociceptive C fibers, which carry pain sensations to the
central nervous system. (NEJM.346:947-48,2002) Clinical Capsules
• Chronic Low Back Pain:
Study showed a capsicum plaster preparation
to have application in chronic non-specific back pain.
• Postoperative pain:
Study showed capsicum plaster applied
at Korean hand acupuncture points reduced postoperative sore throat.
• Anti-H pylori / Anti-ulcer:
(1) Study to demonstrate in vitro activity
of capsaicin on metronidazole-susceptible and -resistant H pylori showed
bactericidal effect even at lowest concentration (25 ug ml). Capsaicin.
the active ingredient of hot pepper showed in vitro activity against
H pylori and presents a possible alternative treatment strategy for
antibiotic resistant strains of H pylori, a reasonable meal supplement
for those with duodenal and gastric ulcer, and for developing countries,
a cheaper alternative. (2) Study showed capsaicin to have a dose-dependent
inhibition of the H pylori, suggesting chili ingestion as possibly protective
against H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease.
• Anti-inflammatory effect
in H pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells:
Study showed capsaicin inhibited the
release of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8) by H. pylori-infected
gastric epithelial cells.
• Hypoglycemic Principle: Study led to the extraction of the active principle, capsaicin. Results showed the capsaicin to be the major constituent of C frutescens that is responsible for the hypoglycemic episodes seen in dogs, an effect apparently mediated by insulin release.
• Gastric Acid Secretion:
Aqueous extracts of C annuum or C frutescens induced gastric acid secretion dose-dependently.
• TPRV1 / Conflicting Glucose Effects:
The action of capsaicin is mediated by TPRV1 (vanilliod receptor) belonging to the ion channel group. TPRV1 has been found on pancreatic beta cells, and activated by capsaicin to increase insulin secretion. However, another study reported pure capsaicin activating glucagon secreton and increasing plasma glucose. At present, capsaicin glucose effects are still conflicting.
• Antibacterial / Anthelmintic:
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol extract yielded saponins, tanins, alkaloids, glycosides and steroids. Study showed dose-dependent antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. Among the bacteria, Staph aureus was most susceptible, followed by K pneumonia and P aeruginosa. The anthelmintic effect al all concentrations was lesser when compared to standard. Results suggest the methanolic extract can be sued for bacterial and anthelmintic infections.
Study found 5 grams of capsicum provided capsaicin levels associated with a decrease in plasma glucose levels and the maintenance of insulin levels. Results suggest potential implications in the management of type 2 diabetes.
• Burning Mouth Syndrome:
Study showed topical application of capsaicin as mouthwash proved itself as an alternative treatment for symptoms in patients with BMS (burning mouth syndrome).
Ethanol extracts of fruits of three kinds of Capsicum showed similar potencies in antimicrobial activities against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria and fungi, although they contained different levels of capsaicin. Capsaicin was the main antimicrobial component. Similarity in antimicrobial activity of the hottest and least hot pepper suggests presence of synergism between capsaicin and other components of the fruit extracts.
Study evaluated the antifungal potential of aqueous leaf and fruit extracts of C. frutescens against four major strains associated with groundnut storage. Leaf extract showed strong activity against A. flavus, while the fruit extract showed good activity against A. niger.
Ubiquitous market produce.
Fruit cultivated as condiment.
Capsaicin is available as fresh and dried peppers, and in many countries,
in capsules, tablets, and tinctures and for external application in
potencies ranging from 0.1% to 0.75%.