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Family Annonaceae
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites.

An luo

Scientific names Common names 
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites. Baling-manok (Tag.) 
Uvaria suberosa Roxb. Duhat-duhatan (Tag.,)
  Duhat-matsing (Tag.)
  Duyat-nasi (Pamp.)
  Lanutan (Tag.)
  Tagputagpuan (Tag.)
  Munat (Ilk.) 
  Polyalthia (Engl.)
  Corky debbar tree (Engl.)
Lanutan is a common name shared by: (1) Kalai, Alphonsea arborea (2) Malaatis, Dasymaschalon clusiflorum (3) Kalimatas, Phaenthus ebracteolatus, and (4) Duhat-matsing, Polyalthia suberosa.
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Jam debharu, Ham jam.
CHINESE: Mei wei mu, Shin guan yin, Lao ren pi, Ji zhao shu, An luo.
INDIA: Gua koli, Dudduga chettu.
THAI: Klueng klom.

Duhat-matsing is a shrub or small tree growing to a height of 2 to 4 meters. Leaves are oblong to narrowly oblong-obovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long. Flowers are solitary, pale-yellow, about 1 centimeter long or less, on slender pedicels 1 to 2 centimeters long. Sepals and petals are slightly hairy. Fruits are numerous, ovoid or globose, 4 to 5 millimeters long, purple, fleshy and edible.

- In the Philippines, common in thickets at low and medium altitudes in Luzon (Cagayan to Laguna) and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand and Vietnam.

• Study yielded an azaanthracene alkaloid, kalasinamide, from the stems of P. suberosa., together with the known N-trans-feruloyltyramine and N-trans-coumaroyltyramine.
• Study isolated two new 2-substituted furans from the stems of P. suberosa.
• Leaves contain alpha- and beta-amyrin, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Stems and leaves contain triterpene, suberosol, which have shown anti-HIV replication activity. Stem bark yields alkaloids, oxostephanine and lanuginosine, which has shown antibacterial activity.
• Proximate analysis of fruit yielded (%) moisture 64.76 ± 391, carbohydrate 4.25 ± 0.43, total sugar 4.3 ± 0.34, protein 1.96 ± 0.35%, ascorbic acid 15.72 ± 1.11, reducing sugar 0.57 ± 0.17, non-reducing sugar 3.77 ± 0.63, phenol 0.9 ± 0.08, acid content 0.19 ± 0.01, carotenoid 128.49 ± 8.9. (15)
• Micronutrient analysis of fruit yielded (mg/100 g) iron 4.19, sodium 25.09, potassium 845.76, calcium 62.72, copper 1.33, manganese 5.35, and zinc 2.25. (15)

• Anti-HIV replication activity and antibacterial activity.
• Adaptogenic.
• Bark considered febrifuge, astringent, analgesic, and laxative.
• Seed considered diuretic, soporific, and sedative.

Parts utilized
Fresh roots, bark.

- Ripe fruits are edible.
- Decoction of fresh roots used as abortifacient.
- In Bangladesh, bark used as febrifuge analgesic, and laxative.
- In the tropics, latex used as crude filling for tooth cavities. (8)
- In Andhra Pradesh, India, decoction of grounded root bark mixed with fruits of Piper longum used for puerperal fever. (12)

Furans / Antiviral Activity: 2-substituted furans from Polyalthia suberosa: Two new 2-substituted furans, 1-(2-furyl)pentacosa16,18-diyne and 23-(2-furyl)tricosa-5,7-diynoic acid, were isolated from the stems of P. suberosa. These compounds, with kalasinamide, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and N-trans-coumaroyltyramine showed anti-HIV activities. (2)
Anti-HIV Activity: Anti-AIDS Agents, 9. Suberosol, a New C31 Lanostane-Type Triterpene and Anti-HIV Principle from Polyalthia suberosa: In the course of searching for anti-HIV agents, a new triterpene, suberosol, was isolated and studied for anti-HIV activity. Results showed anti-HIV replication activity in H9 lymphocytes cell in vitro. (Publ.1993) (3)
Cytotoxic: Study isolated four new styryl-lactones, crassalactones A-D together with seven known compounds from an extract of leaves and twigs of PC. Cytotoxic evaluation against mammalian cancer lines were done on all the new isolates. (4)
Natural Excipient / Mucilage from Leaves: Study showed the extracted mucilage from the leaves of Polyalthia suberosa is non-toxic, with a potential as a suspending agent, binding agent and pharmaceutical adjuvant. (6)
Toxicity Study / Leaf Mucilage: Study evaluated the toxicity of leaf mucilage in Wistar male albino rats using doses of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 mg/kg No mortality, toxic manifestations and behavioral changes were observed. (6).
Antibacterial / Analgesic / Antidiarrheal / Cytotoxic / Leaves: A methanol extract of leaves showed moderate antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It produces significant inhibition in acetic induced writhing in mice comparable to diclofenac. It showed an antidiarrheal effect on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Also, it exhibited high level of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (8)
Nutrient Analysis: Fruits yield a protein content of 1.9% . Micronutrient analysis yielded per mg/100g: iron 4.19, sodium 25.09, potassium 845.76, calcium 62.72, copper 1.33, manganese 5.35, zinc 2.25. (9)
• Mucilage / Non-Toxic / Leaves: Study results extracted mucilage from leaves of Polyalthia suberosa (PMS) is non toxic, has the potential as a suspending agent, as binding agent and as pharmaceutical adjuvant. (11)
• Antioxidant / Analgesic / Antidiarrheal / Bark and Fruits: Study screened hydromethanol extracts of leaves, bark and fruits of Polyalthia suberosa for antioxidant, analgesic, and antidiarrheal activity. Bark extracts showed maximum reducing activity, higher than standard reference ascorbic acid. All parts showed analgesic activity with significant (p<0.05-0.01) inhibition of writhing reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In castor oil-induced diarrhea, there was statistically significant (p<0.05) inhibition of frequency of diarrhea, the bark showing 69.52% inhibition wile the fruits showed 63.81% inhibition at 400 mg/kg dose level. Overall, bark and fruit extracts showed strong antioxidant potential with excellent analgesic and antidiarrheal activity. (13)
• Analgesic / CNS Depressant / Bark and Leaves: Study of crude hydromethanolic extracts of bark and leaves showed remarkable cytotoxic, CNS depressant (open field and hole cross tests) and analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing test for visceral pain and tail immersion tests for central activity) potential. The extract inhibited both mechanisms of pain suggesting potential as a narcotic analgesic. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, saponin, carbohydrates and steroids present may be responsible for the observed effects. (14)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of diethyl ether and n-hexane extract of leaves of P suberosa. Formalin induced paw licking, acetic acid induced writhing, and tail immersion tests were used to assess analgesic activity. while xylene-induced ear edema was used to assess anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed significant (p<0.05) analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in mice. (16)
• Neuroprotective / Antioxidative / NTF Against Aß1-42 Induced Neuronal Cell Death: Study evaluated the effect of N-trans-feuloyltyramine (NTF) purified from Polyalthia subserosa against ß-amyloid peptide-induced neurotoxicity in rat cultured cortical neurons.
NTF is an alkaloid known to protect against oxidative stress and cell death. Pretreatment of rat primary cortical cell cultures with NTF significantly attenuated 10µM Aß1-41-induced neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptotic cell death was evidenced morphologically by the presence if activated caspase-3 and Bax, levels of which could be reduced by NTF pre-treatment. Activity could be due to its antioxidative property. (18)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of P. subserosa (EEPS) for antidiabetic activity in normoglycemic plus glucose fed hyperglycemia rats method and subacute treatment methods in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference. Results showed significant (p<0.01) hypoglycemic effect in NG-OGTT model. In the acute treatment method, both doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01) hypoglycemic effect In the subacute treatment groups, high dose of 400 mg/kg reduced blood glucose significantly (p<0.01). (19)
Laxative / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for laxative activity on loperamide-induced constipation in mice and gastrointestinal motility test Results showed laxative effect in bot test doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in loperamide induced constipation. The extract also significantly (p<0.05) affected intestinal transit time. (20)


Updated January 2021 / January 2017

                                                  PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook.f. / © Digital Flora of Karnataka Digital Flora of Karnataka by Herbarium JCB is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. / click on image to go to source page / Herbarium JCB
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thw. / Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / Click on image to go to source page / Zhiwutong

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
An azaanthracene alkaloid from Polyalthia suberosa. / Tuchinda P et al / Phytochemistry. 2000 Apr;53(8):1079-82.
2-substituted furans from Polyalthia suberosa / Planta medica / 2001, vol. 67, no6, pp. 572-575
Anti-AIDS Agents, 9. Suberosol, a New C31 Lanostane-Type Triterpene and Anti-HIV Principle from Polyalthia suberosa / Hui-Ying Li, Nan-Jun Sun et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1993, 56 (7), pp 1130–1133 /
DOI: 10.1021/np50097a017
Cytotoxic Styryl-Lactones from the Leaves and Twigs of Polyalthia crassa / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (12), pp 1728–1733 / DOI: 10.1021/np060323u
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary / C. P. Khare
Isolation, Characterization and Pharmaceutical evaluation of the mucilage from Polyalthia suberosa leaves / Sunil Mistry, P.K.Biswal, B.Mishra, S.Sahoo / International Journal of PharmTech Research, April-June 2010; 2(2): pp 1455-1459
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Nutrient Analysis of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits of Deciduous Forests of India: an Explorative Study towards Non Conventional Bio-Nutrition / Ajay Kumar Mahapatra, Satarupa Mishra, Uday C Basak and Pratap C Panda / Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(1): 15-21, 2012
Polyalthia subserosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
Isolation, Characterization and Pharmaceutical evaluation of the mucilage from Polyalthia suberosa leaves / Sunil Mistry*, P.K.Biswal, B.Mishra, S.Sahoo / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1455-1459, April-June 2010
New traditional phytotherapy for gynecological disorders among the tribes of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India / B. Sandhya Sri, S. B. Padal and B. Ramakrishna / Advance Journals, 2014; Vol 1; Issue 2, Article ID: PM14 01; Pages: 1-7
STUDY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF HYDROMETHANOL EXTRACTS OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA (ROXB.) / *Zubair Khalid Labu, Munira Makshud, Samiul Basir, Jalal Uddin, Sukdeb Biswas, and 6Nadia Sultana / Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013; 2(3): pp 52-63 / ISSN: 2279-0594

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. / Rajib Mazundar et al / International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 4(7), 20`6, pp 693-708.

Nutrient Analysis of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits of Deciduous Forests of India: an Explorative Study towards Non Conventional Bio-Nutrition / Ajay Kumar Mahapatra, Satarupa Mishra, Uday C Basak and Pratap C Panda / Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(1): 15-21, 2012
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Diethyl Ether and n-Hexane Extract of Polyalthia subersa Leaves / Nelufar Yasmen, Md Abdullah Aziz, Afsana Tajmin, Mst Irin Akter, Amit Kumar Hazra, S M Mushiur Rahman / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2018, Article ID 5617234 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5617234
Phytochemical studies and fatty acid analysis of the stems of Polyalthia suberosa / Farhana Akter, Sharmin Akter Tania, Tanvir Muslim and Md A Azizur Rahman / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2019; 8(4): pp 1744-1747
Protective role of N-trans-feruloyltyramine against ß-amyloid peptide-induced neurotoxicity in rat cultured cortical neurons / Wipawan Thangnipon, Nirut Suwanna, Narisorn Kitiyanant, Rungtip Soi-ampornkul, Patoomratana Tuchinda, Bamroong Munyoo, Saksit Nobsathian / Neuroscience Letters, April 2012; 513(2): pp 229-232
Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Polyalthia subserosa roth in alloxan induced diabetic rats / G Harika, Dr G Nagarjuna Reddy, Rajani Gunnam, Dr J V Suresh, G Sravanthi / Pharma Research Library
Laxative effect of crude methanolic extract of Polyalthia subserosa (Roxb.) Thwaites in mice / Md Abdullah Aziz, Nelufar Yasmen, Mst Irin Akter / JRP: Journal of Research in Pharmacy, 2020; 24(5): pp 617-622 / ISSN: 2630-6344 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.35333/jrp.2020.216

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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